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Department of Studies in Electronics & Communication Engg.,
University B.D.T. College of Engineering
Visveswaraya Technological University, Davanagere-4
Karnataka, India
Dr.T.D. Shashikala
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2. Research Design:
• Meaning of Research Design
• Need for Research Design
• Features of a Good Design
• Important Concepts Relating
to Research Design
• Different Research Designs
• Basic Principles of
Experimental Designs
• Important Experimental
Designs
1. Reviewing the Literature:
• Place of the literature review in research
• Bringing clarity and focus to your research
problem
• Improving research methodology
• Broadening knowledge base in research area
• Enabling contextual findings
• How to review the literature
• Searching the existing literature
• Reviewing the selected literature
• Developing a theoretical framework
• Developing a conceptual framework
• Writing about the literature reviewed.
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CH 1. Reviewing the Literature
Place of the literature review in research
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Literature review, essential in research, time-consuming but
rewarding.
 Clarifies ideas, establishes theoretical roots, and aids in
methodology development.
 Enhances knowledge, contextualizes findings, and facilitates
comparison.
 Integrates findings with existing literature during report write-up.
 Critical for higher academic levels.
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A literature review serves to:
 Provide theoretical background.
 Establish connections between your study and existing research.
 Demonstrate contribution to the existing knowledge.
 Integrate your findings into the current body of knowledge
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A literature review involves examining existing literature related to the
research problem to develop theoretical frameworks and integrate findings
with existing knowledge. It aids in:
Bringing clarity and focus to your research problem.
Enhancing research methodology.
Expanding knowledge base in your research area.
Contextualizing findings within existing knowledge.
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Bringing Clarity And Focus To Your Research Problem
 Reviewing existing literature clarifies your research focus and ensures
relevance.
 It helps identify gaps in knowledge, guiding your study to contribute
meaningfully to the field.
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Improving your research methodology
 Reading about methods used by others helps you feel confident and ready
to deal with challenges in your research
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Broadening Knowledge Base In Research Area
 A literature review helps you explore widely, understand previous
research, and find gaps in knowledge.
 It makes you an expert in your field and shows how your study fits
into existing research
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The literature review is highly beneficial because it,
 Identifies established knowledge and research gaps, ensuring the relevance
of your study.
 Familiarizes you with methodologies used in similar studies, aiding in
selecting a robust approach.
 Locates your research questions and findings within existing literature.
 Justifies your choice of research questions.
 Develops and demonstrates your knowledge base in the subject area.
 summary
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Enabling Contextual Findings
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 Conduct a thorough literature review to contextualize research findings
within the existing body of knowledge.
 Identify similarities and differences between your findings and those of
others to determine the contribution made to the field of inquiry.
Difference between a literature review and a summary of the literature
 Summary: Lists findings separately for each source.
 Literature review: Organizes findings around themes, discussing and
integrating them, followed by theme-based conclusions.
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How To Review The Literature
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 Start with broad ideas, gradually narrowing down your focus
 Avoid reviewing literature without a specific research problem to prevent
biasing your thinking
 Conceptualize your research problem broadly before conducting a major
literature review
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 What is known in the area?
 What is not known or the gaps in the existing body of knowledge?
 What questions remain unanswered?
 Are there any areas of professional conflict?
 What theories are relevant to your area of research?
 What suggestions exist for further research?
 What research strategies have others used in similar research?
Your literature search should concentrate
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There are four steps involved in conducting a literature review
1. Searching for the existing literature in your area of study.
2. Reviewing the selected literature.
3. Developing a theoretical framework.
4. Developing a conceptual framework.
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Searching The Existing Literature
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Define your research subject and problem, as well as the study
population.
Compile a bibliography from books, journals, conference papers, and
the Internet
1. Books
 Books provide quality content but may lack timeliness.
 Search library catalogs using subject headings and keywords.
 Compile a list of 10-15 essential books based on bibliographies.
 Verify relevance and create annotated bibliographies.
 Track references using a card index or reference management software.
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2. Journals
 Journals provide current information, typically with a 2-3 year delay.
 Find journals through hard copies, abstract indices, or online databases.
 Make a list of journals and articles to review.
 Check contents pages, read abstracts, and note relevant articles.
 Use resources like Humanities Index and ERIC(Educational Resources
Information Center) for easier searching.
 Access indexing services online or in print.
 Use library computers for searching by subject, author, or title, and
keywords.
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3. Conference papers
 Access papers from recent professional conferences for the latest
research in your field.
4. The Internet
 The internet allows quick access to published literature.
 Use Google, scholar.google.com, or Yahoo! for searches.
 Sci hub doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2022.107864
Be cautious with Wikipedia for academic purposes.
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 Common databases cover public health, sociology, education, and business
studies.
 Internet searches, like library catalog searches, use keywords to find relevant
material in search engine databases.
 Internet searches utilize Boolean logic (AND, OR, NOT).
 The citation keyword usage with these operations streamlines searches
(Gilbert, 2008: 73), This helps in finding relevant references.
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Electronic
database
Description Printed
equivalent
ABI/
INFORM
ABI covers accounting, banking, data management, public administration,
and real estate in the information world.
None
ERIC ERIC, supported by the Department of Education, includes adult career
education, vocational training, educational management, early childhood
education, higher education, linguistics, reading, teacher education, and
educational technology.
CIJE, Current
index to Journals
in Education
HEALTHRON HEALTHROM covers health, diseases, forensics, nutrition, alcohol, and
addiction.
None
MEDLINE MEDLINE covers various fields including medicine, pharmacology, nursing,
dentistry, allied health, public health, occupational health, hospital
administration, and basic science.
Index Medicus
CINAHL CINAHL provides nursing journals and journals on physical therapy,
occupational therapy, speech therapy, nutrition, and radiologic technology.
CINAHL
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Reviewing The Selected Literature
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Identify themes or issues from selected literature:
Ex.1. Community responsiveness in health services in Western
Australia:
 Definition and philosophical underpinnings/(base)
 Historical context in Australia
 Implementation strategies
 Success indicators and challenges
 Stakeholder attitudes
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Ex in Indian context
1. Group training  Used to prevent violence against women and girls
2. Capacity building  NGOs interact with communities on behalf of state
agencies to support the Forest Rights Act,
3. Community organizing  Working on common issues affecting all slums
in a zone to mobilize community members,
4. Sanitary napkin disposal  In community and public toilets to avoid
flushing or disposing them in the open
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 Critically examine literature with respect to,
 Confirm knowledge relevance.
