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Sivananthan and Elamaran
12 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS
In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of chloroform extract
Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots, Durio zibethinus wood bark and
Psidium guajava leaves against selected bacterial strains
Manoharan Sivananthan1*
, Manoharan Elamaran2
1
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Biomedicine and Health, ASIA Metropolitan University,
G-8, Jalan Kemacahaya 11, Taman Kemacahaya, Batu 9, 43200 Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Pre University, Mahmud Secondary School, Jalan Tras, 27600 Raub, Pahang,
Malaysia
Article Published: 27 January 2013
Key words: Andrographis paniculata, Durio zibethinus, Psidium guajava, Penicillin G,
Erythromycin.
Abstract
The study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of three plants which are Andrographis paniculata,
Durio zibethinus and Psidium guajava. Andrographis paniculata leaves (30mg/ml) and roots (30 mg/ml), Durio
zibethinus wood bark (10mg/ml), and Psidium guajava leaves (15mg/ml) extract was obtained through the process
called maceration, filtration, evaporation and the paste form was freshly reconstitute in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)
and tested against Staphylococcus aureus for Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava. Streptococcus agalactiae
for Durio zibethinus and Psidium guajava and Escherichia coli for Durio zibethinus using Kirby Baur technique and
the plates were incubated at 37 ºC. The zone of inhibition was measured after 24 hours and recorded in millimeters.
The combination study was conducted using extract in combination with Penicillin G (6.25 µg/ ml) and erythromycin
(15 µg/ ml; Andrographis paniculata) with the propotion of 1:1 in homogenous condition and incubated at 37 ºC for
24 hours. The zone of inhibition was measured and recorded. Mean and standard deviation was calculated.
Andrographis paniculata do possesses some antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Leaves (17.33
mm), roots (10.67 mm), erythromycin (24.00 mm), leaves and erythromycin (20.67 mm), roots and erythromycin
(21.67 mm), leaves and roots (17.33 mm). Wood bark against Streptococcus agalactiae (14.67 mm), Penicillin G
(14.00 mm), and combination (16.67 mm). Durio zibethinus showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli
(11.00mm) and Penicillin G (13.33 mm). Psidium guajava leaves extract were having slightly higher activity than
Penicillin G and in combination activity, leaves were having a slightly higher activity than Penicillin G.
*Corresponding Author: Manoharan Sivananthan  siva8905@gmail.com
International Journal of Biomolecules and Biomedicine (IJBB)
ISSN: 2221-1063 (Print) 2222-503X (Online)
Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 12-19, 2013
http://www.innspub.net
Sivananthan and Elamaran
13 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
Introduction
Medicinal herbs are widely used with a greater number
of people seeking remedies and health approaches free
from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals.
Recently, considerable attention has been paid to
utilize eco-friendly and bio-friendly plant-based
products for the prevention and cure of different
human diseases. It has been recorded that 80% of the
world’s population has fidelity in traditional medicine,
particularly plant based drugs for their primary
healthcare (Alireza et al., 2011).
Germany and France, together represent 39% of the
$14 billion global retail market. In India, about 80% of
the rural population depends on medicinal herbs and
or indigenous systems of medicine (Mitra and Kannan,
2007).
Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb from the
family Acanthaceae (Alireza et al., 2011). The leaves
and roots of Andrographis paniculata have been
trationally used over the centuries for different
medicinal purposes in Asia and Europe as a folklore
remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments or as an
herbal supplement for health promotion. The Indian
pharmacopoeia narrates that Andrographis
paniculata is a predominant constituent of at least
twenty six Ayurvedic formulation (Panneerselvam et
al., 2011).
Andrographis paniculata (AP) is one of the medicinal
plants that seem promising found throughout
Southeast Asia. Basically, the taste of andrographis is
very bitter. This bitterness is related with its various
pharmacological properties (Jegathambigai et al.,
2010). Andrographis paniculata is one among the
prioritized medicinal plants in India and this herb is
being used mainly for treating fever, liver disease,
diabetes, snake bite (Patidar et al., 2011).
