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Institutional Control
In explaining institutional control over individuals through social theory, Jürgen Habermas and
Michel Foucault present distinctive arguments with the theory of everyday practice and theory of
power, respectively. The college classroom setting can be used as an example to apply each theory
to the theme of institutional control.
Habermas takes from phenomenology his theory of everyday practice which is the practice by which
people recreate a common understanding through daily human interactions. This is similar to Erving
Goffman's idea of reconstructing reality through performances. Habermas distinguishes this as a
mutual reconstruction of social interaction that is rooted in the lifeworld. Habermas is concerned
about the systems, of which ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Here, it is mainly discipline. Foucault sees many similarities to how the prison system, the hospital
system is run and how education is taught. Power is an invisible but intrinsic force that takes the
form of discipline in these systems as well as the education system. Foucault uses the example of a
parish school to exemplify how discipline is intrinsically a part of education. In the parish school,
students were not only scholars learning side by side but also officers (intendants, observers,
monitors, etc...) who supervised each other and marked down bad practice so that "a relation of
surveillance, defined and regulated, is inscribed at the heart of the practice of teaching, not as an
additional or adjacent part, but as a mechanism that is inherent to it and which increases its
efficiency" (Foucault 1977:176). In Foucault's college classroom, students and teachers are the
watchful eye, surveilling each other and enacting power to keep the class productive. The professor
could tell students to keep phones off, students would tell other students to stop distracting them
with miscellaneous content seen through laptops, and my friend would nudge me awake when I fell
asleep in
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Hobbes on Institutional Sovereignty
A right, or power, institutional sovereignty is said to have addresses protest against the sovereign.
Hobbes makes extremely clear that actions of the instituted sovereign are wholly protected. This
particularly lucid in the following: Thirdly, because the major part hath by consenting voices
declared a sovereign, he that dissented mu8st now consent with the rest . . . or else be justly
destroyed by the rest. For if he voluntarily entered into the congregation of them that were
assembled, he sufficiently declared thereby his will . . . to stand there to what the major part should
ordain; and therefore, if he refuse to stand thereto, or make protestation . . . he does contrary to the
covenant, and therefore unjustly . . . he must submit ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
It is also important to note that Hobbes brings to light the solvency, or legality, of both types of
sovereignty, as both are rooted in fear. That is to say, it is held that " . . .all such covenants as
proceed from fear of death or violence [are] void," meaning neither sovereignty should maintain
legitimacy. However, Hobbes reconciles this by stating that it is after sovereignty is established that
fear of death or violence cannot oblige people to agree. (127) Furthermore, simple the presence of
fear cannot invalidate covenants, as commonwealths would be impossible to create. (127) Combined
with the fact that there exists choice in both institutional and acquisitioned sovereignty, there is
support for the legal groundings of both and they are consequently placed on equal footing for
asserting their relative claims of right. (128) With regard to the claims of right sovereignty through
acquisition has, it shares all of those demonstrated in institutional sovereignty. Hobbes lists these
rights that are reflected in sovereignty by acquisition:
But the rights and consequences of sovereignty are the same in both. His power cannot, without his
consent, be transferred to another; he cannot forfeit it; he cannot be accused by any of his subjects of
injury; he cannot be punished by them; he is judge of what is necessary for peace, and judge of
doctrines; he is sole legislator, and supreme judge of controversies, and of the
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Institutional Programs In Prisons
Describe the role of institutional programs in prison including the different types of programs that
are offered to inmates.
The role of institutional programs is to help manage time. While the focus is to manage time,
institutional programs also give inmates the opportunity to improve their lives. There are five
different types of programs that are offered to inmates. Rehabilitative programs, medical services,
industrial programs, maintenance programs, and recreational programs. The goal of the
rehabilitative programs is to reform the inmates behavior. Rehabilitative programs are divided into
different sections such as psychological, behavioral, social, educational and vocational, substance
abuse, sex offender, and religious programs. Rehabilitative ... Show more content on
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Under discretionary release, an inmate is released from prison but is under supervision by the parole
board. The parole board uses information about the inmate such as behavior and the inmates
participation in rehabilitative programs to determine the inmates future behavior. By doing so, this
gives the parole board to determine if the prisoner is ready for release. Mandatory release is another
way that inmates are released into the community. Under mandatory release, the inmate is released
after serving his or her total sentence. Mandatory release takes the place of the parole board to
decide if the inmate is ready to be released. Bookkeeping on the inmate is apart of mandatory
release to make sure that the prisoners time is accurate and that he or she has served the right
amount of time. After the inmate is released, he or she is released under parole supervision for the
rest of their sentence. Probation release is the most common release for inmates. Most inmates who
are on probation release are first time offenders and have to do a minimum sentence. Probation
release takes place when a judge allows the inmate to spend a certain period of his or her sentence in
the community under probation supervision. Probation release can include anything dealing with the
community such as cleaning up highways, removing graffiti, and other things that can be beneficial
to the community. Many prisons have become overcrowded which has
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Institutional Racism
Racism can be enacted individually or institutionally. Institutions can respond to Blacks and Whites
differently. Institutional behavior can injure Blacks, and when it does, it is racist in the outcome, if
not in intent (2008). Racism remains an ingrained part of the American experience for many ethnic
populations. Racism thrives even among many other organizations, obstructing the effectiveness of
the programs and services offered. One primary way to determine institutional racism is seeing how
many officers are minorities versus ones who are not. Another way to tell is seeing how many black
people are pulled over by white cops every day. Strength in realizing the institutional racism exists
is hard because the evidence is not as concrete.
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Institutional Critique Essay
When someone enters an art gallery, they believe they are going to view art, but under the guise of
Institutional Critique, this notion often false. Instead of being the traditional art of painting,
sculptures, and installations, viewers encounter, in the work of Hans Haacke, Daniel Buren, and
Michael Asher in the 1970s, not much to look at, but a lot to think about. In essence, Institutional
Critique is a protest against museums/galleries demanding them to view art and art exhibition in
new ways, exemplified by Conceptual art where words, video, readymades, and even ideas are art.
Institutional Critique manifested from the protests of the 1960s, one of which philosopher Michel
Foucault participated in Paris, 1968. Clearly, Institutional ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
In 1971, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum was to present a solo show of Haacke's work, which
was to include the controversial piece, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Board of Trustees (1974),
but the museum director cancelled the exhibition. This was partially due to Haacke's refusal to omit
the work from the show, but mostly because of the piece's subject matter. This piece consists of two
framed panels with lists of the museum's board of trustees, which would be acceptable to showcase
because this knowledge would be readily available, but Haacke added five more panels listing the
corporate sponsors of the museum along with each member's other affiliations with corporations.
This work exposed the inner mechanisms of the institution by revealing the trustees' questionable
affiliations and the financial backers of the museum. In addition, this piece exemplifies Institutional
Critique precisely because of its focus on the museum itself over the artwork. After all, this piece
cannot be sold at auction, which is an essential aspect of galleries and museums. The piece is, to an
extent, also site–specific in that the trust essence of the piece could only be felt if it was exhibited in
the institution it was criticizing, although Haacke never exhibited it at the Guggenheim. In fact, the
piece was not shown until Documenta X in 1997, but by that point, it had lost its critical value. Not
only was it not shown in the
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Institutional Ethnography
Bibliography
Prodinger B, Shaw L & Laliberte Rudman D. (2013). Institutional ethnography: Studying the
situated nature of occupation. Journal of Occupational Science, 22(1), 71–81.
This article explores the role of institutional ethnographers in their study of people's engagement in
their everyday occupations from the individual level to the social level. It suggests institutional
ethnography as a method that seeks to understand how occupations are coordinated to social
relationships. The article is important, because it portrays how occupations are set within social,
political, and historical contexts.
Holmes JD, Lutz S, Ravenek M, Laliberte–Rudman D & Johnson AM. (2013). Enhancing client–
centredness in Parkinson's disease care: Attending to the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
This article is important because it shows the importance of how client–centeredness can lead to
better awareness of a client's occupations and QOL's.
Laliberte Rudman D. (2015). Situating occupation in social relations of power: Occupational
possibilities, ageism and the retirement choice. South African Journal of Occupational Therapy,
45(1), 27–33.
This study looks at the relation between age and occupations, and what occupations are supported
sociopolitical conditions. In their findings, they concluded that ageism determines how and when
people retire, what their occupational possibilities were, and how the sociopolitical view supported
their occupational possibilities. This article is useful to our project because it focuses on Rudman's
main area of research, and it is one of the first articles that was written on the relation between
occupations and ageism.
Laliberte Rudman D. (2016). "Activated, but Stuck": Applying a Critical Occupational Lens to
Examine the Negotiation of Long–Term Unemployment in Contemporary Socio–Political Contexts.
Societies, Volume 6, Issue
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Different Approaches to Corporate Reporting Regulation
This article was downloaded by: [University of Nottingham–Ningbo] On: 12 January 2013, At:
20:16 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number:
1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37–41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Accounting and Business Research Publication details, including instructions for authors and
subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rabr20 Different approaches to corporate
reporting regulation: How jurisdictions differ and why Christian Leuz a a b c d J. Sondheimer
Professor of International Economics, Finance and Accounting, University of Chicago Booth School
of Business, 5807 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637–1610, USA E–mail: b c d ... Show
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Moreover, there has been a concerted effort to converge countries' reporting standards. But despite
this effort substantial differences in countries' reporting regulation and practices remain. This paper
explores these differences and the reasons why they exist as well as why they are likely to persist in
the foreseeable future. My analysis and comparison are conducted at a fairly high level to emphasise
that reporting regulation is a part of a country's broader institutional framework. Throughout the
paper, I give special emphasis to enforcement issues because of two related reasons. *The author is
the J. Sondheimer Professor of International Economics, Finance and Accounting at the University
of Chicago Booth School of Business, a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic
Research, Cambridge, MA, and at the European Corporate Governance Institute, Brussels, and a
Fellow of the Wharton Financial Institutions Center, Philadelphia, PA. This study was prepared for
the ICAEW 'Information for Better Markets' Conference in London in December 2009. The author
thanks Hans Christensen, Luzi Hail, Arnt Verriest, Ken Wild, and Peter Wysocki for useful
discussions and comments. He also thanks the Initiative on Global Markets at Chicago Booth for
research support as well as Denis Echtchenko for providing excellent research assistance, and is
grateful to an anonymous reviewer for constructive comments. Correspondence
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Pleasantville Racism Paper
Thomas Lovsey
Mrs. Barker
ENGL 1100
Nov. 12, 2015
Not as Simple as Black–and–White "Discrimination is behavior, intentional or not, which negatively
treats a person or a group of people based on their racial origins" (Randall). It is unclear what the
exact cause is for people to be prejudiced towards another group of individuals. Racism could
perhaps be triggered by having a fear of people who are different, needing to fit in with others who
are of a racist mindset, and/or being ignorant of other people's cultures. In the 1998 movie
Pleasantville, it is shown that racism and discrimination towards different people occurs because of
sudden changes to an established system and society. In reality, racism is a result of generations of ...
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The appearance of color in Pleasantville showed that the town and citizens were undergoing change,
and that this change was making the inhabitants feel free and similar to people from the '90s. When
objects and people around town quickly turned from black–and–white to color, many of the older,
more traditional citizens of the town resisted the change. Pleasantville mayor Big Bob speaks of the
changes, "up until now, everything around here has been, well, pleasant. Recently certain things
have become unpleasant. Now, it seems to me that the first thing we have to do is to separate out the
things that are pleasant from the things that are unpleasant" (Pleasantville). Big Bob and a large
group of citizens, mostly consisting of the older men of the town, form a group of people trying to
keep the town "pleasant," or not colored. This group begins putting up signs around town banning
colored people, similar to situations that African Americans dealt with before the civil rights
movement. They also harass all the colored people on the streets, and even vandalize and destroy
Bill Johnson's shop for having colorful art on the windows. Finally, the group has meetings featuring
all the influential non–colored people in town, and this new assembly draws similarities to Nazism
with their symbols and beliefs.
Pleasantville shows a
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Institutional Markets : Institutional Investors
Institutional investors are any organizations or persons which collect quite number sums of money
to invest in securities and also control a collection of share amounts to qualify for special treatment
and less regulation. They can also include operating companies that decide to invest their profits to
some degree in these types of assets. Insurance companies, mutual funds and pension funds are
some examples of institutional investors. These institutional investors need to face some regulations.
"Institutional investors always participate in private placements of securities due to their
sophistication, in which certain aspects of the securities laws may be inapplicable."
These institutional investors play role in the economy is to act as highly specialized investors on
behalf of others. For example, an employee will have a pension from his employer as the employer
gives that person 's pension contributions to a fund and the fund will be used to buy shares in a
company, or some other financial product. Funds are greatly useful because they will hold a broad
portfolio of investments in many companies. This spreads risk, so if one company fails, it will be
only a small part of the whole fund 's investment.
Types of Institutional Investors in United Kingdom.