 Identify theories and criticisms.
 Evaluate methodologies.
 Assess generalizability.
 Note significant differences in opinion.
 Identify gaps in knowledge.
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Developing a theoretical framework
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1. Set parameters by reviewing literature in relation to main themes pertinent to
your research topic.
2. Sort information obtained from various sources under main themes and
theories.
3. Highlight agreements and disagreements among authors.
4. Identify unanswered questions or gaps in the literature.
5. Develop a theoretical framework based on aspects relevant to your research
topic.
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6. Use theoretical framework as a guide for literature review.
7. Begin with general information and gradually narrow down to specific aspects
 Example: Review literature on fertility and mortality relationship
 Fertility trends, theories, factors affecting fertility, contraceptive methods.
 Mortality factors, indices, trends.
 Relationship between fertility and mortality theories.
Example
Status of IT in Agriculture Marketing in Karnataka: This literature review includes
books and articles from 1995 to 2016 by various authors who have contributed to the
field of agriculture marketing.
Use Pattern of E-resources by Faculty of Deemed Universities in Karnataka State:
A Study on Analysis of Review of Literature on Self-Groups with Special Reference to
Rural Women in Karnataka
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8. Write literature review under headings
 Example: Review literature on fertility and mortality relationship
 Fertility theories
 Theory of demographic transition
 Trends in fertility
 Contraceptive methods
 Factors affecting mortality
 Trends in mortality
 Measurement of mortality indices
 Relationships between fertility and mortality theories.
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Developing a conceptual framework
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1. Conceptual framework: Basis of research problem, derived from
theoretical framework.
2. Theoretical framework: Consists of theories or issues in study.
Conceptual framework selects aspects from theoretical framework for study.
Example: Theoretical framework includes fertility-mortality theories, while
conceptual framework may focus on testing one theory like fear of non-
survival.
Conceptual framework specifically relates to research problem and becomes
study foundation.
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Writing about the literature reviewed.
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To write about the literature reviewed, focus on two main functions:
 providing a theoretical background and
 identifying gaps or recent advances in the field.
For example, if studying the relationship between mortality and fertility:
1. Review literature on fertility and mortality, including theories, factors
affecting fertility, contraceptive methods, mortality factors, and their
relationship.
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2. Develop a theoretical framework focusing on theories explaining the
relationship, such as economic, religious, medical, and psychological
perspectives, and specific theories like insurance theory, fear of non-
survival, and replacement theory.
3. Organize literature review under headings like fertility theories,
demographic transition theory, fertility trends, contraceptive methods,
mortality factors, trends in mortality, and relationships between fertility and
mortality theories.
4. This literature review provides the theoretical background for your study,
laying the foundation for further research and analysis
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Some potential topics for a literature review in image processing:
 Image Denoising Techniques: A Comparative Review
 Feature Extraction Methods in Image Processing: A Comprehensive Survey
 Deep Learning Approaches for Image Classification: A Review
 Image Segmentation Algorithms: A Critical Evaluation
 Image Registration Techniques: Recent Advances and Applications
 Medical Image Analysis: State-of-the-Art Methods and Challenges
 Image Enhancement Techniques: A Survey of Traditional and Deep Learning-Based
Approaches
 Object Detection and Recognition in Images: A Review of Methods and Benchmarks
 Image Fusion Techniques: A Survey of Multimodal Image Integration Methods
 Remote Sensing Image Processing: Recent Developments and Future Directions
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2. Research Design
Meaning of Research Design
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Essentially, it's the blueprint for the entire research process, from hypothesis
formulation to data analysis.
 Essential for structuring data collection and analysis.
 Guides the entire research process, ensuring relevance and efficiency.
Design decisions pertain to:
(i) What is the study about?
(ii) Why is the study being made?
(iii) Where will the study be carried out?
(iv) What type of data is required?
(v) Where can the required data be found?
(vi) What periods of time will the study
include?
(vi) What periods of time will the study
include?
(vii) What will be the sample design?
(viii) What techniques of data collection will be
used?
(ix) How will the data be analysed?
(x) In what style will the report be prepared?
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The overall research design can be divided into:
(a) Sampling Design: Method of selecting items for observation.
(b) Observational Design: Conditions for making observations.
(c) Statistical Design: Determining sample size and analysis methods.
(d) Operational Design: Techniques for carrying out specified procedures.
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A research design must specify:
 Relevant information sources and types.
 Data gathering and analysis approaches.
 Considerations for time and cost.
In brief, it should include:
 a clear research problem statement;
 data collection procedures;
 target population; and
 data processing and analysis methods.
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Need for Research Design
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Research design:
 Maximizes efficiency in operations, Guides project direction,
Requires careful preparation, Ensures reliable results.
 Skipping a good research plan leads to bad results.
 Prior planning is essential for improvement.
 Critics struggle without a solid research plan.
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Features of a Good Design
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 A good research design is flexible, appropriate, efficient, and economical.
 It minimizes bias and maximizes data reliability.
 Provides maximum information and considers various aspects of the
problem.
 However, its suitability varies depending on the research problem.
A research design suitable for a specific problem involves considering:
 How to gather information
 Researcher and staff availability and skills
 The problem's objective
 The problem's nature
 Time and budget constraints
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Exploratory studies need flexibility
 Descriptive studies prioritize accuracy.
 Testing causal relationships requires causal inference capability.
 Categorizing studies can be complex.
 Choice of research design depends on primary function and factors like
time, budget, staff skills, and data collection methods.
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Important Concepts Relating to Research Design
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Before discussing research designs, let's explain related concepts for
clarity.
1. Dependent and independent variables:
 Variables can be quantitative (e.g., weight) or qualitative (e.g.,
presence of attributes).
 Quantitative variables can be continuous (e.g., age) or discrete
(e.g., number of children).
 Dependent variables rely on independent variables (e.g., height
depends on age).
 Ready-made films and lectures are independent; behavioral
changes are dependent.
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2. Extraneous variable:
 Extraneous variables can affect the dependent variable.
 In a study on children's achievement and self-concepts, intelligence
could be one.