It is also used as antibiotic, antiviral, antimicrobial,
anti inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-allergic
(Jegathambigai et al., 2010). It is also utilised for
common cold, hepatoprotective activity, antimalarial,
antidiarrheal and intestinal effect, cardiovascular
activity, antifertility activity, pain reduction
(Jarukamjorn and Nemoto, 2008). It is also possess
antifungal activity, cholerectic activity and in the Unani
system of medicine, it is considered aperient,
emollient, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, gastric
tonic, carminative (Akbar, 2011). It is also having
potential to be used as herbicidal and it is used as
antiarthritis (Alireza et al., 2011).
Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) is a popular and
expensive tropical fruit widely grown in South-East
Asia. Durian is entitled “King of Tropical Fruit” due to
the superlative flesh, which is highly nutritional and its
appearance which resembles the thorny thrones of
Asian kings (Norjana and Noor, 2011). Among exotic
fruits durian is less known (Leontowicz et al., 2008).
Durian is rich in carbohydrate, protein, fat,
phosphorus, iron and vitamin A. Durian is usually
used for fresh consumption. The edible portion (aril) of
durian has a very strong odor (Norjana and Noor,
2011). Most of the photochemicals are an integral part
of the durian fruit and also being used in medicinal
formulations. A number of health protective effects of
phenolic compounds have been reported due to their
antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-
inflammatory, antimicrobial, and other biological
possessions. Currently durian fruit is popular in daily
utilization because of their first-class flavor and health-
promoting compounds, such as flavonoids, phenolics
and carotenoides contents (Ashraf et al., 2010). Durian
flesh, is said to serve as a medication to eliminate
parasitic worms. Moreover, in Malaya, decoction of
durian leaves and fruits are applied to swellings and
skin diseases while the ash of the burned rind is taken
after childbirth (Duazo et al., 2012).
Psidium Guajava is Called guayaba in Spanish
speaking countries and goiaba in Brazil, guava is a
common shade tree or shrub in door yard gardens in
Sivananthan and Elamaran
14 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
the tropics. It belongs to family Myrtaceae, genus:
Psidium ,species: guajava and common names of the
plant are Guava, goiaba, guayaba. Plant parts which
are used are fruits, leaves and barks. Guava is
rich in tannins, phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids,
essential oils, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, vitamins,
fiber and fatty acids. Guava fruit is higher in vitamin C
than citrus (80 mg of vitamin C in 100 g of fruit) and
contains appreciable amounts of vitamin A as well.
Guava fruits are also a good source of pectin a
dietary fiber. The leaves of guava are rich in
flavonoids, in particular, quercetin. Much of guava's
therapeutic activity is attributed to these flavonoids.
The flavonoids have demonstrated antibacterial
activity. Quercetin is thought to contribute to the
antidiarrhea effect of guava, it is able to relax intestinal
smooth muscle and inhibit bowel contractions. In
addition, other flavonoids and triterpenes in guava
leaves show antispasmodic activity (Vyas et al., 2010).
Microorganisms have created resistance to various
antibiotics and this had developed immense clinical
difficulty in the curing of contagious illness. The
enlarge in resistance of microbes due to indiscriminate
utilize of commercial antimicrobial medicines
supported scientists to investigate for modern
antimicrobial substances from several sources
including medicinal plants (Alagesaboopathi and
Kalaiselvi, 2012)
Thus this study was conducted to evaluate the
antibacterial potentials of Andrographis paniculata
leaves, Durio zibethinus wood bark and Psidium
guajava leaves against selected bacterial strains.
Material and method
Collection of plant materials
Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots, Durio
zibethinus wood bark and Psidium guajava leaves
were collected from small village in Raub, Pahang,
Malaysia. The plant materials then wash thoroughly
under running tap water and dried under shade. They
are then finely ground to a powder in an electric
blender and stored separately (Soma et al., 2009).
Bacterial strains
In current research, Staphylococcus aureus,
Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae were used.
The pure strains were obtain from ASIA Metropolitan
University’s laboratory. The organisms were
maintained on nutrient agar media at 4oC and sub
cultured for 24 hours before use (Alagesaboopathi and
Kalaiselvi, 2012).