In Britain, the largest single category of institutional investor is the pension funds, which was
gradually increasing from 3% of the market in 1957 to 31% in 1992 as they have largest corporate
pension plans with
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The Role Of Privilege In Health Care
Power, privilege, and health all mean three different things and are probably thought of as unrelated;
however, in the health care arena, these three words are significantly correlated. In the article,
"Levels of racism: A theoretic framework and a gardener's tale" by Phyllis Jones, she describes a
gardener planting red flowers and pink flowers. The gardener prefers the color red, so he plants the
red flowers in rich and fertile soil, while planting the pink flowers in rocky, old soil. When the red
flowers grow nice and beautiful, they appear more beautiful than the pink, thus causing them to
think they are better, if human. The pink flowers, if human, then feel ashamed and less worthy. The
moral of the article was to draw attention to the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Amongst Healthy People 2020's goal planning, they created social determinants, which are "...
conditions in the environments in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age
that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality–of–life outcomes and risks" (Social
Determinants of Health, 2017). Power, privilege, and health all play a role in these social
determinants. For example, one of the determinants is "Availability of community–based resources
in support of community living and opportunities for recreational and leisure–time activities"
(Social Determinants of Heath, 20175). If a community has more power, that increases their chance
for bringing in more money. If a community has more money, they can afford to have all these
community resources mentioned. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), everyone's health can benefit from physical activity (Physical Activity and Health, 2015). So
having the power and privileges helps communities with maintaining overall good health. However,
communities that do not have the power or privileges to afford these community–based resources
that promote activity are at a risk of not having the best health. In order to fix this problem, the
government would have to get in control and help the communities that are lacking the resources or
privileges
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Institutional Racism In America
You're trapped, in a room with no doors or windows, and the walls are closing in on you. Drowning
endlessly in raging waves of faceless racism and never–­
ending segregation. This is the everyday life
of 'racial minorities' in the United States of America. Suffering at the hands of government figures,
employment grillers, educational systems, law enforcement officers, and medical practices; this, is
Institutional Racism. I wanted to discover the extent of which Institutional Racism exists, how
Institutional Racism affects people of colour, and what the government is doing to prevent
Institutional Racism. This is what I found.
Institutional Racism exists in employment, education, medical services and justice systems. The
African–American population ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Discrimination of protected groups (ie. African–Americans) from businesses is prohibited, which
allows the prospect of equal rights in employment. The law reaches out to cover protected groups
while in 'public accommodations,' for example; private, meaning retail businesses, and public, such
as town squares. This is information from findlaw.com, informing the idea that no discriminatory
actions should be acted upon due to race, colour, religion or disability. Jay Michaelson of The Daily
Beast, apprises the 'Disparate Impact'. The 'Disparate Impact' allows a person to challenge actions
by organisations they believe are discriminatory towards race, colour, religion or sex. This extends
not only to employment but also housing. This is a powerful tool for fighting this type of
institutional racism that is often silent, systematic and insidious. 'No person in the United States
shall, on the ground of race, colour, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied
the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal
financial assistance.' Quoted from findlaw.com Title Vl of the Civil Rights Act, talks mainly about
equality in education. Most, nearly all, public and private schools and colleges abide under this law.
This means that any educational system receiving federal financial assistance must run their
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Institutional Violence Analysis
Chapter 4 informed me about Institutional Violence, what it means, and the types of institutional
violence and how this form of violence affects society. Institutional violence has many aspects such
as intimate partner violence, child abuse, educational, religious, corporate, media and environmental
violence. I found the section on family violence interesting and I also learned a lot of new facts and
disturbing details about dangerous consumer products that either cause major and widespread illness
or even death. I was able to learn more in depth about the characteristics of corporate violence and
who the founding father of corporate crime is, Edwin Sutherland, thanks to this man corporate
violence was brought to the forefront and acknowledged in the corporate world. Family violence
includes spousal intimate partner violence and child abuse and neglect. In reading about Intimate
partner violence I was not surprised to find that poverty plays a big role in violent tendencies in
relationships. Personally, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
I never heard about the contaminated spinach situation our text spoke about but I do remember the
Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter contamination a few years back that affected over 600
people in 47 states. I don't know if this situation was preventable or if it was an accident but as our
text states this is the fundamental issue in determining if these acts of negligence are considered
criminal was amazed to learn that the CDC estimates that 5,000 people die from contaminated food,
and that 76 million people are sickened by it every year, this is an outstanding number considering
all the preventative measures put into place, that is why I am leaning more on the side of
unsupervised recklessness at these plants that put out contaminated
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Institutional Constancy
For my final project I will be focusing on the group behaviors associated with working in a highly
regulated industry and its impact on corporate policies. I am currently employed by the
Westinghouse Electric Company. Westinghouse's main business is to construct, maintain and repair
nuclear power plants around the world. The nuclear industry is highly regulated by government
entities around the world. This regulation can often times impact the culture for companies and
project teams alike. To help aid in this discussion on group dynamics in the nuclear industry I will
provide examples of the impact on a global company. I will discuss the concept of institutional
constancy including the positive and negative impacts on the group and cultural ... Show more
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I think that the most significant impact can be found in the idea that an organization is looking to
maintain somewhat homogenous unit. Homogeneity lends itself to challenges when making
decisions, groupthink and potentially stalling innovation. When making decisions group diversity
and thought processes are important. Johnson and Johnson (2013) discuss this, "Overall, whether for
better or worse, the range of skills and abilities a group can access in its diverse members affects its
performance on creative and decision making tasks"(p. 421). In my opinion, institutional constancy
intentional works to eliminate the concept of diversity of groups, by creating specific procedures
and policies on how tasks are to be completed. This discussion of diversity is focused on the idea
diverse opinions and experience and not that of age or race. The lack of diversity in decision making
is ripe for increasing the potential for groupthink. "Groupthink is the collective striving for
unanimity that overrides group members' motivation to appraise alternative courses of action
realistically..." (p. 271). Groupthink lends itself for an error–prone decision making model. Finally,
institutional constancy has the ability to stall innovation and prohibit creativity. Johnson and
Johnson discuss several procedures to promote creativity. Those procedures
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Institutional Context Analysis
Institutional context is a basic structure that consists of federalism the party system the power of
presidency, and the checks and balances system that shapes the public policy. With a serious distrust
of government the presence of federal government and economics cultural and social has expanded
into modernization and Technology. Distrust and the government produces no noticeable or dramatic
improvements in the quality of life but it contributes a substantial resistance on new policies
initiatives in healthcare education and consumers protection. Institutional contexts reflects what is
done how is dying and who is involved in doing it. It embarks on initiatives that share a common
interest of a collaboration. Intergovernmental are links between ... Show more content on
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With the changes the aging population is questioned where to find young workers that can keep a
productive economy. Immigration changes the shape of America population and present challenges
to the state and federal policy because the Asian and Hispanic descent presents opportunities for
expansion in the economy and challenges for serving housing, Healthcare, job and schools.
Immigration accounts for half of the United States population growth which makes public policy in
a number of areas respond two changes in the racial mix of the population. Changes in marriage and
families also impact the policy because of the high divorce rates,high illegitimate births, and single
family homes. The ideological context as always ranged along a spectrum but liberalism and
conservatism have dominated policy–making an evaluation in America. According to the text
liberals and conservatives share commitments to abstract ideas such as freedom, democracy, the
market system and individualism, which they disagree over the principles that tend to be used in
making and evaluating the
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Institutional Racism Essay
Institutional racism are those accepted, established, evident, respected forces, social arrangements,
institutions, structures, policies, precedents an systems of social relations that operate are
manipulated in such a way as to allow, support individual acts of racism. It is also to deprive certain
racially identified categories within a society a chance to share, have equal access to, or have equal
opportunity to acquire those things, material and nonmaterial, that are defined as desirable and
necessary for rising in an hierarchical class society while that society is dependent, in part, upon that
group they deprive for their labor and loyalty. Institutional racism is more subtle, less visible, and
less identifiable but no less ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
The reason why there is a strong linkage between socioeconomic class and race in this country is
due to institutionalized racism and discrimination. 2
The Jim Crow Laws were a set of laws established by southern states to successfully to eliminate
African Americans from the American political and legal system––a de jure form of discrimination.
These southern states (consisting of Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia and Kentucky) ensured
white supremacy over African Americans by establishing laws that included no interracial
marriages, segregation in schools, healthcare, public facilities, housing, entertainment, prison, free
speech and libraries. In Mississippi, marriage of a white person with a "Negro" or "mulatto" or
person having one–eighth or more "Negro" blood was void. New Mexico said that books shouldn't
be shared by white and "Negro" children and that if "colored people" were to go to the library to
read then the librarian need to set up a confined space for them. A white child being in custody of a
black person was "unlawful" in South Carolina. 3
The southern white plantation owners were despots, greedy for power and obsessed with
maintaining that power. The Jim Crow Laws was social engineering of the African American race,
something Carl Marx would describe as alienation.
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Essay On Institutional Racism
Racial inequality is something I have firsthand experience of and although I have never experienced
institutional racism first hand, I know all too well the effects they have on a society. Institutional
racism is the act of discrimination in areas such as work, education, and housing. Institutional
racism is also apparent in the criminal justice system. Institutional racism largely effects the African
American and Hispanic demographics. I look at institutional racism as policies put in place to keep a
certain group at an extreme disadvantage in life. Whether it is education, career advancement,
scholarship opportunity, career opportunity, or simply living life worry free, minorities are at an
extreme disadvantage.
One form of institutional ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Educational inequality correlates with judicial racism. Public schools in communities where the
population is predominately made up of minorities receive a disadvantage to schools outside of
these communities. Not only are these schools given fewer funds, but they are also given fewer
books (the books they often do receive are in bad shape), lower quality of education, fewer
extracurricular activities as well as fewer supplies outside of books. Education is, for most, a
deciding factor in terms of relieving oneself from poverty. Those with less education tend to stay in
the trap that is poverty. Those who do receive a better education manage to relieve themselves of
poverty in the form of better career and job opportunities as well as better opportunities for higher
education. According to the Department of Education "...schools serving low–income students are
being shortchanged because school districts across the country are inequitably distributing their state
and local funds". .
The Department of Education also notes:
... more than 40 percent of schools that receive federal Title I money to serve disadvantaged students
spent less state and local money on teachers and other personnel than schools that don't receive Title
I money
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Institutional Gaze
Institutional Gaze and Disciplining Subjects
Society constantly redefines what beauty is in women, and yet women always feel compelled to
conform to society's definition of beauty. The insecurity of women today adhere to society's
definition of beauty. By conforming to society's definition beauty they are rewarded with
confidence. According to Bordo (1989), anorexia built bodies has become the norm for women
today. Most clothing stores accommodate to these body figures by selling majority small and
medium framed clothing. Tight and skinny bodies were defined as the next generation of beauty,
where priorly in the social symbolism of a small frame was associated with being poor. It was
known that those with a bulging stomach was a powerful ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
There are TV shows, articles and video clips showing individuals the transformations they
themselves underwent or their clients. Where these steps of teaching are constantly being repeated
over and over again, thus becoming a norm. These steps may include: particular work out moves,
drinking more water, sleep more and eat healthy foods. Athletic clothing stores also reinforce this
ideology by selling active wear and accessories to make achieving this lifestyle easier. Especially
brands like Lululemon where they where they did not sell athletic clothing catered towards plus size
individuals, where their largest size of clothing was a size 10. In Kayla's article, she reinforces the
idea of being strong while looking good as well. Beauty is defined by the media and in these terms,
a toned and slim body figure. She aims to help individuals achieve their perfect bikini body, where
she provides subjects with 'bikini body workout
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Institutional Cortination Is A Form Of Institutional...
Institutional discrimination is a form of racial discrimination that is involved in policies, practices,
and procedures that can negatively affect minorities' access to quality of goods, services, and
opportunities. This form of discrimination involves institutions that hold on to biases and prejudices
and use it to create policies and programs that will mostly benefit white people but will try not to
directly discriminate minorities. Institutions are meant to create and expand opportunities that are
designed to help people but they will find a way to make sure that those opportunities can mostly
help white people. An example of institutional discrimination is denying black families access to
proper food, shelter, and medical facilities. Institutional discrimination is also portrayed in medicine,
whereas white people would get preferential treatment while other minorities would get inferior and
unequal treatment.
"White Like Me" illustrated an example of institutional discrimination by discussing the Social
Security Act, more specifically job insurance. In the film, a Louisiana white man named Steve lost
his job. As soon as he lost his job, Steve goes to a state employment office to register for a new job.
In order for him to register, he cannot fall into the categories of workers that they do not insure, such
as agricultural workers and domestic service workers in private homes. Coincidentally, black people
mostly held those jobs and Congress were aware of that. In order
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Institutional Theory : The And Powell 's The Iron Cage...
Institutional theory asserts that organizations within an industry eventually look similar in structure
(DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Although, diversity is visible in the initial stages of organizational
fields, a push emerges for homogeneity once a field is well established (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983).
This notion is referred to as isomorphism, a process that causes organizations experiencing
analogous environmental circumstances to resemble each other (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Social
context plays an important role in the adaptation of these changes and practices in organizations
(D'Aunno, Vaughn, McElroy, 1999). DiMaggio & Powell (1983) confer the homogeneity of
organizations are due to bureaucratic systems to receive legitimacy and ... Show more content on
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Organizations rely heavily on their environments characterized by external norms, rules, and
standards that organizations must acclimate with in order to receive legitimacy and support
(DiMaggio & Powell, 1983; D'Aunno et al., 1999). These requirements, beliefs and norms of the
external environment are usually expressed in the form of a rational myth because of its reflection in
standards (licensures, accreditations), and myths because of not always being empirically distinct.