 Effects from these variables are called "experimental error."
 A good study attributes effects on the dependent variable solely to the
independent variable(s).
3. Control:
 Minimizing extraneous variable influence is crucial in research
design.
 Control involves reducing these variables' effects.
 In experiments, control means maintaining consistent conditions.
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4. Confounded relationship:
 Extraneous variables affecting the dependent variable cause
confounding.
 Confounding occurs when extraneous variables influence the
relationship between variables.
5. Research hypothesis:
 A research hypothesis predicts a relationship between variables.
 It requires objective verification through scientific methods.
 Unverified predictions or untested relationships are not research
hypotheses.
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6. Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research:
 Hypothesis-testing research tests hypotheses.
 It can be experimental (manipulating the independent variable) or non-
experimental.
 For example, studying intelligence's effect on reading ability
without manipulation is non-experimental.
 Testing training program effectiveness by manipulating program
type is experimental.
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7. Experimental and control groups:
 In experimental research, one group has usual conditions (control group)
while another has novel conditions (experimental group).
 Studies may involve only experimental groups or both experimental and
control groups.
8. Treatments:
 In experiments, conditions for groups are called 'treatments.'
 For instance, when comparing fertilizers' impact on wheat yield, each
fertilizer variety is a treatment.
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9. Experiment:
 Experimentation tests hypotheses.
 Absolute experiments assess single factors, like fertilizer impact.
 Comparative experiments compare different factors, like two fertilizers.
 Comparative experiments common in experimental design discussions.
10. Experimental unit(s):
 Experimental units are predefined plots or blocks where treatments are
applied.
 Selecting or defining experimental units requires careful consideration.
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Different Research Designs
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Research designs can be categorized as follows:
(1) exploratory research studies;
(2) descriptive and diagnostic research studies; and
(3) hypothesis-testing research studies.
1. Research design in case of exploratory research studies
Exploratory research, also known as formulative research, aims to formulate
a problem for further investigation or develop working hypotheses.
Three common research design methods for exploratory studies are:
(1) Literature survey (2) Experience survey (3) Analysis of 'insight-
stimulating' examples
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i. Literature survey: Review past research to form new hypotheses.
 Bibliographical survey:
Explore relevant studies to refine research questions.
 Apply diverse concepts:
Use theories from different fields to inform the study.
 Creative sources:
Gain insights from creative works for hypothesis formulation.
ii. Experience survey
 Interview experienced individuals.
 Understand relationships and ideas.
 Choose capable respondents.
 Send questions early for thoughtful
responses.
 Clarify research problems.
 Provide insights for various research
methods
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.
iii. Analysis of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples
 Analyzing examples generates hypotheses in new areas.
 It involves studying specific instances using records or interviews.
 Key factors: researcher attitude, thoroughness, and information synthesis.
 This method uncovers insights by examining examples deeply.
 Choose examples based on the problem.
 Examples: reactions of strangers, marginal individuals, transitions, or diverse
backgrounds.
 Cases with sharp contrasts or striking features are most helpful.
 Flexibility is crucial in exploratory research to address various aspects..
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2. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies
 Descriptive research describes, while diagnostic research determines
frequency or associations.
 Diagnostic studies check if variables are associated, while descriptive studies
predict outcomes or narrate facts about individuals, groups, or situations.
 Both need clear goals, methods, and target groups.
 Planning is vital for accuracy, minimizing bias, maximizing reliability, and
managing costs.
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1. Formulating the objective of the study (what the study is about and why
is it being made?)
2. Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques of gathering
data will be adopted?)
3. Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed?)
4. Collecting the data (where can the required data be found and with what
time period should the data be related?)
5. Processing and analysing the data.
6. Reporting the findings.

Research Designs should be strict and focus on
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 Clear objectives are crucial in descriptive/diagnostic studies for relevant data collection.
 Careful selection of data collection methods is essential, considering their strengths and
weaknesses.
 Supervision of field workers is necessary to minimize errors.
 Data processing involves coding, tabulation, and statistical computations, requiring careful
planning.
 Checks for coding accuracy and precision in tabulation are important.
 Statistical operations and significance tests are needed to draw valid conclusions from the study
 Efficient reporting in a well-planned report is crucial.
 The research design for descriptive/diagnostic studies minimizes bias and maximizes
reliability, considering objectives and resources.
 This design resembles a survey design, covering all steps in studying a phenomenon.
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Aspect Exploratory/ Formulative
Research Design
Descriptive/Diagnostic
Research Design
Overall Design
Flexible, considering various
aspects of the problem
Rigid, emphasizing protection
against bias and maximizing
reliability
Sampling Design
Non-probability sampling
(purposive or judgement)
Probability sampling (random
sampling)
Statistical Design No pre-planned design for analysis Pre-planned design for analysis
Observational
Design
Unstructured instruments for data
collection
Structured or well-thought-out
instruments
Operational Design
No fixed decisions about
operational procedures
Advanced decisions about
operational procedures
This table provides a concise overview of the differences between exploratory/formulative
and descriptive/diagnostic research designs.
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3. Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies:
 Experimental studies test causal relationships between variables.
 They aim to reduce bias, increase reliability, and infer causality.
 Professor R.A. Fisher developed experimental designs, initially in agricultural research
 Fisher's approach involved dividing fields into blocks for more reliable experiments.
 Experimental designs, despite agricultural origins, are widely used across disciplines.
 Technical terms like treatment, yield, plot, and block are commonly used in
experimental design.
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Basic Principles of Experimental Designs
Professor Fisher established three principles of experimental designs
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1. Principle of Replication:
 Repeat experiments to enhance statistical accuracy.
 Apply treatments across multiple units to obtain reliable results.
 Increases precision but complicates computational analysis.
 Aim is to improve accuracy in estimating main effects and interactions.
2. Principle of Randomization:
 Randomize experimental conditions to counter extraneous factors.
 Design experiments to attribute variations to chance.
 Mitigates impact of variables like soil fertility.
 Ensures better estimation of experimental error for accurate results.
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3. Principle of Local Control:
 Deliberately vary known sources of variability.
 Divide experimental area into homogeneous blocks.
 Randomly assign treatments within each block.
 Allows isolation of treatment effects from extraneous factors.