Preparation of plant extracts for Andrographis
paniculata and Psidium guajava
The solvents used for the extraction procedure in the
present study was chloroform. About 25 g of dried
Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots and
Psidium guajava leaves powder were extracted using
250 ml of the extraction solvents separately for 48
hours (Soma et al., 2009). The filtrates is concentrated
using a rota vapour, at 40°C and then in water bath
until the paste is form (Rusmiati 2010). The
percentage of yield was 11.2% for leaves of
Andrographis paniculata, 5.8% for roots of
Andrograhis paniculata and 10.9% for Psidium
guajava leaves. The paste was then kept in air tied
container separately and refrigerated at 4oC.
Preparation of plant extract of Durio zibethinus
The solvents used for the extraction procedure in the
present study was chloroform. About 18 g of dried
Durio zibethinus wood bark powder were extracted
using 180 ml of the extraction solvents for 48 hours
(Soma et al., 2009). The filtrates is concentrated using
a rota vapour, at 40°C and then in water bath until the
paste is form (Rusmiati 2010). The percentage of yield
was 0.6 %. The paste was then kept in air tied
container and refrigerated at 4oC.
Antibacterial assay for Andrographis paniculata
The media used were Muller Hinton agar (Al-Haddad,
2005). 30 mg of extracts of leaves and roots were
Sivananthan and Elamaran
15 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
freshly reconstituted separately with dimethyl
sulphoxide (DMSO). Antibacterial activity was
determined by the well diffusion method. Wells (8 mm
diameter) were cut into the agar. 200µl of the plant
extracts were tested in a concentration of 30 mg/ ml
(leaves and roots) and 200µl of Erythromycin (positive
control) were tested in a concentration of 15µg/ ml
separately. The agar were seeded with 24hours culture
of the Staphylococcus aureus. Incubation was
performed at 37ºC for 24 hours for bacterial strain.
Bacterial growth was determined by measuring the
diameter of zone of inhibition in millimeters (Kataky
and Handique, 2010). The work was done in triplicate
(Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012).
Combination activity of Andrographis paniculata
leaves and roots with Erythromycin
The combination activity study was calculated by
means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer
technique). Chloroform plant extract of Andrographis
paniculata ( leaves and roots) 30 mg/ ml was used in
combination with Erythromycin 15 µg/ ml in propotion
of 1:1 (100 µl : 100 µl) separately against
Staphylococcus aureus . The combination were in
homogenous condition. The plates were then incubated
at the standard conditions for 24 hours at 37°C and the
zone diameters was measured in the second day. The
work was done in triplicate.
Combination activity of Andrographis paniculata
leaves and roots
The combination activity study was calculated by
means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer
technique). Chloroform plant extract of Andrographis
paniculata leaves and roots 30 mg/ ml was used in
combination with in propotion of 1:1 (100 µl : 100 µl)
against Staphylococcus aureus. The combination were
in homogenous condition. The plates were then
incubated at the standard conditions for 24 hours at
37°C and the zone diameters was measured in the
second day. The work was done in triplicate.
Antibacterial assay for Durio zibethinus
The media used were Muller Hinton agar (Al-Haddad,
2005). 10 mg of extracts of wood bark freshly
reconstituted with dimethyl sulphoxide
(DMSO). Antibacterial activity was determined by the
well diffusion method. Wells (8 mm diameter) were cut
into the agar. 200µl of the plant extracts were tested in
a concentration of 10 mg/ ml (leaves and roots) and
200µl of Penicillin G (positive control) were tested in a
concentration of 6.25 µg/ ml separately. The agar were
seeded with 24h culture of the Streptococcus
agalactiae and Escherichia coli. Incubation was
performed at 37ºC for 24 hours for bacterial strain.
Bacterial growth was determined by measuring the
diameter of zone of inhibition in millimeters (Kataky
and Handique, 2010). The work was done in triplicate
(Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012).