Organizational Mission, Purpose & Goals
The mission and goals of organizations are to uphold legitimacy and conform within the standards
of the field. These are accomplished through the institutional isomorphic changes – coercive,
mimetic, and normative processes. Coercive isomorphism is the political pressures and regulatory
oversight and control of the state; mimetic processes encourage imitation in times of uncertainty;
and normative pressures draw from the professionalization of the field (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983).
Organizational structure and design Organizations are structured to persevere in an environment of
similar organizations, that define institutional legitimacy (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Institutional
theory emphasizes valuing organizations for having structures and designs that are in "conformance"
with the environment. The framework is not solely shaped by resource dependencies and technical
aspects, but by institutional forces – rational myths,
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Institutional Racism
There are two different levels of racism found in contemporary health care; institutional and
interpersonal racism. Institutional racism encompasses policies and practices carried out by
government and other institutions that may limit the benefits received by Indigenous Australians
compared with non–Indigenous Australians. An example where institutional racism may play a
factor in clinical practice is a lack of culturally appropriate materials or treatment options for
Indigenous patients (Shah, A. 2007) Interpersonal racism is the discriminatory interactions between
individuals. This includes degrading comments or behaviours by a health care worker or
discriminatory behaviours of other individuals in the community (Larson, A., Gillies, M., Howard,
P. J., Coddin, J. 2007) Researchers have found compelling evidence connecting the impacts of
Indigenous discrimination to the root cause of extreme socio–economic and health disadvantages
(Larson, A., Gillies, M., Howard, P. J., Coddin, J. 2007). A study of the Indigenous population by
'Flinders University' reported that 97% of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islanders taking part in the
research, regularly experienced racism. These staggering results highlight that this is still an ongoing
contemporary issue that continues to be the root of many physical and mental health issues
commonly experienced by the community (Creative Spirits, 2017) Discrimination of any form
impacts many Indigenous people and can carry with it lifelong issues. Stress and self–diminishing
emotional reactions are major factors caused by discrimination and can have unfavourable impacts
on one's physical and mental health and wellbeing. One's animosity and humiliation can provoke a
range of biological responses in the body causing cardiovascular diseases, heightened blood
pressure and disrupted neurological processes that can affect immune functions in the body (Larson,
A., Gillies, M., Howard, P. J., Coffin, J. 2007) Chronic exposure to racism can also result in long–
term external issues including low levels of education, unemployment, housing issues, high rates of
incarceration as well as a physical sense of exclusion from the wider community (Hampton, R.,
Toombs, M. 2013, p. 31).
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Institutional Sexism In The Workplace
The U.S. is known to have many issues in its society including racism and sexism. There have been
laws that were made in attempt to stop discrimination against color but to this day, women still aren't
seen as equals to men. Institutional sexism is the discrimination of a certain gender at a workplace.
Sexism is portrayed in the differences between the number of men versus the number of females that
have management positions, get higher pay, have more opportunities for advancement and, are more
likely to get hired. This oppression against women can impact lives of many women emotionally,
mentally, and physically. Sexism also leads to sexual violence and domestic violence because the
idea that women and men are unequal causes women to be taken advantage of at home, at work, and
everywhere else. Institutional sexism is a topic that needs to be talked about more because the U.S.
needs have a law that doesn't allow sexual discrimination anywhere. Institutional sexism in the
workplace is an ongoing issue nationally and internationally that takes advantage of women and
their work that needs to stop.
There are many industries and working fields where women weren't trusted to be leaders when
compared to men. The healthcare field has been filled with women for a while yet most of the
leadership positions are mostly occupied with men. Men are more likely to have leadership positions
in both men and female dominated fields (Stamarski and Son Hing 2015). Women face this
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Essay On Institutional Experience
I went into my IPPE institutional experience with some anxiety, and skepticism because I did not
have any hospital experience prior. However, unlike my IPPE community experience I had some
confidence and lots of optimism having been in the professional division (pharmacy school) for a
little over two years.
The pharmacists I worked with are all some type of generalist because they work in a small
community hospital where all the pharmacist have to do everything from being in the pharmacy to
rounding on the floors with other healthcare professionals. After, the tour of the facility and
introduction to staffs on the first day, my preceptor had me helping her with dosing antibiotics. The
pharmacists at my experiential site including my preceptor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net
...
Prior to my APPEs, I believe I need to improve on my communication skills. I think I have made
considerable progress on improving this skill, but I believe I can do more to improve my
communication skills in order to have good interaction with patients.
I think my analytical and critical thinking skills will serve me well in a career as a clinical
pharmacist. During my recent institutional experience, these skills helped me excel. I was involved
with analyzing trigger, and anticoagulation reports. I was also involved in making treatment
recommendations, and answering drug information questions, all of which required analytical and
critical thinking skills.
I will continue to work on my communication skills by interacting more with patients, colleagues,
and my professors as a way of improving this skill. I will also try to go out of my comfort zone in
order to develop confidence and my ability to talk to people. In order to continue improving on this
skill, I have taken up leadership roles in student organizations, and college committees that require
me to speak to different audience both publicly and in private
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Essay On Institutional Incarceration
ncreased rates of incarceration came with growing rates of institutional violence and major
disturbances within U.S. correctional institutions have resulted in increased importance being placed
on the development of accurate and efficient correctional risk classification methods. "In the current
study, institutional infractions were tracked from correctional intake for 17,054 male and female
incarcerated offenders." In order to allow observation of problematic behaviors, institutional
infractions were put into categories based on an inmate's ability to be physically aggressive, verbally
aggressive or defiant, and nonviolent infractions. After analysis and examination of inmates, there
were several occurrences with dynamic situations that took place. Institutional violence and
misconduct was examined during these times, as well. Information was taken into consideration
during these investigations. The information consisted of individuals, age, gang ... Show more
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federal and state correctional institutions (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004). According to these
authors, rates of incarceration have steadily increased at an average rate of 3.4% per year since
1995, requiring most federal and state institutions to operate at or above capacity. The overage has
placed increased pressure on prison officials to efficiently classify newly incarcerated offenders.
(Caperton, Edens, & Johnson, 2004). Balancing efficiency, accuracy, and cost, inmate classification
procedures influence most aspects of an individual's incarceration, including housing decisions,
special services such as mental health services, rehabilitation strategies, institutional privileges,
management strategies, and security level (Clements, 1996; Loza
& Loza–Fanous, 2002; Proctor, 1994; Van Voorhis & Brown, 1996; Wang & Diamond,
1999). Inmate classification is extremely important in which every aspect of an institution operates.
From the inmates to
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Institutional Discrimination
So Many Wrongs Through the past couple hundred years, many minorities have faced detrimental
discrimination. Those who have been heavy targets are Black Americans. It is common to hear that
slavery is over, but those groups still face discrimination today. Why are these minorities paying the
price? Institutional discrimination is the cause to this madness. Those who have authority over the
average citizen extending their power rights and preforming non–relevant; like over policing the
black americans.This is common in everyday scenarios, the courtrooms, the school grounds, and the
streets. It starts when these groups are young. All through childhood studies have proven that "Black
children make up 18 percent of the pre–school population,
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Corporate Assignment Abdisamad Essay
Student ID :
CGSSO00015316
Student Name :
Abdisamad Abdullahi Abdulle
Course Code :
BMCF5103
Course Name :
Corporate finance
Program :
Master Of Business Administration MBA
Semester :
Five
Assignment :
Answers
Facilitator :
Ibraahim Moh'ud Hamud
Date due :
12 Nov, 2014
Submission Date :
12 Nov, 2014
1.0 QUESTIO N ONE
1.1
Introduction
3
1.2
Value maximization and other goals
3
1.3
Customer and employee safety
4
1.4
General goodness of society
4
1.5
Conclusion
5
2.0 QUESTION TWO
2.1
Introduction
6
2.2 Corporate ownership
6
2.3
Agency problem
8
2.4
Conclusion
8
3.0 QUESTION THREE
3.1
Introduction
9
3.2 The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Maximizing value does not mean that a firm has to be illegal and social outlaw.
1.4 GENERAL GOODNESS OF SOCIETY
According to Bratton and Wachter (2013) found that Shareholder value maximization is broadly
associated with social welfare maximization. Those who make the relationship tend to go on to state
that management agency costs are extreme and that increased shareholder power would reduce the
costs. Reduced agency costs by definition enhance shareholder value, which in turn is assumed to
imply social welfare enhancement.
Bratton and Wachter (2013) also found that the shareholder interest, as the outstanding right on
corporate wealth, is straight aligned with society's interest in maximizing corporate–and therefore
societal–wealth, and so the shareholder interest succeeds for political attentiveness. In current years,
the mission for political attentiveness has made the jump from theory to practice: a "shareholder
class" is said to have risen in our political economy as a side–shoot of the growth of stock
ownership among the middle class. Therefore, real–world shareholders again are seen to bear on
social welfare.
In a same concept, according to Dolenc, stubelj and Laporšek (2013) value maximization within a
company can result to social welfare maximization. Social welfare is created when a firm produces
outputs that are valued by its customers at more than is the value of inputs for their production. As
long as the firm is capable of selling its outputs at
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Institutional Review Boards Essay
Running Head: UNIT 5 ASSIGNMENT Unit 5 Assignment Template Candeece Lucas July 21, 2014
HN410 – Human Services & Delivery Kaplan University IRB is an abbreviation for the institutional
review board. Informed by the need to review human biomedical and behavioral research to the
mutual benefit of the researcher and the sample population oversight, responsibilities have to be
designated to an impartial body. In light of this, the IRB is also commonly referred to as the
independent ethics committee or the ethical review board. Indeed, biomedical and behavioral
research on humans is not a light discipline as some of the research tenets border on life and death.
It is thus important to evaluate whether the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Thus, two of the board members conduct the review for presentation to the full board at the earliest
opportunity (Grady, 2010). In the event that a researcher was to create a plan to evaluate a program
or intervention, the expedited review presents the best option for review by the board. This is
because the process is much swifter compared to the full review and given the fact that most of the
interventions have timelines, it comes in handy. This is among other benefits of the review. The full
review is the third category where the whole board is involved and intense interrogation of the
research is done, when the research has to meet all the laid out requirements.For research that
requires the utility of special populations like patients that have been diagnosed with certain
diseases, some ethical risks are present. They may include the endangering of the life of the patient
and adverse side effects of the treatment. In most cases, for this type of research, risk assessment in
terms of statistics come in handy where the possibilities are explained to the participant and well
recorded in liability forms (Millum & Menikoff, 2010). If a program has research projects and does
not follow the IRB review, the repercussions may include: bearing the burden of
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Essay On Institutional Inequality
Institutional Inequality
Social Institutions not only categorizes groups and individuals behavior's by social norms, but they
also make society stable. In some cases. for example people who are bullied can get together for a
common purpose, of being bullied, and agree to change the bully's behavior and make them feel
guilty, as well as create a behavior pattern change that bullying is portrayed bad. There are also
many inequalities, which are socially problematic and unsustainable, which is the result of social
institutional arrangements. In this paper, I will argue racism, as an institutional arrangement, which
produces inequality to many african american's, who are looked upon as minorities. Mass
incarceration and other structural forms ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
For example Mike Brown and Ferguson case. Mike brown, a black teenager, was shot and killed by
Darren Wilson, a white police officer, in Ferguson. There are many cases, in which a police officer
shot a person based on reasons, but because of the past inequality to the African Americans by
whites triggered the protest based on skin color. Furthermore, buying and selling houses functioned
structurally to disadvantage African Americans. Whenever a black family moved to another home,
the values of the surrounding homes decreased. This was another form of structural inequality
among the african community. This was unsustainable because there was never a sustained or a
stable price for homes in a surrounding area. In conclusion, racism causes inequality to many african
american's. Racism comes in different forms, both institutional forms and are caused by structural
forms. Nevertheless, it is unsustainable and sociologically problematic. Like Ryanne Pilgeram said,
"Race, class and gender are social constructs". (Edwards, Pilgeram Quiz Question 10) If we were to
mess with any of these, then the social constructs would be ruined, which in one way can be thought
of it as socially
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The Growth Of Emerging Markets
1. Introduction
The last decade has seen an increase in internationalisation from emerging market multinationals
(EMNCs), through outward foreign direct investment (OFDI). This internationalisation
phenomenon, has led to increase interest from researchers in the international business discipline
(Cavusgil, 1980; Hoskisson, Eden, Lau, & Wright, 2000; Jormanainen & Koveshnikov, 2012). In
2013, emerging economies invested $553 billion, representing 39% of global OFDI, compared with
only 12% at the beginning of the 2000 (UNCTAD, 2014). These trends are consistent across
different emerging market sub–regions, as organisations that are aggressively investing are doing so
not only from large emerging economies like China, India, Brazil, and Russia but also from a
number of new emerging economies in Asia, Latin America and Africa (Gammeltoft, Pradhan, &
Goldstein, 2010; Goldstein & Bonaglia, 2007). Emerging markets (EM) are seen generally as low
income, rapid growth countries using economic liberalisation as their primary engine of growth
(Hoskisson et al., 2000). The economic liberalisation or open policies adopted by these emerging
markets during the last two decades has led organisations from these economies to internationalize
or seek markets abroad. Emerging markets are known to be heterogeneous in their level of
development and environmental surroundings (Bianchi, 2014). Each manifests different starting
points or different stages of
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Institutional Markets : Institutional Investors
Institutional investors are any organizations or persons which collect quite number sums of money
to invest in securities and also control a collection of share amounts to qualify for special treatment
and less regulation. They can also include operating companies that decide to invest their profits to
some degree in these types of assets. Insurance companies, mutual funds and pension funds are
some examples of institutional investors. These institutional investors need to face some regulations.