 Enhances reliability of experimental outcomes
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Important Experimental Designs
Experimental designs are informal or formal. Informal designs use simpler analysis,
while formal ones offer more control and precise statistical procedures.
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i. Informal designs:
1. Before-and-after without control
2. After-only with control
3. Before-and-after with control
ii. Formal designs:
4. Completely randomized design (C.R. Design)
5. Randomized block design (R.B. Design)
6. Latin square design (L.S. Design)
7. Factorial designs
Each design serves specific purposes, with formal designs providing more control and
rigorous statistical analysis compared to informal ones.
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1. Before-and-after without control design:
Test area:
Level of phenomenon
before treatment (X)
Treatment
introduced
Level of phenomenon
after treatment (Y)
Treatment Effect = (Y) – (X)
 Single test group or area selected
 Measure dependent variable before treatment
 Introduce treatment, measure dependent variable again
 Treatment effect calculated: post-treatment level minus pre-treatment level
 Challenge: potential for extraneous variations over time
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2. After-only with control design:
 Two groups: test area (receives treatment) and control area (does not receive treatment)
 Treatment introduced only in test area
 Measure dependent variable simultaneously in both areas
 Assess treatment impact by comparing dependent variable values between test and
control areas
 Assumes both areas behave similarly towards the phenomenon
 Risk of extraneous variation if assumption is false
 This can be exhibited in the following form:
Test area:
Control Area
Treatment introduced Level of phenomenon
after treatment (Y)
Level of phenomenon without
treatment (Z)
Treatment Effect = (Y) – (Z)
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3. Before-and-after with control design:
 Two areas chosen
 Measure dependent variable in both areas for same time before treatment
 Introduce treatment in test area only
 Measure dependent variable in both areas for same time after treatment
 Treatment effect calculated by subtracting change in dependent variable in control area
from change in test area
Test area:
Control Area
Time Period 1
Level of phenomenon before
treatment (X)
Level of phenomenon without
treatment (A)
Treatment
Introduced
Level of phenomenon
after treatment (Y)
Level of phenomenon
without treatment (Z)
Treatment Effect = (Y – X) – (Z-A)
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 Based on two principles: replication and
randomization
 Simple and easy to analyze
 Subjects randomly assigned to treatments
 Equal chance for each group to receive
treatment
 Analysis done with one-way ANOVA
 Can accommodate unequal replications
 Ideal for homogeneous experimental areas
 Referred to as C.R. design when variations
are considered chance
Treatment
B
Control group
Sample
Randomly
Selected
Population
Independent
variables
Treatment
A
Experimental
group
Randomly
Selected
4. Completely Randomized design (C.R. design):
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Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
(i) Two-group simple randomized design:
 Population defined, sample randomly selected
 Items randomly assigned to experimental and control groups
 Design yields representative groups
 Allows drawing conclusions applicable to population
 Experimental and control groups receive different treatments
 Common in behavioral sciences research
 Simple design, randomizes sample differences
 Doesn't control individual differences among those conducting treatments
 Example: Comparing groups of students receiving different training
 Individual differences among students randomized, but extraneous variables not
controlled
4/17/2024 71
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
(ii) Random replications design:
 Limitations of two-group randomized design addressed in random replications design
 Random replications minimize effects of individual differences and extraneous
variables
 Each repetition in random replication design is called a "replication"
 Serves to control effects of extraneous variables and randomize individual
differences
 Diagram illustrates two populations in replication design
 Sample randomly selected and assigned to experimental and control groups
 Equal number of items typically placed in each group to prevent size bias
 Variables assumed to be randomly distributed among groups
 Random replication design extends from two-group simple randomized design
4/17/2024 72
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
4/17/2024 73
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
5. Randomized block design (R.B. design)
 Randomized block design (R.B. design) improves upon C.R. design
 Applies local control principle alongside other experimental principles
 Subjects grouped into homogeneous blocks based on selected variable
 Each block has same number of subjects as treatments
 One subject randomly assigned to each treatment within block
 Blocks fix extraneous factors to measure their impact on variability
 Treatments evenly distributed within blocks
 Analyzed using two-way ANOVA
 Example: Five students from different IQ blocks given four forms of standardized
test in statistics
 Randomized test order accounts for extraneous factors like fatigue or experience
gained from repeated testing
4/17/2024 74
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
Four different forms of a standardised test in statistics
were given to each of five students (selected one from
each of the five I.Q. blocks) and following are the scores
which they obtained.
4/17/2024 75
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
6. Latin square design (L.S. design)
 Commonly used in agricultural research
 Addresses varying soil fertility and seed impact in experiments
 Each fertilizer appears five times, once per row and column
 Treatments allocated to plots to ensure no treatment repeats in any row or column
 Blocks represented by rows and columns
 Analysis similar to two-way ANOVA
 Eliminates differences in fertility gradients, focusing on fertilizer effects
 Limitation: Assumes no interaction between treatments and blocking factors
 Can adjust means of rows and columns to address this limitation
 Requires equal number of rows, columns, and treatments
 Smaller designs like (2 × 2) lack degrees of freedom for analysis
 Larger designs (5 × 5) to (9 × 9) commonly used to maintain homogeneity in rows
and columns
4/17/2024 76
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
7. Factorial designs:
 Factorial designs explore effects of multiple factors
 Two types: simple factorial and complex factorial designs
 Simple factorial designs analyze two factors' effects
 Examples include 2 × 2, 3 × 4, or 5 × 3 designs
 Subjects randomly assigned to treatment conditions
 Analysis examines main effects and interactions
 Graphical representation illustrates interactions
 Can involve one experimental and one control variable, or two of either
 Example: Comparing class size and instruction technique in a 2 × 2 design
 Another example: Comparing genders and seniority levels in a 2 × 2 design with
both variables as control factors
4/17/2024 77
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4/17/2024 78
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
4/17/2024 79
Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG

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Research Methodolgy & Intellectual Property Rights Series 2