Combination activity of Durio zibethinus with
Penicillin G
The combination activity study was calculated by
means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer
technique). Chloroform plant extract of Durio
zibethinus wood bark of 10 mg/ ml was used in
combination with Penicillin G 6.25 µg/ ml in propotion
of 1:1 (100 µl : 100 µl) separately against Streptococcus
agalactiae. The combinations were in homogenous
condition. The plates were then incubated at the
standard conditions for 24 hours at 37°C and the zone
diameters was measured in the second day. The work
was done in triplicate.
Antibacterial assay for Psidium guajava
The media used were Muller Hinton agar (Al-Haddad,
2005). 10 mg of extracts of leaves freshly reconstituted
with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Antibacterial
activity was determined by the well diffusion method.
Wells (8 mm diameter) were cut into the agar. 200µl of
the plant extracts were tested in a concentration of 15
mg/ ml (leaves) and 200µl of Penicillin G (positive
control) were tested in a concentration of 6.25 µg/ ml
separately. The agar were seeded with 24h culture of
Sivananthan and Elamaran
16 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
the Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus
aureus. Incubation was performed at 37ºC for 24
hours for bacterial strain. Bacterial growth was
determined by measuring the diameter of zone of
inhibition in millimeters (Kataky and Handique,
2010). The work was done in triplicate
(Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012).
Combination activity of Psidium guajava with
Penicillin G
The combination activity study was calculated by
means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer
technique). Chloroform plant extract of Psidium
guajava leaves of 15 mg/ ml was used in combination
with Penicillin G 6.25 µg/ ml in propotion of 1:1 (100 µl
: 100 µl) separately against Streptococcus agalactiae
and Staphylococcus aureus. The combination were in
homogenous condition. The plates were then incubated
at the standard conditions for 24 hours at 37°C and the
zone diameters was measured in the second day. The
work was done in triplicate.
Statistical analysis
The mean and standard deviation of zone of inhibition
was calculated.
Result and discussion
From the Table 1, Andrographis paniculata do
possesses some antibacterial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus. Leaves (17.33 mm), roots
(10.67 mm), erythromycin (24.00 mm), leaves and
erythromycin (20.67 mm), roots and erythromycin
(21.67 mm), leaves and roots (17.33 mm). From the
previous studies mentioned that andrographolide from
Andrographis paniculata’s plant was playing vital role
in antimicrobial properties of the plant (Chowdhury et
al., 2012). Four xanthones such as 1,8-di-hydroxy-3,7-
dimethoxy-xanthone; 4,8-dihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy-
xanthones; 1,2-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthones
and 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy xanthone were
isolated from Andrographis paniculata’s root
(Chowdhury et al., 2012). Phytochemistry studies need
to be conducted with these four xanthones to identify
which compound out of these four compounds are
having the antibacterial activity against
Staphylococcus aureus.
Table 1. Antibacterial activity of leaves and roots of
Andrographis paniculata against Staphylococcus
aureus.
Zone of inhibition (in mm)
Leaves 17.33 ± 0.47
Roots 10.67 ± 0.47
Erythromycin 24.00 ± 0.82
Leaves +
Erythromycin
20.67 ± 0.47
Roots +
Erythromycin
21.67 ± 0.47
Leaves + Roots
DMSO
17.33 ± 0.47
00.00 ± 0.00
Table 2. Antibacterial activity of wood bark of Durio
zibethinus against Streptococcus agalactiae.
Zone of inhibition
(in mm)
Wood bark 14.67 ± 0.47
Penicillin G 14.00 ± 0.00
Wood bark + Penicillin
G
DMSO
16.67 ± 0.47
00.00 ± 0.00
Table 3. Antibacterial activity of wood bark of Durio
zibethinus against Escherichia coli.