"Institutional investors always participate in private placements of securities due to their
sophistication, in which certain aspects of the securities laws may be inapplicable."
These institutional investors play role in the economy is to act as highly specialized investors on
behalf of others. For example, an employee will have a pension from his employer as the employer
gives that person 's pension contributions to a fund and the fund will be used to buy shares in a
company, or some other financial product. Funds are greatly useful because they will hold a broad
portfolio of investments in many companies. This spreads risk, so if one company fails, it will be
only a small part of the whole fund 's investment.
Types of Institutional Investors in United Kingdom.
In Britain, pension funds have become the largest single category of institutional investor, gradually
increasing from 3% of the market in 1957 to 31% in 1992 as they have largest corporate pension
plans with supported
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Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI) And Mexico
INTRODUCTION From the Institutional Revolutionary party (PRI) to the National Action Party
(PAN) to the Party of Democratic Revolution (PRD), Mexico has had many political parties in the
past and present but many have questioned the fact that how has PRI manage to stay in power and
maintain its place as the dominant party in the past. In this short research paper I am going to be
talking about Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI) and Mexico. I want to discuss the history of
PRI and how it came about during and after the Mexican Revolution. I will also touch upon the
party's weaknesses and precursors that might have signaled its loss in the elections of 2000.
The former political parties today in Mexico are the National Action ... Show more content on
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PRD was created as a "National Democratic Front", a combined effort from a group of people that
divided from the PRI and several forces from the left, in the 1988 elections. The first candidate and
many would say founder, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas whom had lost the 1988 presidential election under
questioning conditions, which eventually helped the party unite itself. It has long controlled the
Federal District. When it comes to elections and the process the (PRD) has allied in the past with the
Labor Party or the Partido Del Trabajo (PT) a labor party formed in 1990
Our third and final major political party is the Partido Revolucionario Institutional or PRI. This
political party was undefeated in all levels of the government up until 1946 and was the dominating
party, under 3 different names (Partido Nacional Revolucionario or PNR 1929, Partido de la
Revolucion Mexicana or PRM 1938, and finally in 1946 Partido Revolucionario Institucional or
PRI), at the municipal, state, and national levels for most of the 20th century (71 years) (Padgett,
1966). PRI is currently the dominant party in the Chamber of Deputies and at the municipal and
state level, and took primacy in the 2012 senatorial elections as well. A part of the Socialist
International, it is now considered as a centrist party, with prominent members leaning from both the
left and right, and supports a policy of mixed economy and
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Quiz Results
Quiz Results – Basic Institutional Review Board (IRB) Regulations and Review Process You
correctly answered 3 of 5 and received 3 of 5 possible points. Scroll down to review the quiz
questions and the explanation of the answers. Question 1 Question : | A subject in a clinical research
trial experiences a serious, unanticipated adverse drug experience. How should the investigator
proceed, with respect to the IRB, after the discovery of the adverse event occurrence? | Your answer
: | Report the adverse drug experience in a timely manner, in keeping with the IRB's policies and
procedures, using the forms or the mechanism provided by the IRB. | Correct Answer : | Report the
adverse drug experience in a timely manner, in keeping with ... Show more content on
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| Your answer : | The study does not require informed consent or survey instruments. | Correct
Answer : | The study involves no more than minimal risk and meets one of the allowable categories
of expedited review specified in federal regulations | Comment : | The study involves no more than
minimal risk and meets one of the allowable categories of expedited review specified in federal
regulations. Expedited review procedures are appropriate only for protocols that present no greater
than "minimal risk" to subjects and involve only procedures included in federally specified
categories. Population considerations, such as healthy volunteers, are only relevant insofar as they
affect the assessment of risk. The IRB may not conduct an expedited review for the convenience of
either the IRB or a student researcher, if the protocol is otherwise not eligible. | Points Earned : | 0 |
Question 4 Question : | Amendments involving changes to IRB approved protocols do NOT need
prior IRB approval if: | Your answer : | The changes must be immediately implemented for the
health and well being of the subject. | Correct Answer : | The changes must be immediately
implemented for the health and well being of the subject. | Comment : | All amendments involving
changes to IRB approved protocols must be reviewed and approved in advance of implementation,
unless changes must be put in place immediately to respond to an unexpected risk or problem
arising during
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Why Is Institutional Racism so Important to Our...
Why is institutional racism so important to our understanding of racial inequalities in Britain today?
The Commission for Racial Equality has stated that institutional racism involves a process by which
a range of public and private bodies systemically discriminate against people of ethnic minorities.
Sivanandan, the director at the Institute of Race Relations defines institutional racism as "that
which, covertly or overtly, resides in the policies, procedures, operations and culture of public or
private institutions – reinforcing individual prejudices and being reinforced by them in turn."
It can be defined as established law, practices and customs which in practice systemically reflect and
produce racial inequalities within society. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
Therefore the latter form of institutional racism is found widespread in British public institutions.
Racial inequalities are rife in housing, education, health, politics and authorities.
The problem of defining the line between individual and institutionally racist behaviour is
encountered due to the fact that the working of the institution is encountered as actions performed
by individuals within it, therefore making it difficult to defer between the two. Macpherson
struggled in many respects in showing that racism he identifies is institutional as opposed to
individual.
Race based discrimination in housing, education, employment of financial organisations are all
forms of institutional racism and can be distinguished by bigotry or racial bias of individuals within
these institutions though the prevalence of systematic and pervasive polices which work to the
disadvantage of minority ethnic groups.
• Employment
It has been argued that the labour market position and employment status of minority ethnic groups
are significant to understanding the different experiences they face and the extent to which
institutional racism can severely affect their life chances.
Modood et al (1997) has noted that discrimination whether it being direct or indirect, individual or
institutional, still appears a powerful constraint on career prospect
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Effects Of Institutional Racism
Institutional racism has solidified its position into various aspects of American society. It has
installed itself into employment practices, all levels of education, healthcare, housing, politics and
the criminal justice system. Institutional racism has made some subtle changes to replace the
boldness of slavery and Jim Crow. However, in educational institutions the effects of racism and
discrimination are so delicate they typically go unnoticed by students of color. Individual racism
usually happens on the personal level where the prejudice is expressed either consciously or
unconsciously while there is some form of interpersonal encounter. When it comes to institutional
racism it is similar to the individual concepts, however policies and practices are associated with
with the belief of racial dominance of one group over another. It is a powerful system that use race
to determine power and privilege(Reynolds et al., 2010). Even after the desegregation of school,
educational institution are still separated. In Shelby County where I have lived since 1999 there are
schools for minorities, and there are schools for whites. The schools for minorities in the city of
Memphis have police officers walking the halls and there no books for learning. There are higher
numbers of Whites students enrolled in private, charter, and magnet schools in the more affluent
segments of the county. They will be exposed to the advantages of a proper education because of
their race and privilege
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Microaggressions Of Institutional Racism
Do you ever believe that you have been a victim to a microaggression and there was nothing ever
done about it? A victim of institutional racism that made you feel doleful and surly? Institutional
racism happens a lot, but not as much as microaggressions, but a lot of people wonder why they get
this type of vibe from white supremacist. These are the same people in the same country, with the
same daily schedule but somehow they judge people based on their skin color. Some reason you
aren't allowed to lead this country if you are any other skin than white. There's a lot of racism in
America, and a lot of people really wonder will the microaggressions, microinsults, the institutional
racism will ever stop. People look at our president Donald J. Trump with his campaign of "Make
America Great Again" does he mean the bad times for the African Americans? The bad times, for
the Asian Americans? Do white people in general categorize all cultures/ ethnicities other than white
as minorities? There are two articles that come together, to grow on this idea, to answer the
questions above and to explain in full detail. Both of these articles, compare on what and how plenty
of "minorities" feel in America. The speech essay "Analyzing Some Thoughts On Mercy" and the
argumentative essay "6 Reasons We Need to Dismantle the Model Minority Myth of Those 'Hard–
Working ' Asians" by Ross Gay and Rachel Kuo deal with the problem with racism shown by white
supremacy. Through these texts the
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The Trading Dynamics of Institutional Investors
The fraction of corporate equity owned by institutional investors has grown considerably in the past
several decades; institutional holding of shares in U.S. equities has increased from approximately
16% in 1965 to over 50% in 2010 (Federal Reserve Board, 2011). The fact that institutional
investors are managing such a sizable wealth invested in U.S. equity market has potential important
role in term of setting market prices. The growing impact of institutional investors on capital
markets has induced to increased research on the behavior of this group of investors both by
academics and policy makers, who tend to believe that institutional investor follow momentum
based strategies, and often are alleged to herdinglike behavior and following destabilizing trading
strategies.
Recent studies investigating the behavior of institutional investors document three main results.
First, institutional investors are momentum traders (buying past winners and selling past losers) and
are more likely to follow past prices (citet*{grinblatt1995momentum}). Second, Institutional
investors sometimes trade in the same direction over a period of time or engage in herding behavior
(citet{wermers1999mutual}). Finally, the contemporaneous association between changes in
quarterly institutional holding and quarterly stock returns is much stronger than the feedback trading
effect (citet{nofsinger1999herding,wermers1999mutual}).
The previous studies on the behavior of institutional investors
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Institutional Discrimination In Education
Unweaving Institutionalized Discrimination Kirk Sigler's Protesting racial bias, students trade
placards for pillows for NPR tells the story of the students at Occidental College, one of the most
diverse campuses in America, and how they're trying to reform administration. The students
occupied the administration building for a week, holding workshops on diversity to change the
culture of the school. At the beginning, they gave administration a list of demands to address the
systemic racial biases on campus, including students being profiled by security (Sigler, 2015). Along
with improving security, they asked for a black studies program, more faculty that were persons of
color, and a Vice President for diversity. In addition, they are not ... Show more content on
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It demonstrates younger generations fighting to end institutionalized discrimination instead of
pretending it does not exist. Despite the fact that the college was not willing to meet one–hundred
percent of the demands of the students, it still shows progress towards ending this discrimination.
Since there has been media coverage of the issue, it has the potential to inspire students at other
schools to do the same to ensure campuses are safe places for students regardless of their race. In
addition, with more classes about different races and cultures, campuses would have more educated
staff and students leading to an overall decrease in institutionalized discrimination. As Henslin says,
"With their focus on the broader picture, sociologists encourage us to examine institutional
discrimination, that is, to see how discrimination is woven into the fabric of society" (2014, p. 331).
Forward actions by student bodies can begin to unweave this discrimination from society, carrying
over into the work force and broader society with more educated students taking that knowledge
with
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The Role of the Institutional Review Board and the...
Several historical events played a vital role in what has evolved to how we conduct research today
and just as important, how the participants of such research are shielded and protected against the
consequences that may be experienced as a result of these studies. We live in a world that is
continuously changing and as we move forward, it is past experiences that influence how things are
done in the present, and what may become in the future. The Institutional Review Board (IRB)
exists to protect research subjects and ensure their rights are safeguarded and protected. This paper
will discuss the role of the IRB and the protection of human subjects, the dilemma of societal
advancements versus its cost on human subjects and the role of leadership in the IRB.
The Role of the IRB and the Protection of Human Subjects
The IRB's role is to protect human subjects and to hold researchers accountable for the way in which
information is collected and utilized for research (Sontag, 2012). Research must undergo a formal
review process, which for many researchers may appear to be onerous but necessary (Kennedy,
2005).
What some scholars argue is the fact that IRB approval is still required for research on adults who
are fully competent and willing to participate in the research. They suggest that it becomes
burdensome on the researchers. Furthermore, they argue that if exempted from the review process, it
may also free up time for the review board to be able to focus on research that
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Taking a Look at Institutional Repositories
Academic institutions such as the University and College tend to produce academic journal articles
and other scholarly works which in the early days published and kept in the library or disseminate to
other organization. As the production of this material keeps increasing the needs to have a large
storage to keep all the materials became a problem for the institution. This is because some of the
institution did not have a very large storage to cater the needs to keep the materials as the institution
not only keep materials publish from the institution only but also from another institution. As the
technologies revolve, more initiative has been taken to ensure that the scholarly works of an
institution can be disseminated to various part of the world in order to share the knowledge. During
the early days the information is published using printed method and the time taken to disseminate it
is far too long and the cost is also very high. Other than that, it is very hard to preserve printed
materials in a big number. As the institution is now using digital format in publishing their scholarly
works, the process of disseminating the knowledge become easier and faster. Now days the
digitization activity for materials seems to be increasing as people are now more concern about the
preservation of printed materials which lead to the needs of a repository to keep and manage those
materials.
Today's institutions are mostly now having their own institutional repository. What is an
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Approval Of The Institutional Review Board
Prior to the conduction of this study, the researcher sought the approval of the Institutional Review
Board with the Protection of Human Subjects in research. The researcher completed re–certification
with the Institutional Review Board training on May 29, 2014 (See Appendix C). The researcher
provided IRB with information such as research protocol, interview protocol, Demographic
Questionnaire, researcher's background information, consent form, and investigator's assurance.