  • 1. Department of Studies in Electronics & Communication Engg., University B.D.T. College of Engineering Visveswaraya Technological University, Davanagere-4 Karnataka, India Dr.T.D. Shashikala 4/17/2024 1 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 2. 2. Research Design: • Meaning of Research Design • Need for Research Design • Features of a Good Design • Important Concepts Relating to Research Design • Different Research Designs • Basic Principles of Experimental Designs • Important Experimental Designs 1. Reviewing the Literature: • Place of the literature review in research • Bringing clarity and focus to your research problem • Improving research methodology • Broadening knowledge base in research area • Enabling contextual findings • How to review the literature • Searching the existing literature • Reviewing the selected literature • Developing a theoretical framework • Developing a conceptual framework • Writing about the literature reviewed. 4/17/2024 2 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 3. CH 1. Reviewing the Literature Place of the literature review in research 4/17/2024 3 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 4. Literature review, essential in research, time-consuming but rewarding.  Clarifies ideas, establishes theoretical roots, and aids in methodology development.  Enhances knowledge, contextualizes findings, and facilitates comparison.  Integrates findings with existing literature during report write-up.  Critical for higher academic levels. 4/17/2024 4 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 5. A literature review serves to:  Provide theoretical background.  Establish connections between your study and existing research.  Demonstrate contribution to the existing knowledge.  Integrate your findings into the current body of knowledge 4/17/2024 5 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 6. A literature review involves examining existing literature related to the research problem to develop theoretical frameworks and integrate findings with existing knowledge. It aids in: Bringing clarity and focus to your research problem. Enhancing research methodology. Expanding knowledge base in your research area. Contextualizing findings within existing knowledge. 4/17/2024 6 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 7. Bringing Clarity And Focus To Your Research Problem  Reviewing existing literature clarifies your research focus and ensures relevance.  It helps identify gaps in knowledge, guiding your study to contribute meaningfully to the field. 4/17/2024 7 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 8. Improving your research methodology  Reading about methods used by others helps you feel confident and ready to deal with challenges in your research 4/17/2024 8 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 9. Broadening Knowledge Base In Research Area  A literature review helps you explore widely, understand previous research, and find gaps in knowledge.  It makes you an expert in your field and shows how your study fits into existing research 4/17/2024 9 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 10. The literature review is highly beneficial because it,  Identifies established knowledge and research gaps, ensuring the relevance of your study.  Familiarizes you with methodologies used in similar studies, aiding in selecting a robust approach.  Locates your research questions and findings within existing literature.  Justifies your choice of research questions.  Develops and demonstrates your knowledge base in the subject area.  summary 4/17/2024 10 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 11. Enabling Contextual Findings 4/17/2024 11 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 12.  Conduct a thorough literature review to contextualize research findings within the existing body of knowledge.  Identify similarities and differences between your findings and those of others to determine the contribution made to the field of inquiry. Difference between a literature review and a summary of the literature  Summary: Lists findings separately for each source.  Literature review: Organizes findings around themes, discussing and integrating them, followed by theme-based conclusions. 4/17/2024 12 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 13. How To Review The Literature 4/17/2024 13 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 14.  Start with broad ideas, gradually narrowing down your focus  Avoid reviewing literature without a specific research problem to prevent biasing your thinking  Conceptualize your research problem broadly before conducting a major literature review 4/17/2024 14 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 15.  What is known in the area?  What is not known or the gaps in the existing body of knowledge?  What questions remain unanswered?  Are there any areas of professional conflict?  What theories are relevant to your area of research?  What suggestions exist for further research?  What research strategies have others used in similar research? Your literature search should concentrate 4/17/2024 15 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 16. There are four steps involved in conducting a literature review 1. Searching for the existing literature in your area of study. 2. Reviewing the selected literature. 3. Developing a theoretical framework. 4. Developing a conceptual framework. 4/17/2024 16 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 17. Searching The Existing Literature 4/17/2024 17 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 18. Define your research subject and problem, as well as the study population. Compile a bibliography from books, journals, conference papers, and the Internet 1. Books  Books provide quality content but may lack timeliness.  Search library catalogs using subject headings and keywords.  Compile a list of 10-15 essential books based on bibliographies.  Verify relevance and create annotated bibliographies.  Track references using a card index or reference management software. 4/17/2024 18 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 19. 2. Journals  Journals provide current information, typically with a 2-3 year delay.  Find journals through hard copies, abstract indices, or online databases.  Make a list of journals and articles to review.  Check contents pages, read abstracts, and note relevant articles.  Use resources like Humanities Index and ERIC(Educational Resources Information Center) for easier searching.  Access indexing services online or in print.  Use library computers for searching by subject, author, or title, and keywords. 4/17/2024 19 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 20. 3. Conference papers  Access papers from recent professional conferences for the latest research in your field. 4. The Internet  The internet allows quick access to published literature.  Use Google, scholar.google.com, or Yahoo! for searches.  Sci hub doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2022.107864 Be cautious with Wikipedia for academic purposes. 4/17/2024 20 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 21.  Common databases cover public health, sociology, education, and business studies.  Internet searches, like library catalog searches, use keywords to find relevant material in search engine databases.  Internet searches utilize Boolean logic (AND, OR, NOT).  The citation keyword usage with these operations streamlines searches (Gilbert, 2008: 73), This helps in finding relevant references. 4/17/2024 21 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 22. Electronic database Description Printed equivalent ABI/ INFORM ABI covers accounting, banking, data management, public administration, and real estate in the information world. None ERIC ERIC, supported by the Department of Education, includes adult career education, vocational training, educational management, early childhood education, higher education, linguistics, reading, teacher education, and educational technology. CIJE, Current index to Journals in Education HEALTHRON HEALTHROM covers health, diseases, forensics, nutrition, alcohol, and addiction. None MEDLINE MEDLINE covers various fields including medicine, pharmacology, nursing, dentistry, allied health, public health, occupational health, hospital administration, and basic science. Index Medicus CINAHL CINAHL provides nursing journals and journals on physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, nutrition, and radiologic technology. CINAHL 4/17/2024 22 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 23. Reviewing The Selected Literature 4/17/2024 23 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 24. Identify themes or issues from selected literature: Ex.1. Community responsiveness in health services in Western Australia:  Definition and philosophical underpinnings/(base)  Historical context in Australia  Implementation strategies  Success indicators and challenges  Stakeholder attitudes 4/17/2024 24 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 25. Ex in Indian context 1. Group training  Used to prevent violence against women and girls 2. Capacity building  NGOs interact with communities on behalf of state agencies to support the Forest Rights Act, 3. Community organizing  Working on common issues affecting all slums in a zone to mobilize community members, 4. Sanitary napkin disposal  In community and public toilets to avoid flushing or disposing them in the open 4/17/2024 25 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 26.  