Zone of inhibition (in mm)
Wood bark 11.00 ± 0.82
Penicillin G 13.33 ± 1.24
DMSO 00.00 ± 0.00
Erythromycin which was used as a positive control
against Staphylococcus aureus showed a largest
inhibition zone. Erythromycin belongs to the
macrolides group of antibiotics, which mostly
produced from Streptomyces. Erythromycin is a 14
membered ring macrolide shows a broad spectrum
Sivananthan and Elamaran
17 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
antimicrobial activities against gram positive and gram
negative bacteria (Hawkyard and Koerner, 2007). The
macrolides mainly achieve inhibition of protein
synthesis by binding in the exit tunnel of the ribosome
where the evolving peptide is primarily formed by 23S
rRNA (Hawkyard and Koerner, 2007). This type of
action by erythromycin causes the bacteria to be killed
due to the protein synthesis inhibition within the
bacteria. Combination of leaves and erythromycin
(20.67 mm), roots and erythromycin (21.67 mm)
however do not show synergistic or additive activity
but the combination showed the antagonism effect
where the zone of inhibition was less than 24mm that
had been achieved by the erythromycin. Combination
of leaves and roots does not produce any significant
effect where it was just representing the value of the
leaves’s inhibition value.
Table 4. Antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava
against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus
agalactiae.
Zone of inhibition (in mm)
Staphylococcus
aureus
Streptococcus
agalactiae
Leaves 17.33 ± 0.47 14.67 ± 0.47
Penicillin G 12.67 ± 0.47 14.33 ± 0.47
Leaves +
Penicillin G
17.67 ± 0.47 15.00 ± 0.00
DMSO 00.00 ± 0.00 00.00 ± 0.00
From the table 2, Durio zibethinus wood bark showed
some antibacterial activity against Streptococcus
agalactiae. The wood bark (14.67 mm), Penicillin G
(14.00 mm), and combination of these both showed
16.67 mm. In wood bark extract of Durio zibethinus,
two new triterpenoids, namely, methyl 27-O-trans-
caffeoylcylicodiscate and methyl 27-O-cis-
caffeoylcylicodiscate, a new phenolic, 1,2-
diarylpropane-3-ol, and seven known compounds,
fraxidin, eucryphin, boehmenan, threo-carolignan E,
(−)-(3R,4 S)-4-hydroxymellein, methyl
protocatechuate, and (+)-(R)-de-O-
methyllasiodiplodin contents were present (Lim,
2012). These compounds need to be included in further
studies to look at the antibacterial potential because to
the best knowledge the identification of compound
which is having the antibacterial activity has been not
conducted. Definitely 1 or more compound do
possesses antibacterial properties since the chloroform
wood bark extract inhibit the bacterial growth on the
Muller Hinton agar plate.
Penicillin G act on cell wall. Pencillin G, inhibits the
third and final stage which is involved in the synthesis
of peptidoglycan, which is a heteropolymeric
component of the cell wall, where it provides a rigid
mechanical stability by virtue of its highly cross-linked
lattice work structure. This cross linking is
accomplished by a transpeptidation reaction that
occurs outside the cell membrane (Esimone et al.,
2006). Combination of both wood bark and penicillin
G showed 16.67 mm of zone of inhibition. This double
attack of the both agent (penicillin G on the cell wall
and wood bark need to do further studies) caused the
bacterial cell to die. Penicillin G is a preferred drug for
curing disease related to Streptococcus agalactiae but
it is reported that allergy reaction due to penicillin in
some patients forced the physician to prescribed
erythromycin as a second line drug (Beitune et al.,
2005). From the table 3, wood bark extract of Durio
zibethinus showed antibacterial activity against
Escherichia coli (11.00mm) and Penicillin G (13.33
mm).
From the table 4, Psidium guajava leaves extract
showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus
aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. In both bacteria,
leaves were having slightly higher activity than
Penicillin G and in combination activity also the leaves
were having a slightly higher activity than Penicillin G.
The leaves of guava are rich in flavonoids, in particular,
quercetin. Much of guava's therapeutic activity is
Sivananthan and Elamaran
18 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed.
attributed to these flavonoids. The flavonoids have
demonstrated antibacterial activity (Vyas et al., 2010).
Most Staphylococci isolated from individuals outside
the hospital are resistant to Penicillin G due to beta
lactamases, which inactivate the drug (Esimone et al.,
2006). In current world, the bacterial resistance
towards the antibiotics has created big problems in
healthcare industry. Basically the bacterial resistances
can occurs in three ways that are preventing the drug
from reaching its target, altering the target and
inactivating the antibiotic (Soares et al., 2012).