Upon IRB approval, the research contacted the contacted the Superintendent of each school district
for their permission to conduct the study in their districts. Next the principals of the schools were
contacted for their permission to interview teachers in their building. At this point, the research was
able to contact the participants for an interview. The Principals, after permission was given for the
study, were asked to provide the participants e–mail addresses and phone numbers. In this
qualitative phenomenological research, the researcher went to the building that the participants'
schools were located for participants' convenience. The researcher followed a protocol of first
conducting individual interviews with each of the ten participants. A semi–structured, conversational
style of individual interviewing was adopted in order to explore the respondents' stories which made
interviewing multiple subjects more methodical (See Appendix A for Interview Protocol). According
to Meehan, 20014),
... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...

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Institutional Control

  • 1. Institutional Control In explaining institutional control over individuals through social theory, Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault present distinctive arguments with the theory of everyday practice and theory of power, respectively. The college classroom setting can be used as an example to apply each theory to the theme of institutional control. Habermas takes from phenomenology his theory of everyday practice which is the practice by which people recreate a common understanding through daily human interactions. This is similar to Erving Goffman's idea of reconstructing reality through performances. Habermas distinguishes this as a mutual reconstruction of social interaction that is rooted in the lifeworld. Habermas is concerned about the systems, of which ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Here, it is mainly discipline. Foucault sees many similarities to how the prison system, the hospital system is run and how education is taught. Power is an invisible but intrinsic force that takes the form of discipline in these systems as well as the education system. Foucault uses the example of a parish school to exemplify how discipline is intrinsically a part of education. In the parish school, students were not only scholars learning side by side but also officers (intendants, observers, monitors, etc...) who supervised each other and marked down bad practice so that "a relation of surveillance, defined and regulated, is inscribed at the heart of the practice of teaching, not as an additional or adjacent part, but as a mechanism that is inherent to it and which increases its efficiency" (Foucault 1977:176). In Foucault's college classroom, students and teachers are the watchful eye, surveilling each other and enacting power to keep the class productive. The professor could tell students to keep phones off, students would tell other students to stop distracting them with miscellaneous content seen through laptops, and my friend would nudge me awake when I fell asleep in ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 2.
  • 3. Hobbes on Institutional Sovereignty A right, or power, institutional sovereignty is said to have addresses protest against the sovereign. Hobbes makes extremely clear that actions of the instituted sovereign are wholly protected. This particularly lucid in the following: Thirdly, because the major part hath by consenting voices declared a sovereign, he that dissented mu8st now consent with the rest . . . or else be justly destroyed by the rest. For if he voluntarily entered into the congregation of them that were assembled, he sufficiently declared thereby his will . . . to stand there to what the major part should ordain; and therefore, if he refuse to stand thereto, or make protestation . . . he does contrary to the covenant, and therefore unjustly . . . he must submit ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It is also important to note that Hobbes brings to light the solvency, or legality, of both types of sovereignty, as both are rooted in fear. That is to say, it is held that " . . .all such covenants as proceed from fear of death or violence [are] void," meaning neither sovereignty should maintain legitimacy. However, Hobbes reconciles this by stating that it is after sovereignty is established that fear of death or violence cannot oblige people to agree. (127) Furthermore, simple the presence of fear cannot invalidate covenants, as commonwealths would be impossible to create. (127) Combined with the fact that there exists choice in both institutional and acquisitioned sovereignty, there is support for the legal groundings of both and they are consequently placed on equal footing for asserting their relative claims of right. (128) With regard to the claims of right sovereignty through acquisition has, it shares all of those demonstrated in institutional sovereignty. Hobbes lists these rights that are reflected in sovereignty by acquisition: But the rights and consequences of sovereignty are the same in both. His power cannot, without his consent, be transferred to another; he cannot forfeit it; he cannot be accused by any of his subjects of injury; he cannot be punished by them; he is judge of what is necessary for peace, and judge of doctrines; he is sole legislator, and supreme judge of controversies, and of the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 4.
  • 5. Institutional Programs In Prisons Describe the role of institutional programs in prison including the different types of programs that are offered to inmates. The role of institutional programs is to help manage time. While the focus is to manage time, institutional programs also give inmates the opportunity to improve their lives. There are five different types of programs that are offered to inmates. Rehabilitative programs, medical services, industrial programs, maintenance programs, and recreational programs. The goal of the rehabilitative programs is to reform the inmates behavior. Rehabilitative programs are divided into different sections such as psychological, behavioral, social, educational and vocational, substance abuse, sex offender, and religious programs. Rehabilitative ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Under discretionary release, an inmate is released from prison but is under supervision by the parole board. The parole board uses information about the inmate such as behavior and the inmates participation in rehabilitative programs to determine the inmates future behavior. By doing so, this gives the parole board to determine if the prisoner is ready for release. Mandatory release is another way that inmates are released into the community. Under mandatory release, the inmate is released after serving his or her total sentence. Mandatory release takes the place of the parole board to decide if the inmate is ready to be released. Bookkeeping on the inmate is apart of mandatory release to make sure that the prisoners time is accurate and that he or she has served the right amount of time. After the inmate is released, he or she is released under parole supervision for the rest of their sentence. Probation release is the most common release for inmates. Most inmates who are on probation release are first time offenders and have to do a minimum sentence. Probation release takes place when a judge allows the inmate to spend a certain period of his or her sentence in the community under probation supervision. Probation release can include anything dealing with the community such as cleaning up highways, removing graffiti, and other things that can be beneficial to the community. Many prisons have become overcrowded which has ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 6.
  • 7. Institutional Racism Racism can be enacted individually or institutionally. Institutions can respond to Blacks and Whites differently. Institutional behavior can injure Blacks, and when it does, it is racist in the outcome, if not in intent (2008). Racism remains an ingrained part of the American experience for many ethnic populations. Racism thrives even among many other organizations, obstructing the effectiveness of the programs and services offered. One primary way to determine institutional racism is seeing how many officers are minorities versus ones who are not. Another way to tell is seeing how many black people are pulled over by white cops every day. Strength in realizing the institutional racism exists is hard because the evidence is not as concrete. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 8.
  • 9. Institutional Critique Essay When someone enters an art gallery, they believe they are going to view art, but under the guise of Institutional Critique, this notion often false. Instead of being the traditional art of painting, sculptures, and installations, viewers encounter, in the work of Hans Haacke, Daniel Buren, and Michael Asher in the 1970s, not much to look at, but a lot to think about. In essence, Institutional Critique is a protest against museums/galleries demanding them to view art and art exhibition in new ways, exemplified by Conceptual art where words, video, readymades, and even ideas are art. Institutional Critique manifested from the protests of the 1960s, one of which philosopher Michel Foucault participated in Paris, 1968. Clearly, Institutional ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In 1971, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum was to present a solo show of Haacke's work, which was to include the controversial piece, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Board of Trustees (1974), but the museum director cancelled the exhibition. This was partially due to Haacke's refusal to omit the work from the show, but mostly because of the piece's subject matter. This piece consists of two framed panels with lists of the museum's board of trustees, which would be acceptable to showcase because this knowledge would be readily available, but Haacke added five more panels listing the corporate sponsors of the museum along with each member's other affiliations with corporations. This work exposed the inner mechanisms of the institution by revealing the trustees' questionable affiliations and the financial backers of the museum. In addition, this piece exemplifies Institutional Critique precisely because of its focus on the museum itself over the artwork. After all, this piece cannot be sold at auction, which is an essential aspect of galleries and museums. The piece is, to an extent, also site–specific in that the trust essence of the piece could only be felt if it was exhibited in the institution it was criticizing, although Haacke never exhibited it at the Guggenheim. In fact, the piece was not shown until Documenta X in 1997, but by that point, it had lost its critical value. Not only was it not shown in the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 10.
  • 11. Institutional Ethnography Bibliography Prodinger B, Shaw L & Laliberte Rudman D. (2013). Institutional ethnography: Studying the situated nature of occupation. Journal of Occupational Science, 22(1), 71–81. This article explores the role of institutional ethnographers in their study of people's engagement in their everyday occupations from the individual level to the social level. It suggests institutional ethnography as a method that seeks to understand how occupations are coordinated to social relationships. The article is important, because it portrays how occupations are set within social, political, and historical contexts. Holmes JD, Lutz S, Ravenek M, Laliberte–Rudman D & Johnson AM. (2013). Enhancing client– centredness in Parkinson's disease care: Attending to the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This article is important because it shows the importance of how client–centeredness can lead to better awareness of a client's occupations and QOL's. Laliberte Rudman D. (2015). Situating occupation in social relations of power: Occupational possibilities, ageism and the retirement choice. South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 45(1), 27–33. This study looks at the relation between age and occupations, and what occupations are supported sociopolitical conditions. In their findings, they concluded that ageism determines how and when people retire, what their occupational possibilities were, and how the sociopolitical view supported their occupational possibilities. This article is useful to our project because it focuses on Rudman's main area of research, and it is one of the first articles that was written on the relation between occupations and ageism. Laliberte Rudman D. (2016). "Activated, but Stuck": Applying a Critical Occupational Lens to Examine the Negotiation of Long–Term Unemployment in Contemporary Socio–Political Contexts. Societies, Volume 6, Issue ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 12.
  • 13. Different Approaches to Corporate Reporting Regulation This article was downloaded by: [University of Nottingham–Ningbo] On: 12 January 2013, At: 20:16 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37–41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK Accounting and Business Research Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/rabr20 Different approaches to corporate reporting regulation: How jurisdictions differ and why Christian Leuz a a b c d J. Sondheimer Professor of International Economics, Finance and Accounting, University of Chicago Booth School of Business, 5807 South Woodlawn Avenue, Chicago, IL, 60637–1610, USA E–mail: b c d ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Moreover, there has been a concerted effort to converge countries' reporting standards. But despite this effort substantial differences in countries' reporting regulation and practices remain. This paper explores these differences and the reasons why they exist as well as why they are likely to persist in the foreseeable future. My analysis and comparison are conducted at a fairly high level to emphasise that reporting regulation is a part of a country's broader institutional framework. Throughout the paper, I give special emphasis to enforcement issues because of two related reasons. *The author is the J. Sondheimer Professor of International Economics, Finance and Accounting at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business, a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, MA, and at the European Corporate Governance Institute, Brussels, and a Fellow of the Wharton Financial Institutions Center, Philadelphia, PA. This study was prepared for the ICAEW 'Information for Better Markets' Conference in London in December 2009. The author thanks Hans Christensen, Luzi Hail, Arnt Verriest, Ken Wild, and Peter Wysocki for useful discussions and comments. He also thanks the Initiative on Global Markets at Chicago Booth for research support as well as Denis Echtchenko for providing excellent research assistance, and is grateful to an anonymous reviewer for constructive comments. Correspondence ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 14.
  • 15. Pleasantville Racism Paper Thomas Lovsey Mrs. Barker ENGL 1100 Nov. 12, 2015 Not as Simple as Black–and–White "Discrimination is behavior, intentional or not, which negatively treats a person or a group of people based on their racial origins" (Randall). It is unclear what the exact cause is for people to be prejudiced towards another group of individuals. Racism could perhaps be triggered by having a fear of people who are different, needing to fit in with others who are of a racist mindset, and/or being ignorant of other people's cultures. In the 1998 movie Pleasantville, it is shown that racism and discrimination towards different people occurs because of sudden changes to an established system and society. In reality, racism is a result of generations of ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The appearance of color in Pleasantville showed that the town and citizens were undergoing change, and that this change was making the inhabitants feel free and similar to people from the '90s. When objects and people around town quickly turned from black–and–white to color, many of the older, more traditional citizens of the town resisted the change. Pleasantville mayor Big Bob speaks of the changes, "up until now, everything around here has been, well, pleasant. Recently certain things have become unpleasant. Now, it seems to me that the first thing we have to do is to separate out the things that are pleasant from the things that are unpleasant" (Pleasantville). Big Bob and a large group of citizens, mostly consisting of the older men of the town, form a group of people trying to keep the town "pleasant," or not colored. This group begins putting up signs around town banning colored people, similar to situations that African Americans dealt with before the civil rights movement. They also harass all the colored people on the streets, and even vandalize and destroy Bill Johnson's shop for having colorful art on the windows. Finally, the group has meetings featuring all the influential non–colored people in town, and this new assembly draws similarities to Nazism with their symbols and beliefs. Pleasantville shows a ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 16.
  • 17. Institutional Markets : Institutional Investors Institutional investors are any organizations or persons which collect quite number sums of money to invest in securities and also control a collection of share amounts to qualify for special treatment and less regulation. They can also include operating companies that decide to invest their profits to some degree in these types of assets. Insurance companies, mutual funds and pension funds are some examples of institutional investors. These institutional investors need to face some regulations. "Institutional investors always participate in private placements of securities due to their sophistication, in which certain aspects of the securities laws may be inapplicable." These institutional investors play role in the economy is to act as highly specialized investors on behalf of others. For example, an employee will have a pension from his employer as the employer gives that person 's pension contributions to a fund and the fund will be used to buy shares in a company, or some other financial product. Funds are greatly useful because they will hold a broad portfolio of investments in many companies. This spreads risk, so if one company fails, it will be only a small part of the whole fund 's investment. Types of Institutional Investors in United Kingdom. In Britain, the largest single category of institutional investor is the pension funds, which was gradually increasing from 3% of the market in 1957 to 31% in 1992 as they have largest corporate pension plans with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 18.