Critically examine literature with respect to,  Confirm knowledge relevance.  Identify theories and criticisms.  Evaluate methodologies.  Assess generalizability.  Note significant differences in opinion.  Identify gaps in knowledge. 4/17/2024 26 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 27. Developing a theoretical framework 4/17/2024 27 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 28. 1. Set parameters by reviewing literature in relation to main themes pertinent to your research topic. 2. Sort information obtained from various sources under main themes and theories. 3. Highlight agreements and disagreements among authors. 4. Identify unanswered questions or gaps in the literature. 5. Develop a theoretical framework based on aspects relevant to your research topic. 4/17/2024 28 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 29. 6. Use theoretical framework as a guide for literature review. 7. Begin with general information and gradually narrow down to specific aspects  Example: Review literature on fertility and mortality relationship  Fertility trends, theories, factors affecting fertility, contraceptive methods.  Mortality factors, indices, trends.  Relationship between fertility and mortality theories. Example Status of IT in Agriculture Marketing in Karnataka: This literature review includes books and articles from 1995 to 2016 by various authors who have contributed to the field of agriculture marketing. Use Pattern of E-resources by Faculty of Deemed Universities in Karnataka State: A Study on Analysis of Review of Literature on Self-Groups with Special Reference to Rural Women in Karnataka 4/17/2024 29 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 30. 8. Write literature review under headings  Example: Review literature on fertility and mortality relationship  Fertility theories  Theory of demographic transition  Trends in fertility  Contraceptive methods  Factors affecting mortality  Trends in mortality  Measurement of mortality indices  Relationships between fertility and mortality theories. 4/17/2024 30 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 31. Developing a conceptual framework 4/17/2024 31 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 32. 1. Conceptual framework: Basis of research problem, derived from theoretical framework. 2. Theoretical framework: Consists of theories or issues in study. Conceptual framework selects aspects from theoretical framework for study. Example: Theoretical framework includes fertility-mortality theories, while conceptual framework may focus on testing one theory like fear of non- survival. Conceptual framework specifically relates to research problem and becomes study foundation. 4/17/2024 32 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 33. Writing about the literature reviewed. 4/17/2024 33 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 34. To write about the literature reviewed, focus on two main functions:  providing a theoretical background and  identifying gaps or recent advances in the field. For example, if studying the relationship between mortality and fertility: 1. Review literature on fertility and mortality, including theories, factors affecting fertility, contraceptive methods, mortality factors, and their relationship. 4/17/2024 34 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 35. 2. Develop a theoretical framework focusing on theories explaining the relationship, such as economic, religious, medical, and psychological perspectives, and specific theories like insurance theory, fear of non- survival, and replacement theory. 3. Organize literature review under headings like fertility theories, demographic transition theory, fertility trends, contraceptive methods, mortality factors, trends in mortality, and relationships between fertility and mortality theories. 4. This literature review provides the theoretical background for your study, laying the foundation for further research and analysis 4/17/2024 35 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 36. Some potential topics for a literature review in image processing:  Image Denoising Techniques: A Comparative Review  Feature Extraction Methods in Image Processing: A Comprehensive Survey  Deep Learning Approaches for Image Classification: A Review  Image Segmentation Algorithms: A Critical Evaluation  Image Registration Techniques: Recent Advances and Applications  Medical Image Analysis: State-of-the-Art Methods and Challenges  Image Enhancement Techniques: A Survey of Traditional and Deep Learning-Based Approaches  Object Detection and Recognition in Images: A Review of Methods and Benchmarks  Image Fusion Techniques: A Survey of Multimodal Image Integration Methods  Remote Sensing Image Processing: Recent Developments and Future Directions 4/17/2024 36 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 37. 2. Research Design Meaning of Research Design 4/17/2024 37 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 38. Essentially, it's the blueprint for the entire research process, from hypothesis formulation to data analysis.  Essential for structuring data collection and analysis.  Guides the entire research process, ensuring relevance and efficiency. Design decisions pertain to: (i) What is the study about? (ii) Why is the study being made? (iii) Where will the study be carried out? (iv) What type of data is required? (v) Where can the required data be found? (vi) What periods of time will the study include? (vi) What periods of time will the study include? (vii) What will be the sample design? (viii) What techniques of data collection will be used? (ix) How will the data be analysed? (x) In what style will the report be prepared? 4/17/2024 38 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 39. The overall research design can be divided into: (a) Sampling Design: Method of selecting items for observation. (b) Observational Design: Conditions for making observations. (c) Statistical Design: Determining sample size and analysis methods. (d) Operational Design: Techniques for carrying out specified procedures. 4/17/2024 39 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 40. A research design must specify:  Relevant information sources and types.  Data gathering and analysis approaches.  Considerations for time and cost. In brief, it should include:  a clear research problem statement;  data collection procedures;  target population; and  data processing and analysis methods. 4/17/2024 40 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 41. Need for Research Design 4/17/2024 41 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 42. Research design:  Maximizes efficiency in operations, Guides project direction, Requires careful preparation, Ensures reliable results.  Skipping a good research plan leads to bad results.  Prior planning is essential for improvement.  Critics struggle without a solid research plan. 4/17/2024 42 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 43. Features of a Good Design 4/17/2024 43 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 44.  A good research design is flexible, appropriate, efficient, and economical.  It minimizes bias and maximizes data reliability.  Provides maximum information and considers various aspects of the problem.  However, its suitability varies depending on the research problem. A research design suitable for a specific problem involves considering:  How to gather information  Researcher and staff availability and skills  The problem's objective  The problem's nature  Time and budget constraints 4/17/2024 44 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 45. Exploratory studies need flexibility  Descriptive studies prioritize accuracy.  Testing causal relationships requires causal inference capability.  Categorizing studies can be complex.  Choice of research design depends on primary function and factors like time, budget, staff skills, and data collection methods. 4/17/2024 45 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 46. Important Concepts Relating to Research Design 4/17/2024 46 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 47. Before discussing research designs, let's explain related concepts for clarity. 