  • 19. The Role Of Privilege In Health Care Power, privilege, and health all mean three different things and are probably thought of as unrelated; however, in the health care arena, these three words are significantly correlated. In the article, "Levels of racism: A theoretic framework and a gardener's tale" by Phyllis Jones, she describes a gardener planting red flowers and pink flowers. The gardener prefers the color red, so he plants the red flowers in rich and fertile soil, while planting the pink flowers in rocky, old soil. When the red flowers grow nice and beautiful, they appear more beautiful than the pink, thus causing them to think they are better, if human. The pink flowers, if human, then feel ashamed and less worthy. The moral of the article was to draw attention to the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Amongst Healthy People 2020's goal planning, they created social determinants, which are "... conditions in the environments in which people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality–of–life outcomes and risks" (Social Determinants of Health, 2017). Power, privilege, and health all play a role in these social determinants. For example, one of the determinants is "Availability of community–based resources in support of community living and opportunities for recreational and leisure–time activities" (Social Determinants of Heath, 20175). If a community has more power, that increases their chance for bringing in more money. If a community has more money, they can afford to have all these community resources mentioned. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), everyone's health can benefit from physical activity (Physical Activity and Health, 2015). So having the power and privileges helps communities with maintaining overall good health. However, communities that do not have the power or privileges to afford these community–based resources that promote activity are at a risk of not having the best health. In order to fix this problem, the government would have to get in control and help the communities that are lacking the resources or privileges ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 20.
  • 21. Institutional Racism In America You're trapped, in a room with no doors or windows, and the walls are closing in on you. Drowning endlessly in raging waves of faceless racism and never–­ ending segregation. This is the everyday life of 'racial minorities' in the United States of America. Suffering at the hands of government figures, employment grillers, educational systems, law enforcement officers, and medical practices; this, is Institutional Racism. I wanted to discover the extent of which Institutional Racism exists, how Institutional Racism affects people of colour, and what the government is doing to prevent Institutional Racism. This is what I found. Institutional Racism exists in employment, education, medical services and justice systems. The African–American population ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Discrimination of protected groups (ie. African–Americans) from businesses is prohibited, which allows the prospect of equal rights in employment. The law reaches out to cover protected groups while in 'public accommodations,' for example; private, meaning retail businesses, and public, such as town squares. This is information from findlaw.com, informing the idea that no discriminatory actions should be acted upon due to race, colour, religion or disability. Jay Michaelson of The Daily Beast, apprises the 'Disparate Impact'. The 'Disparate Impact' allows a person to challenge actions by organisations they believe are discriminatory towards race, colour, religion or sex. This extends not only to employment but also housing. This is a powerful tool for fighting this type of institutional racism that is often silent, systematic and insidious. 'No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, colour, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.' Quoted from findlaw.com Title Vl of the Civil Rights Act, talks mainly about equality in education. Most, nearly all, public and private schools and colleges abide under this law. This means that any educational system receiving federal financial assistance must run their ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 22.
  • 23. Institutional Violence Analysis Chapter 4 informed me about Institutional Violence, what it means, and the types of institutional violence and how this form of violence affects society. Institutional violence has many aspects such as intimate partner violence, child abuse, educational, religious, corporate, media and environmental violence. I found the section on family violence interesting and I also learned a lot of new facts and disturbing details about dangerous consumer products that either cause major and widespread illness or even death. I was able to learn more in depth about the characteristics of corporate violence and who the founding father of corporate crime is, Edwin Sutherland, thanks to this man corporate violence was brought to the forefront and acknowledged in the corporate world. Family violence includes spousal intimate partner violence and child abuse and neglect. In reading about Intimate partner violence I was not surprised to find that poverty plays a big role in violent tendencies in relationships. Personally, ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I never heard about the contaminated spinach situation our text spoke about but I do remember the Peter Pan and Great Value peanut butter contamination a few years back that affected over 600 people in 47 states. I don't know if this situation was preventable or if it was an accident but as our text states this is the fundamental issue in determining if these acts of negligence are considered criminal was amazed to learn that the CDC estimates that 5,000 people die from contaminated food, and that 76 million people are sickened by it every year, this is an outstanding number considering all the preventative measures put into place, that is why I am leaning more on the side of unsupervised recklessness at these plants that put out contaminated ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 24.
  • 25. Institutional Constancy For my final project I will be focusing on the group behaviors associated with working in a highly regulated industry and its impact on corporate policies. I am currently employed by the Westinghouse Electric Company. Westinghouse's main business is to construct, maintain and repair nuclear power plants around the world. The nuclear industry is highly regulated by government entities around the world. This regulation can often times impact the culture for companies and project teams alike. To help aid in this discussion on group dynamics in the nuclear industry I will provide examples of the impact on a global company. I will discuss the concept of institutional constancy including the positive and negative impacts on the group and cultural ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... I think that the most significant impact can be found in the idea that an organization is looking to maintain somewhat homogenous unit. Homogeneity lends itself to challenges when making decisions, groupthink and potentially stalling innovation. When making decisions group diversity and thought processes are important. Johnson and Johnson (2013) discuss this, "Overall, whether for better or worse, the range of skills and abilities a group can access in its diverse members affects its performance on creative and decision making tasks"(p. 421). In my opinion, institutional constancy intentional works to eliminate the concept of diversity of groups, by creating specific procedures and policies on how tasks are to be completed. This discussion of diversity is focused on the idea diverse opinions and experience and not that of age or race. The lack of diversity in decision making is ripe for increasing the potential for groupthink. "Groupthink is the collective striving for unanimity that overrides group members' motivation to appraise alternative courses of action realistically..." (p. 271). Groupthink lends itself for an error–prone decision making model. Finally, institutional constancy has the ability to stall innovation and prohibit creativity. Johnson and Johnson discuss several procedures to promote creativity. Those procedures ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 26.
  • 27. Institutional Context Analysis Institutional context is a basic structure that consists of federalism the party system the power of presidency, and the checks and balances system that shapes the public policy. With a serious distrust of government the presence of federal government and economics cultural and social has expanded into modernization and Technology. Distrust and the government produces no noticeable or dramatic improvements in the quality of life but it contributes a substantial resistance on new policies initiatives in healthcare education and consumers protection. Institutional contexts reflects what is done how is dying and who is involved in doing it. It embarks on initiatives that share a common interest of a collaboration. Intergovernmental are links between ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... With the changes the aging population is questioned where to find young workers that can keep a productive economy. Immigration changes the shape of America population and present challenges to the state and federal policy because the Asian and Hispanic descent presents opportunities for expansion in the economy and challenges for serving housing, Healthcare, job and schools. Immigration accounts for half of the United States population growth which makes public policy in a number of areas respond two changes in the racial mix of the population. Changes in marriage and families also impact the policy because of the high divorce rates,high illegitimate births, and single family homes. The ideological context as always ranged along a spectrum but liberalism and conservatism have dominated policy–making an evaluation in America. According to the text liberals and conservatives share commitments to abstract ideas such as freedom, democracy, the market system and individualism, which they disagree over the principles that tend to be used in making and evaluating the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 28.
  • 29. Institutional Racism Essay Institutional racism are those accepted, established, evident, respected forces, social arrangements, institutions, structures, policies, precedents an systems of social relations that operate are manipulated in such a way as to allow, support individual acts of racism. It is also to deprive certain racially identified categories within a society a chance to share, have equal access to, or have equal opportunity to acquire those things, material and nonmaterial, that are defined as desirable and necessary for rising in an hierarchical class society while that society is dependent, in part, upon that group they deprive for their labor and loyalty. Institutional racism is more subtle, less visible, and less identifiable but no less ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The reason why there is a strong linkage between socioeconomic class and race in this country is due to institutionalized racism and discrimination. 2 The Jim Crow Laws were a set of laws established by southern states to successfully to eliminate African Americans from the American political and legal system––a de jure form of discrimination. These southern states (consisting of Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia and Kentucky) ensured white supremacy over African Americans by establishing laws that included no interracial marriages, segregation in schools, healthcare, public facilities, housing, entertainment, prison, free speech and libraries. In Mississippi, marriage of a white person with a "Negro" or "mulatto" or person having one–eighth or more "Negro" blood was void. New Mexico said that books shouldn't be shared by white and "Negro" children and that if "colored people" were to go to the library to read then the librarian need to set up a confined space for them. A white child being in custody of a black person was "unlawful" in South Carolina. 3 The southern white plantation owners were despots, greedy for power and obsessed with maintaining that power. The Jim Crow Laws was social engineering of the African American race, something Carl Marx would describe as alienation. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30.
  • 31. Essay On Institutional Racism Racial inequality is something I have firsthand experience of and although I have never experienced institutional racism first hand, I know all too well the effects they have on a society. Institutional racism is the act of discrimination in areas such as work, education, and housing. Institutional racism is also apparent in the criminal justice system. Institutional racism largely effects the African American and Hispanic demographics. I look at institutional racism as policies put in place to keep a certain group at an extreme disadvantage in life. Whether it is education, career advancement, scholarship opportunity, career opportunity, or simply living life worry free, minorities are at an extreme disadvantage. One form of institutional ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Educational inequality correlates with judicial racism. Public schools in communities where the population is predominately made up of minorities receive a disadvantage to schools outside of these communities. Not only are these schools given fewer funds, but they are also given fewer books (the books they often do receive are in bad shape), lower quality of education, fewer extracurricular activities as well as fewer supplies outside of books. Education is, for most, a deciding factor in terms of relieving oneself from poverty. Those with less education tend to stay in the trap that is poverty. Those who do receive a better education manage to relieve themselves of poverty in the form of better career and job opportunities as well as better opportunities for higher education. According to the Department of Education "...schools serving low–income students are being shortchanged because school districts across the country are inequitably distributing their state and local funds". . The Department of Education also notes: ... more than 40 percent of schools that receive federal Title I money to serve disadvantaged students spent less state and local money on teachers and other personnel than schools that don't receive Title I money ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 32.
  • 33. Institutional Gaze Institutional Gaze and Disciplining Subjects Society constantly redefines what beauty is in women, and yet women always feel compelled to conform to society's definition of beauty. The insecurity of women today adhere to society's definition of beauty. By conforming to society's definition beauty they are rewarded with confidence. According to Bordo (1989), anorexia built bodies has become the norm for women today. Most clothing stores accommodate to these body figures by selling majority small and medium framed clothing. Tight and skinny bodies were defined as the next generation of beauty, where priorly in the social symbolism of a small frame was associated with being poor. It was known that those with a bulging stomach was a powerful ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... There are TV shows, articles and video clips showing individuals the transformations they themselves underwent or their clients. Where these steps of teaching are constantly being repeated over and over again, thus becoming a norm. These steps may include: particular work out moves, drinking more water, sleep more and eat healthy foods. Athletic clothing stores also reinforce this ideology by selling active wear and accessories to make achieving this lifestyle easier. Especially brands like Lululemon where they where they did not sell athletic clothing catered towards plus size individuals, where their largest size of clothing was a size 10. In Kayla's article, she reinforces the idea of being strong while looking good as well. Beauty is defined by the media and in these terms, a toned and slim body figure. She aims to help individuals achieve their perfect bikini body, where she provides subjects with 'bikini body workout ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34.
  • 35. Institutional Cortination Is A Form Of Institutional... Institutional discrimination is a form of racial discrimination that is involved in policies, practices, and procedures that can negatively affect minorities' access to quality of goods, services, and opportunities. This form of discrimination involves institutions that hold on to biases and prejudices and use it to create policies and programs that will mostly benefit white people but will try not to directly discriminate minorities. Institutions are meant to create and expand opportunities that are designed to help people but they will find a way to make sure that those opportunities can mostly help white people. An example of institutional discrimination is denying black families access to proper food, shelter, and medical facilities. Institutional discrimination is also portrayed in medicine, whereas white people would get preferential treatment while other minorities would get inferior and unequal treatment. "White Like Me" illustrated an example of institutional discrimination by discussing the Social Security Act, more specifically job insurance. In the film, a Louisiana white man named Steve lost his job. As soon as he lost his job, Steve goes to a state employment office to register for a new job. In order for him to register, he cannot fall into the categories of workers that they do not insure, such as agricultural workers and domestic service workers in private homes. Coincidentally, black people mostly held those jobs and Congress were aware of that. In order ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 36.
  • 37. Institutional Theory : The And Powell 's The Iron Cage... Institutional theory asserts that organizations within an industry eventually look similar in structure (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Although, diversity is visible in the initial stages of organizational fields, a push emerges for homogeneity once a field is well established (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). This notion is referred to as isomorphism, a process that causes organizations experiencing analogous environmental circumstances to resemble each other (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Social context plays an important role in the adaptation of these changes and practices in organizations (D'Aunno, Vaughn, McElroy, 1999). DiMaggio & Powell (1983) confer the homogeneity of organizations are due to bureaucratic systems to receive legitimacy and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Organizations rely heavily on their environments characterized by external norms, rules, and standards that organizations must acclimate with in order to receive legitimacy and support (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983; D'Aunno et al., 1999). These requirements, beliefs and norms of the external environment are usually expressed in the form of a rational myth because of its reflection in standards (licensures, accreditations), and myths because of not always being empirically distinct. Organizational Mission, Purpose & Goals The mission and goals of organizations are to uphold legitimacy and conform within the standards of the field. These are accomplished through the institutional isomorphic changes – coercive, mimetic, and normative processes. Coercive isomorphism is the political pressures and regulatory oversight and control of the state; mimetic processes encourage imitation in times of uncertainty; and normative pressures draw from the professionalization of the field (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Organizational structure and design Organizations are structured to persevere in an environment of similar organizations, that define institutional legitimacy (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983). Institutional theory emphasizes valuing organizations for having structures and designs that are in "conformance" with the environment. The framework is not solely shaped by resource dependencies and technical aspects, but by institutional forces – rational myths, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 38.
  • 39. Institutional Racism There are two different levels of racism found in contemporary health care; institutional and interpersonal racism. Institutional racism encompasses policies and practices carried out by government and other institutions that may limit the benefits received by Indigenous Australians compared with non–Indigenous Australians. An example where institutional racism may play a factor in clinical practice is a lack of culturally appropriate materials or treatment options for Indigenous patients (Shah, A. 2007) Interpersonal racism is the discriminatory interactions between individuals. This includes degrading comments or behaviours by a health care worker or discriminatory behaviours of other individuals in the community (Larson, A., Gillies, M., Howard, P. J., Coddin, J. 2007) Researchers have found compelling evidence connecting the impacts of Indigenous discrimination to the root cause of extreme socio–economic and health disadvantages (Larson, A., Gillies, M., Howard, P. J., Coddin, J. 2007). A study of the Indigenous population by 'Flinders University' reported that 97% of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islanders taking part in the research, regularly experienced racism. These staggering results highlight that this is still an ongoing contemporary issue that continues to be the root of many physical and mental health issues commonly experienced by the community (Creative Spirits, 2017) Discrimination of any form impacts many Indigenous people and can carry with it lifelong issues. Stress and self–diminishing emotional reactions are major factors caused by discrimination and can have unfavourable impacts on one's physical and mental health and wellbeing. One's animosity and humiliation can provoke a range of biological responses in the body causing cardiovascular diseases, heightened blood pressure and disrupted neurological processes that can affect immune functions in the body (Larson, A., Gillies, M., Howard, P. J., Coffin, J. 2007) Chronic exposure to racism can also result in long– term external issues including low levels of education, unemployment, housing issues, high rates of incarceration as well as a physical sense of exclusion from the wider community (Hampton, R., Toombs, M. 2013, p. 31). ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 40.
  • 41. Institutional Sexism In The Workplace The U.S. is known to have many issues in its society including racism and sexism. There have been laws that were made in attempt to stop discrimination against color but to this day, women still aren't seen as equals to men. Institutional sexism is the discrimination of a certain gender at a workplace. Sexism is portrayed in the differences between the number of men versus the number of females that have management positions, get higher pay, have more opportunities for advancement and, are more likely to get hired. This oppression against women can impact lives of many women emotionally, mentally, and physically. Sexism also leads to sexual violence and domestic violence because the idea that women and men are unequal causes women to be taken advantage of at home, at work, and everywhere else. Institutional sexism is a topic that needs to be talked about more because the U.S. needs have a law that doesn't allow sexual discrimination anywhere. Institutional sexism in the workplace is an ongoing issue nationally and internationally that takes advantage of women and their work that needs to stop. There are many industries and working fields where women weren't trusted to be leaders when compared to men. The healthcare field has been filled with women for a while yet most of the leadership positions are mostly occupied with men. Men are more likely to have leadership positions in both men and female dominated fields (Stamarski and Son Hing 2015). Women face this ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 42.
  • 43. Essay On Institutional Experience I went into my IPPE institutional experience with some anxiety, and skepticism because I did not have any hospital experience prior. However, unlike my IPPE community experience I had some confidence and lots of optimism having been in the professional division (pharmacy school) for a little over two years. The pharmacists I worked with are all some type of generalist because they work in a small community hospital where all the pharmacist have to do everything from being in the pharmacy to rounding on the floors with other healthcare professionals. After, the tour of the facility and introduction to staffs on the first day, my preceptor had me helping her with dosing antibiotics. The pharmacists at my experiential site including my preceptor ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Prior to my APPEs, I believe I need to improve on my communication skills. I think I have made considerable progress on improving this skill, but I believe I can do more to improve my communication skills in order to have good interaction with patients. I think my analytical and critical thinking skills will serve me well in a career as a clinical pharmacist. During my recent institutional experience, these skills helped me excel. I was involved with analyzing trigger, and anticoagulation reports. I was also involved in making treatment recommendations, and answering drug information questions, all of which required analytical and critical thinking skills. I will continue to work on my communication skills by interacting more with patients, colleagues, and my professors as a way of improving this skill. I will also try to go out of my comfort zone in order to develop confidence and my ability to talk to people. In order to continue improving on this skill, I have taken up leadership roles in student organizations, and college committees that require me to speak to different audience both publicly and in private ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 44.
  • 45. Essay On Institutional Incarceration ncreased rates of incarceration came with growing rates of institutional violence and major disturbances within U.S. correctional institutions have resulted in increased importance being placed on the development of accurate and efficient correctional risk classification methods. "In the current study, institutional infractions were tracked from correctional intake for 17,054 male and female incarcerated offenders." In order to allow observation of problematic behaviors, institutional infractions were put into categories based on an inmate's ability to be physically aggressive, verbally aggressive or defiant, and nonviolent infractions. After analysis and examination of inmates, there were several occurrences with dynamic situations that took place. Institutional violence and misconduct was examined during these times, as well. Information was taken into consideration during these investigations. The information consisted of individuals, age, gang ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... federal and state correctional institutions (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004). According to these authors, rates of incarceration have steadily increased at an average rate of 3.4% per year since 1995, requiring most federal and state institutions to operate at or above capacity. The overage has placed increased pressure on prison officials to efficiently classify newly incarcerated offenders. (Caperton, Edens, & Johnson, 2004). Balancing efficiency, accuracy, and cost, inmate classification procedures influence most aspects of an individual's incarceration, including housing decisions, special services such as mental health services, rehabilitation strategies, institutional privileges, management strategies, and security level (Clements, 1996; Loza & Loza–Fanous, 2002; Proctor, 1994; Van Voorhis & Brown, 1996; Wang & Diamond, 1999). Inmate classification is extremely important in which every aspect of an institution operates. From the inmates to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 46.
  • 47. Institutional Discrimination So Many Wrongs Through the past couple hundred years, many minorities have faced detrimental discrimination. Those who have been heavy targets are Black Americans. It is common to hear that slavery is over, but those groups still face discrimination today. Why are these minorities paying the price? Institutional discrimination is the cause to this madness. Those who have authority over the average citizen extending their power rights and preforming non–relevant; like over policing the black americans.This is common in everyday scenarios, the courtrooms, the school grounds, and the streets. It starts when these groups are young. All through childhood studies have proven that "Black children make up 18 percent of the pre–school population, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 48.
  • 49. Corporate Assignment Abdisamad Essay Student ID : CGSSO00015316 Student Name : Abdisamad Abdullahi Abdulle Course Code : BMCF5103 Course Name : Corporate finance Program : Master Of Business Administration MBA Semester : Five Assignment : Answers Facilitator : Ibraahim Moh'ud Hamud Date due : 12 Nov, 2014 Submission Date : 12 Nov, 2014 1.0 QUESTIO N ONE 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Value maximization and other goals 3 1.3 Customer and employee safety 4 1.4 General goodness of society
  • 50. 4 1.5 Conclusion 5 2.0 QUESTION TWO 2.1 Introduction 6 2.2 Corporate ownership 6 2.3 Agency problem 8 2.4 Conclusion 8 3.0 QUESTION THREE 3.1 Introduction 9 3.2 The ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Maximizing value does not mean that a firm has to be illegal and social outlaw. 1.4 GENERAL GOODNESS OF SOCIETY According to Bratton and Wachter (2013) found that Shareholder value maximization is broadly associated with social welfare maximization. Those who make the relationship tend to go on to state that management agency costs are extreme and that increased shareholder power would reduce the costs. Reduced agency costs by definition enhance shareholder value, which in turn is assumed to imply social welfare enhancement. Bratton and Wachter (2013) also found that the shareholder interest, as the outstanding right on corporate wealth, is straight aligned with society's interest in maximizing corporate–and therefore societal–wealth, and so the shareholder interest succeeds for political attentiveness. In current years, the mission for political attentiveness has made the jump from theory to practice: a "shareholder class" is said to have risen in our political economy as a side–shoot of the growth of stock ownership among the middle class. Therefore, real–world shareholders again are seen to bear on social welfare. In a same concept, according to Dolenc, stubelj and Laporšek (2013) value maximization within a company can result to social welfare maximization. Social welfare is created when a firm produces outputs that are valued by its customers at more than is the value of inputs for their production. As long as the firm is capable of selling its outputs at ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51.
  • 52. Institutional Review Boards Essay Running Head: UNIT 5 ASSIGNMENT Unit 5 Assignment Template Candeece Lucas July 21, 2014 HN410 – Human Services & Delivery Kaplan University IRB is an abbreviation for the institutional review board. Informed by the need to review human biomedical and behavioral research to the mutual benefit of the researcher and the sample population oversight, responsibilities have to be designated to an impartial body. In light of this, the IRB is also commonly referred to as the independent ethics committee or the ethical review board. Indeed, biomedical and behavioral research on humans is not a light discipline as some of the research tenets border on life and death. It is thus important to evaluate whether the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Thus, two of the board members conduct the review for presentation to the full board at the earliest opportunity (Grady, 2010). In the event that a researcher was to create a plan to evaluate a program or intervention, the expedited review presents the best option for review by the board. This is because the process is much swifter compared to the full review and given the fact that most of the interventions have timelines, it comes in handy. This is among other benefits of the review. The full review is the third category where the whole board is involved and intense interrogation of the research is done, when the research has to meet all the laid out requirements.For research that requires the utility of special populations like patients that have been diagnosed with certain diseases, some ethical risks are present. They may include the endangering of the life of the patient and adverse side effects of the treatment. In most cases, for this type of research, risk assessment in terms of statistics come in handy where the possibilities are explained to the participant and well recorded in liability forms (Millum & Menikoff, 2010). If a program has research projects and does not follow the IRB review, the repercussions may include: bearing the burden of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 53.
  • 54. Essay On Institutional Inequality Institutional Inequality Social Institutions not only categorizes groups and individuals behavior's by social norms, but they also make society stable. In some cases. for example people who are bullied can get together for a common purpose, of being bullied, and agree to change the bully's behavior and make them feel guilty, as well as create a behavior pattern change that bullying is portrayed bad. There are also many inequalities, which are socially problematic and unsustainable, which is the result of social institutional arrangements. In this paper, I will argue racism, as an institutional arrangement, which produces inequality to many african american's, who are looked upon as minorities. Mass incarceration and other structural forms ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... For example Mike Brown and Ferguson case. Mike brown, a black teenager, was shot and killed by Darren Wilson, a white police officer, in Ferguson. There are many cases, in which a police officer shot a person based on reasons, but because of the past inequality to the African Americans by whites triggered the protest based on skin color. Furthermore, buying and selling houses functioned structurally to disadvantage African Americans. Whenever a black family moved to another home, the values of the surrounding homes decreased. This was another form of structural inequality among the african community. This was unsustainable because there was never a sustained or a stable price for homes in a surrounding area. In conclusion, racism causes inequality to many african american's. Racism comes in different forms, both institutional forms and are caused by structural forms. Nevertheless, it is unsustainable and sociologically problematic. Like Ryanne Pilgeram said, "Race, class and gender are social constructs". (Edwards, Pilgeram Quiz Question 10) If we were to mess with any of these, then the social constructs would be ruined, which in one way can be thought of it as socially ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55.
  • 56. The Growth Of Emerging Markets 1. Introduction The last decade has seen an increase in internationalisation from emerging market multinationals (EMNCs), through outward foreign direct investment (OFDI). This internationalisation phenomenon, has led to increase interest from researchers in the international business discipline (Cavusgil, 1980; Hoskisson, Eden, Lau, & Wright, 2000; Jormanainen & Koveshnikov, 2012). In 2013, emerging economies invested $553 billion, representing 39% of global OFDI, compared with only 12% at the beginning of the 2000 (UNCTAD, 2014). These trends are consistent across different emerging market sub–regions, as organisations that are aggressively investing are doing so not only from large emerging economies like China, India, Brazil, and Russia but also from a number of new emerging economies in Asia, Latin America and Africa (Gammeltoft, Pradhan, & Goldstein, 2010; Goldstein & Bonaglia, 2007). Emerging markets (EM) are seen generally as low income, rapid growth countries using economic liberalisation as their primary engine of growth (Hoskisson et al., 2000). The economic liberalisation or open policies adopted by these emerging markets during the last two decades has led organisations from these economies to internationalize or seek markets abroad. Emerging markets are known to be heterogeneous in their level of development and environmental surroundings (Bianchi, 2014). Each manifests different starting points or different stages of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 57.