1. Dependent and independent variables:  Variables can be quantitative (e.g., weight) or qualitative (e.g., presence of attributes).  Quantitative variables can be continuous (e.g., age) or discrete (e.g., number of children).  Dependent variables rely on independent variables (e.g., height depends on age).  Ready-made films and lectures are independent; behavioral changes are dependent. 4/17/2024 47 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 48. 2. Extraneous variable:  Extraneous variables can affect the dependent variable.  In a study on children's achievement and self-concepts, intelligence could be one.  Effects from these variables are called "experimental error."  A good study attributes effects on the dependent variable solely to the independent variable(s). 3. Control:  Minimizing extraneous variable influence is crucial in research design.  Control involves reducing these variables' effects.  In experiments, control means maintaining consistent conditions. 4/17/2024 48 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 49. 4. Confounded relationship:  Extraneous variables affecting the dependent variable cause confounding.  Confounding occurs when extraneous variables influence the relationship between variables. 5. Research hypothesis:  A research hypothesis predicts a relationship between variables.  It requires objective verification through scientific methods.  Unverified predictions or untested relationships are not research hypotheses. 4/17/2024 49 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 50. 6. Experimental and non-experimental hypothesis-testing research:  Hypothesis-testing research tests hypotheses.  It can be experimental (manipulating the independent variable) or non- experimental.  For example, studying intelligence's effect on reading ability without manipulation is non-experimental.  Testing training program effectiveness by manipulating program type is experimental. 4/17/2024 50 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 51. 7. Experimental and control groups:  In experimental research, one group has usual conditions (control group) while another has novel conditions (experimental group).  Studies may involve only experimental groups or both experimental and control groups. 8. Treatments:  In experiments, conditions for groups are called 'treatments.'  For instance, when comparing fertilizers' impact on wheat yield, each fertilizer variety is a treatment. 4/17/2024 51 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 52. 9. Experiment:  Experimentation tests hypotheses.  Absolute experiments assess single factors, like fertilizer impact.  Comparative experiments compare different factors, like two fertilizers.  Comparative experiments common in experimental design discussions. 10. Experimental unit(s):  Experimental units are predefined plots or blocks where treatments are applied.  Selecting or defining experimental units requires careful consideration. 4/17/2024 52 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 53. Different Research Designs 4/17/2024 53 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 54. Research designs can be categorized as follows: (1) exploratory research studies; (2) descriptive and diagnostic research studies; and (3) hypothesis-testing research studies. 1. Research design in case of exploratory research studies Exploratory research, also known as formulative research, aims to formulate a problem for further investigation or develop working hypotheses. Three common research design methods for exploratory studies are: (1) Literature survey (2) Experience survey (3) Analysis of 'insight- stimulating' examples 4/17/2024 54 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 55. i. Literature survey: Review past research to form new hypotheses.  Bibliographical survey: Explore relevant studies to refine research questions.  Apply diverse concepts: Use theories from different fields to inform the study.  Creative sources: Gain insights from creative works for hypothesis formulation. ii. Experience survey  Interview experienced individuals.  Understand relationships and ideas.  Choose capable respondents.  Send questions early for thoughtful responses.  Clarify research problems.  Provide insights for various research methods 4/17/2024 55 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 56. . iii. Analysis of ‘insight-stimulating’ examples  Analyzing examples generates hypotheses in new areas.  It involves studying specific instances using records or interviews.  Key factors: researcher attitude, thoroughness, and information synthesis.  This method uncovers insights by examining examples deeply.  Choose examples based on the problem.  Examples: reactions of strangers, marginal individuals, transitions, or diverse backgrounds.  Cases with sharp contrasts or striking features are most helpful.  Flexibility is crucial in exploratory research to address various aspects.. 4/17/2024 56 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 57. 2. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies  Descriptive research describes, while diagnostic research determines frequency or associations.  Diagnostic studies check if variables are associated, while descriptive studies predict outcomes or narrate facts about individuals, groups, or situations.  Both need clear goals, methods, and target groups.  Planning is vital for accuracy, minimizing bias, maximizing reliability, and managing costs. 4/17/2024 57 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 58. 1. Formulating the objective of the study (what the study is about and why is it being made?) 2. Designing the methods of data collection (what techniques of gathering data will be adopted?) 3. Selecting the sample (how much material will be needed?) 4. Collecting the data (where can the required data be found and with what time period should the data be related?) 5. Processing and analysing the data. 6. Reporting the findings.  Research Designs should be strict and focus on 4/17/2024 58 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 59.  Clear objectives are crucial in descriptive/diagnostic studies for relevant data collection.  Careful selection of data collection methods is essential, considering their strengths and weaknesses.  Supervision of field workers is necessary to minimize errors.  Data processing involves coding, tabulation, and statistical computations, requiring careful planning.  Checks for coding accuracy and precision in tabulation are important.  Statistical operations and significance tests are needed to draw valid conclusions from the study  Efficient reporting in a well-planned report is crucial.  The research design for descriptive/diagnostic studies minimizes bias and maximizes reliability, considering objectives and resources.  This design resembles a survey design, covering all steps in studying a phenomenon. 4/17/2024 59 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 60. Aspect Exploratory/ Formulative Research Design Descriptive/Diagnostic Research Design Overall Design Flexible, considering various aspects of the problem Rigid, emphasizing protection against bias and maximizing reliability Sampling Design Non-probability sampling (purposive or judgement) Probability sampling (random sampling) Statistical Design No pre-planned design for analysis Pre-planned design for analysis Observational Design Unstructured instruments for data collection Structured or well-thought-out instruments Operational Design No fixed decisions about operational procedures Advanced decisions about operational procedures This table provides a concise overview of the differences between exploratory/formulative and descriptive/diagnostic research designs. 4/17/2024 60 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 61. 3. Research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies:  Experimental studies test causal relationships between variables.  They aim to reduce bias, increase reliability, and infer causality.  Professor R.A. Fisher developed experimental designs, initially in agricultural research  Fisher's approach involved dividing fields into blocks for more reliable experiments.  Experimental designs, despite agricultural origins, are widely used across disciplines.  Technical terms like treatment, yield, plot, and block are commonly used in experimental design. 4/17/2024 61 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 62. Basic Principles of Experimental Designs Professor Fisher established three principles of experimental designs 4/17/2024 62 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 63. 1. Principle of Replication:  Repeat experiments to enhance statistical accuracy.  Apply treatments across multiple units to obtain reliable results.  Increases precision but complicates computational analysis.  Aim is to improve accuracy in estimating main effects and interactions. 2. Principle of Randomization:  Randomize experimental conditions to counter extraneous factors.  Design experiments to attribute variations to chance.  Mitigates impact of variables like soil fertility.  Ensures better estimation of experimental error for accurate results. 4/17/2024 63 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 64. 3. Principle of Local Control:  Deliberately vary known sources of variability.  Divide experimental area into homogeneous blocks.  Randomly assign treatments within each block.  Allows isolation of treatment effects from extraneous factors.  Enhances reliability of experimental outcomes 4/17/2024 64 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 65. Important Experimental Designs Experimental designs are informal or formal. Informal designs use simpler analysis, while formal ones offer more control and precise statistical procedures. 4/17/2024 65 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 66. i. Informal designs: 1. Before-and-after without control 2. After-only with control 3. Before-and-after with control ii. Formal designs: 4. Completely randomized design (C.R. Design) 5. Randomized block design (R.B. Design) 6. Latin square design (L.S. Design) 7. Factorial designs Each design serves specific purposes, with formal designs providing more control and rigorous statistical analysis compared to informal ones. 4/17/2024 66 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 67. 1. Before-and-after without control design: Test area: Level of phenomenon before treatment (X) Treatment introduced Level of phenomenon after treatment (Y) Treatment Effect = (Y) – (X)  Single test group or area selected  Measure dependent variable before treatment  Introduce treatment, measure dependent variable again  Treatment effect calculated: post-treatment level minus pre-treatment level  Challenge: potential for extraneous variations over time 4/17/2024 67 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 68. 2. After-only with control design:  Two groups: test area (receives treatment) and control area (does not receive treatment)  Treatment introduced only in test area  Measure dependent variable simultaneously in both areas  Assess treatment impact by comparing dependent variable values between test and control areas  Assumes both areas behave similarly towards the phenomenon  Risk of extraneous variation if assumption is false  This can be exhibited in the following form: Test area: Control Area Treatment introduced Level of phenomenon after treatment (Y) Level of phenomenon without treatment (Z) Treatment Effect = (Y) – (Z) 4/17/2024 68 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 69. 3. Before-and-after with control design:  Two areas chosen  Measure dependent variable in both areas for same time before treatment  Introduce treatment in test area only  Measure dependent variable in both areas for same time after treatment  Treatment effect calculated by subtracting change in dependent variable in control area from change in test area Test area: Control Area Time Period 1 Level of phenomenon before treatment (X) Level of phenomenon without treatment (A) Treatment Introduced Level of phenomenon after treatment (Y) Level of phenomenon without treatment (Z) Treatment Effect = (Y – X) – (Z-A) 4/17/2024 69 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 70.  Based on two principles: replication and randomization  Simple and easy to analyze  Subjects randomly assigned to treatments  Equal chance for each group to receive treatment  Analysis done with one-way ANOVA  Can accommodate unequal replications  Ideal for homogeneous experimental areas  Referred to as C.R. design when variations are considered chance Treatment B Control group Sample Randomly Selected Population Independent variables Treatment A Experimental group Randomly Selected 4. Completely Randomized design (C.R. design): 4/17/2024 70 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 71. (i) Two-group simple randomized design:  Population defined, sample randomly selected  Items randomly assigned to experimental and control groups  Design yields representative groups  Allows drawing conclusions applicable to population  Experimental and control groups receive different treatments  Common in behavioral sciences research  Simple design, randomizes sample differences  Doesn't control individual differences among those conducting treatments  Example: Comparing groups of students receiving different training  Individual differences among students randomized, but extraneous variables not controlled 4/17/2024 71 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 72. (ii) Random replications design:  Limitations of two-group randomized design addressed in random replications design  Random replications minimize effects of individual differences and extraneous variables  Each repetition in random replication design is called a "replication"  Serves to control effects of extraneous variables and randomize individual differences  Diagram illustrates two populations in replication design  Sample randomly selected and assigned to experimental and control groups  Equal number of items typically placed in each group to prevent size bias  Variables assumed to be randomly distributed among groups  Random replication design extends from two-group simple randomized design 4/17/2024 72 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 74. 5. Randomized block design (R.B. design)  Randomized block design (R.B. design) improves upon C.R. design  Applies local control principle alongside other experimental principles  Subjects grouped into homogeneous blocks based on selected variable  Each block has same number of subjects as treatments  One subject randomly assigned to each treatment within block  Blocks fix extraneous factors to measure their impact on variability  Treatments evenly distributed within blocks  Analyzed using two-way ANOVA  Example: Five students from different IQ blocks given four forms of standardized test in statistics  Randomized test order accounts for extraneous factors like fatigue or experience gained from repeated testing 4/17/2024 74 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 75. Four different forms of a standardised test in statistics were given to each of five students (selected one from each of the five I.Q. blocks) and following are the scores which they obtained. 4/17/2024 75 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 76. 6. Latin square design (L.S. design)  Commonly used in agricultural research  Addresses varying soil fertility and seed impact in experiments  Each fertilizer appears five times, once per row and column  Treatments allocated to plots to ensure no treatment repeats in any row or column  Blocks represented by rows and columns  Analysis similar to two-way ANOVA  Eliminates differences in fertility gradients, focusing on fertilizer effects  Limitation: Assumes no interaction between treatments and blocking factors  Can adjust means of rows and columns to address this limitation  Requires equal number of rows, columns, and treatments  Smaller designs like (2 × 2) lack degrees of freedom for analysis  Larger designs (5 × 5) to (9 × 9) commonly used to maintain homogeneity in rows and columns 4/17/2024 76 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG
  • 77. 7. Factorial designs:  Factorial designs explore effects of multiple factors  Two types: simple factorial and complex factorial designs  Simple factorial designs analyze two factors' effects  Examples include 2 × 2, 3 × 4, or 5 × 3 designs  Subjects randomly assigned to treatment conditions  Analysis examines main effects and interactions  Graphical representation illustrates interactions  Can involve one experimental and one control variable, or two of either  Example: Comparing class size and instruction technique in a 2 × 2 design  Another example: Comparing genders and seniority levels in a 2 × 2 design with both variables as control factors 4/17/2024 77 Dr.TDS. UBDTCE-DVG