  • 58. Institutional Markets : Institutional Investors Institutional investors are any organizations or persons which collect quite number sums of money to invest in securities and also control a collection of share amounts to qualify for special treatment and less regulation. They can also include operating companies that decide to invest their profits to some degree in these types of assets. Insurance companies, mutual funds and pension funds are some examples of institutional investors. These institutional investors need to face some regulations. "Institutional investors always participate in private placements of securities due to their sophistication, in which certain aspects of the securities laws may be inapplicable." These institutional investors play role in the economy is to act as highly specialized investors on behalf of others. For example, an employee will have a pension from his employer as the employer gives that person 's pension contributions to a fund and the fund will be used to buy shares in a company, or some other financial product. Funds are greatly useful because they will hold a broad portfolio of investments in many companies. This spreads risk, so if one company fails, it will be only a small part of the whole fund 's investment. Types of Institutional Investors in United Kingdom. In Britain, pension funds have become the largest single category of institutional investor, gradually increasing from 3% of the market in 1957 to 31% in 1992 as they have largest corporate pension plans with supported ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59.
  • 60. Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI) And Mexico INTRODUCTION From the Institutional Revolutionary party (PRI) to the National Action Party (PAN) to the Party of Democratic Revolution (PRD), Mexico has had many political parties in the past and present but many have questioned the fact that how has PRI manage to stay in power and maintain its place as the dominant party in the past. In this short research paper I am going to be talking about Partido Revolucionario Institutional (PRI) and Mexico. I want to discuss the history of PRI and how it came about during and after the Mexican Revolution. I will also touch upon the party's weaknesses and precursors that might have signaled its loss in the elections of 2000. The former political parties today in Mexico are the National Action ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... PRD was created as a "National Democratic Front", a combined effort from a group of people that divided from the PRI and several forces from the left, in the 1988 elections. The first candidate and many would say founder, Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas whom had lost the 1988 presidential election under questioning conditions, which eventually helped the party unite itself. It has long controlled the Federal District. When it comes to elections and the process the (PRD) has allied in the past with the Labor Party or the Partido Del Trabajo (PT) a labor party formed in 1990 Our third and final major political party is the Partido Revolucionario Institutional or PRI. This political party was undefeated in all levels of the government up until 1946 and was the dominating party, under 3 different names (Partido Nacional Revolucionario or PNR 1929, Partido de la Revolucion Mexicana or PRM 1938, and finally in 1946 Partido Revolucionario Institucional or PRI), at the municipal, state, and national levels for most of the 20th century (71 years) (Padgett, 1966). PRI is currently the dominant party in the Chamber of Deputies and at the municipal and state level, and took primacy in the 2012 senatorial elections as well. A part of the Socialist International, it is now considered as a centrist party, with prominent members leaning from both the left and right, and supports a policy of mixed economy and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 62. Quiz Results Quiz Results – Basic Institutional Review Board (IRB) Regulations and Review Process You correctly answered 3 of 5 and received 3 of 5 possible points. Scroll down to review the quiz questions and the explanation of the answers. Question 1 Question : | A subject in a clinical research trial experiences a serious, unanticipated adverse drug experience. How should the investigator proceed, with respect to the IRB, after the discovery of the adverse event occurrence? | Your answer : | Report the adverse drug experience in a timely manner, in keeping with the IRB's policies and procedures, using the forms or the mechanism provided by the IRB. | Correct Answer : | Report the adverse drug experience in a timely manner, in keeping with ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... | Your answer : | The study does not require informed consent or survey instruments. | Correct Answer : | The study involves no more than minimal risk and meets one of the allowable categories of expedited review specified in federal regulations | Comment : | The study involves no more than minimal risk and meets one of the allowable categories of expedited review specified in federal regulations. Expedited review procedures are appropriate only for protocols that present no greater than "minimal risk" to subjects and involve only procedures included in federally specified categories. Population considerations, such as healthy volunteers, are only relevant insofar as they affect the assessment of risk. The IRB may not conduct an expedited review for the convenience of either the IRB or a student researcher, if the protocol is otherwise not eligible. | Points Earned : | 0 | Question 4 Question : | Amendments involving changes to IRB approved protocols do NOT need prior IRB approval if: | Your answer : | The changes must be immediately implemented for the health and well being of the subject. | Correct Answer : | The changes must be immediately implemented for the health and well being of the subject. | Comment : | All amendments involving changes to IRB approved protocols must be reviewed and approved in advance of implementation, unless changes must be put in place immediately to respond to an unexpected risk or problem arising during ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 64. Why Is Institutional Racism so Important to Our... Why is institutional racism so important to our understanding of racial inequalities in Britain today? The Commission for Racial Equality has stated that institutional racism involves a process by which a range of public and private bodies systemically discriminate against people of ethnic minorities. Sivanandan, the director at the Institute of Race Relations defines institutional racism as "that which, covertly or overtly, resides in the policies, procedures, operations and culture of public or private institutions – reinforcing individual prejudices and being reinforced by them in turn." It can be defined as established law, practices and customs which in practice systemically reflect and produce racial inequalities within society. ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Therefore the latter form of institutional racism is found widespread in British public institutions. Racial inequalities are rife in housing, education, health, politics and authorities. The problem of defining the line between individual and institutionally racist behaviour is encountered due to the fact that the working of the institution is encountered as actions performed by individuals within it, therefore making it difficult to defer between the two. Macpherson struggled in many respects in showing that racism he identifies is institutional as opposed to individual. Race based discrimination in housing, education, employment of financial organisations are all forms of institutional racism and can be distinguished by bigotry or racial bias of individuals within these institutions though the prevalence of systematic and pervasive polices which work to the disadvantage of minority ethnic groups. • Employment It has been argued that the labour market position and employment status of minority ethnic groups are significant to understanding the different experiences they face and the extent to which institutional racism can severely affect their life chances. Modood et al (1997) has noted that discrimination whether it being direct or indirect, individual or institutional, still appears a powerful constraint on career prospect ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 66. Effects Of Institutional Racism Institutional racism has solidified its position into various aspects of American society. It has installed itself into employment practices, all levels of education, healthcare, housing, politics and the criminal justice system. Institutional racism has made some subtle changes to replace the boldness of slavery and Jim Crow. However, in educational institutions the effects of racism and discrimination are so delicate they typically go unnoticed by students of color. Individual racism usually happens on the personal level where the prejudice is expressed either consciously or unconsciously while there is some form of interpersonal encounter. When it comes to institutional racism it is similar to the individual concepts, however policies and practices are associated with with the belief of racial dominance of one group over another. It is a powerful system that use race to determine power and privilege(Reynolds et al., 2010). Even after the desegregation of school, educational institution are still separated. In Shelby County where I have lived since 1999 there are schools for minorities, and there are schools for whites. The schools for minorities in the city of Memphis have police officers walking the halls and there no books for learning. There are higher numbers of Whites students enrolled in private, charter, and magnet schools in the more affluent segments of the county. They will be exposed to the advantages of a proper education because of their race and privilege ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 68. Microaggressions Of Institutional Racism Do you ever believe that you have been a victim to a microaggression and there was nothing ever done about it? A victim of institutional racism that made you feel doleful and surly? Institutional racism happens a lot, but not as much as microaggressions, but a lot of people wonder why they get this type of vibe from white supremacist. These are the same people in the same country, with the same daily schedule but somehow they judge people based on their skin color. Some reason you aren't allowed to lead this country if you are any other skin than white. There's a lot of racism in America, and a lot of people really wonder will the microaggressions, microinsults, the institutional racism will ever stop. People look at our president Donald J. Trump with his campaign of "Make America Great Again" does he mean the bad times for the African Americans? The bad times, for the Asian Americans? Do white people in general categorize all cultures/ ethnicities other than white as minorities? There are two articles that come together, to grow on this idea, to answer the questions above and to explain in full detail. Both of these articles, compare on what and how plenty of "minorities" feel in America. The speech essay "Analyzing Some Thoughts On Mercy" and the argumentative essay "6 Reasons We Need to Dismantle the Model Minority Myth of Those 'Hard– Working ' Asians" by Ross Gay and Rachel Kuo deal with the problem with racism shown by white supremacy. Through these texts the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 70. The Trading Dynamics of Institutional Investors The fraction of corporate equity owned by institutional investors has grown considerably in the past several decades; institutional holding of shares in U.S. equities has increased from approximately 16% in 1965 to over 50% in 2010 (Federal Reserve Board, 2011). The fact that institutional investors are managing such a sizable wealth invested in U.S. equity market has potential important role in term of setting market prices. The growing impact of institutional investors on capital markets has induced to increased research on the behavior of this group of investors both by academics and policy makers, who tend to believe that institutional investor follow momentum based strategies, and often are alleged to herdinglike behavior and following destabilizing trading strategies. Recent studies investigating the behavior of institutional investors document three main results. First, institutional investors are momentum traders (buying past winners and selling past losers) and are more likely to follow past prices (citet*{grinblatt1995momentum}). Second, Institutional investors sometimes trade in the same direction over a period of time or engage in herding behavior (citet{wermers1999mutual}). Finally, the contemporaneous association between changes in quarterly institutional holding and quarterly stock returns is much stronger than the feedback trading effect (citet{nofsinger1999herding,wermers1999mutual}). The previous studies on the behavior of institutional investors ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 72. Institutional Discrimination In Education Unweaving Institutionalized Discrimination Kirk Sigler's Protesting racial bias, students trade placards for pillows for NPR tells the story of the students at Occidental College, one of the most diverse campuses in America, and how they're trying to reform administration. The students occupied the administration building for a week, holding workshops on diversity to change the culture of the school. At the beginning, they gave administration a list of demands to address the systemic racial biases on campus, including students being profiled by security (Sigler, 2015). Along with improving security, they asked for a black studies program, more faculty that were persons of color, and a Vice President for diversity. In addition, they are not ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... It demonstrates younger generations fighting to end institutionalized discrimination instead of pretending it does not exist. Despite the fact that the college was not willing to meet one–hundred percent of the demands of the students, it still shows progress towards ending this discrimination. Since there has been media coverage of the issue, it has the potential to inspire students at other schools to do the same to ensure campuses are safe places for students regardless of their race. In addition, with more classes about different races and cultures, campuses would have more educated staff and students leading to an overall decrease in institutionalized discrimination. As Henslin says, "With their focus on the broader picture, sociologists encourage us to examine institutional discrimination, that is, to see how discrimination is woven into the fabric of society" (2014, p. 331). Forward actions by student bodies can begin to unweave this discrimination from society, carrying over into the work force and broader society with more educated students taking that knowledge with ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 74. The Role of the Institutional Review Board and the... Several historical events played a vital role in what has evolved to how we conduct research today and just as important, how the participants of such research are shielded and protected against the consequences that may be experienced as a result of these studies. We live in a world that is continuously changing and as we move forward, it is past experiences that influence how things are done in the present, and what may become in the future. The Institutional Review Board (IRB) exists to protect research subjects and ensure their rights are safeguarded and protected. This paper will discuss the role of the IRB and the protection of human subjects, the dilemma of societal advancements versus its cost on human subjects and the role of leadership in the IRB. The Role of the IRB and the Protection of Human Subjects The IRB's role is to protect human subjects and to hold researchers accountable for the way in which information is collected and utilized for research (Sontag, 2012). Research must undergo a formal review process, which for many researchers may appear to be onerous but necessary (Kennedy, 2005). What some scholars argue is the fact that IRB approval is still required for research on adults who are fully competent and willing to participate in the research. They suggest that it becomes burdensome on the researchers. Furthermore, they argue that if exempted from the review process, it may also free up time for the review board to be able to focus on research that ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 76. Taking a Look at Institutional Repositories Academic institutions such as the University and College tend to produce academic journal articles and other scholarly works which in the early days published and kept in the library or disseminate to other organization. As the production of this material keeps increasing the needs to have a large storage to keep all the materials became a problem for the institution. This is because some of the institution did not have a very large storage to cater the needs to keep the materials as the institution not only keep materials publish from the institution only but also from another institution. As the technologies revolve, more initiative has been taken to ensure that the scholarly works of an institution can be disseminated to various part of the world in order to share the knowledge. During the early days the information is published using printed method and the time taken to disseminate it is far too long and the cost is also very high. Other than that, it is very hard to preserve printed materials in a big number. As the institution is now using digital format in publishing their scholarly works, the process of disseminating the knowledge become easier and faster. Now days the digitization activity for materials seems to be increasing as people are now more concern about the preservation of printed materials which lead to the needs of a repository to keep and manage those materials. Today's institutions are mostly now having their own institutional repository. What is an ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
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  • 78. Approval Of The Institutional Review Board Prior to the conduction of this study, the researcher sought the approval of the Institutional Review Board with the Protection of Human Subjects in research. The researcher completed re–certification with the Institutional Review Board training on May 29, 2014 (See Appendix C). The researcher provided IRB with information such as research protocol, interview protocol, Demographic Questionnaire, researcher's background information, consent form, and investigator's assurance. Upon IRB approval, the research contacted the contacted the Superintendent of each school district for their permission to conduct the study in their districts. Next the principals of the schools were contacted for their permission to interview teachers in their building. At this point, the research was able to contact the participants for an interview. The Principals, after permission was given for the study, were asked to provide the participants e–mail addresses and phone numbers. In this qualitative phenomenological research, the researcher went to the building that the participants' schools were located for participants' convenience. The researcher followed a protocol of first conducting individual interviews with each of the ten participants. A semi–structured, conversational style of individual interviewing was adopted in order to explore the respondents' stories which made interviewing multiple subjects more methodical (See Appendix A for Interview Protocol). According to Meehan, 20014), ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...