Acknowledgement
We would like to thank all the supports given by the
laboratory assistance.
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In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of chloroform extract Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots, Durio zibethinus wood bark and Psidium guajava leaves against selected bacterial strains

  • 1. Sivananthan and Elamaran 12 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed. RESEARCH PAPER OPEN ACCESS In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of chloroform extract Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots, Durio zibethinus wood bark and Psidium guajava leaves against selected bacterial strains Manoharan Sivananthan1* , Manoharan Elamaran2 1 Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Biomedicine and Health, ASIA Metropolitan University, G-8, Jalan Kemacahaya 11, Taman Kemacahaya, Batu 9, 43200 Cheras, Selangor, Malaysia 2 Department of Pre University, Mahmud Secondary School, Jalan Tras, 27600 Raub, Pahang, Malaysia Article Published: 27 January 2013 Key words: Andrographis paniculata, Durio zibethinus, Psidium guajava, Penicillin G, Erythromycin. Abstract The study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of three plants which are Andrographis paniculata, Durio zibethinus and Psidium guajava. Andrographis paniculata leaves (30mg/ml) and roots (30 mg/ml), Durio zibethinus wood bark (10mg/ml), and Psidium guajava leaves (15mg/ml) extract was obtained through the process called maceration, filtration, evaporation and the paste form was freshly reconstitute in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tested against Staphylococcus aureus for Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava. Streptococcus agalactiae for Durio zibethinus and Psidium guajava and Escherichia coli for Durio zibethinus using Kirby Baur technique and the plates were incubated at 37 ºC. The zone of inhibition was measured after 24 hours and recorded in millimeters. The combination study was conducted using extract in combination with Penicillin G (6.25 µg/ ml) and erythromycin (15 µg/ ml; Andrographis paniculata) with the propotion of 1:1 in homogenous condition and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours. The zone of inhibition was measured and recorded. Mean and standard deviation was calculated. Andrographis paniculata do possesses some antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Leaves (17.33 mm), roots (10.67 mm), erythromycin (24.00 mm), leaves and erythromycin (20.67 mm), roots and erythromycin (21.67 mm), leaves and roots (17.33 mm). Wood bark against Streptococcus agalactiae (14.67 mm), Penicillin G (14.00 mm), and combination (16.67 mm). Durio zibethinus showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (11.00mm) and Penicillin G (13.33 mm). Psidium guajava leaves extract were having slightly higher activity than Penicillin G and in combination activity, leaves were having a slightly higher activity than Penicillin G. *Corresponding Author: Manoharan Sivananthan  siva8905@gmail.com International Journal of Biomolecules and Biomedicine (IJBB) ISSN: 2221-1063 (Print) 2222-503X (Online) Vol. 3, No. 1, p. 12-19, 2013 http://www.innspub.net
  • 2. Sivananthan and Elamaran 13 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed. Introduction Medicinal herbs are widely used with a greater number of people seeking remedies and health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to utilize eco-friendly and bio-friendly plant-based products for the prevention and cure of different human diseases. It has been recorded that 80% of the world’s population has fidelity in traditional medicine, particularly plant based drugs for their primary healthcare (Alireza et al., 2011). Germany and France, together represent 39% of the $14 billion global retail market. In India, about 80% of the rural population depends on medicinal herbs and or indigenous systems of medicine (Mitra and Kannan, 2007). Andrographis paniculata is a medicinal herb from the family Acanthaceae (Alireza et al., 2011). The leaves and roots of Andrographis paniculata have been trationally used over the centuries for different medicinal purposes in Asia and Europe as a folklore remedy for a wide spectrum of ailments or as an herbal supplement for health promotion. The Indian pharmacopoeia narrates that Andrographis paniculata is a predominant constituent of at least twenty six Ayurvedic formulation (Panneerselvam et al., 2011). Andrographis paniculata (AP) is one of the medicinal plants that seem promising found throughout Southeast Asia. Basically, the taste of andrographis is very bitter. This bitterness is related with its various pharmacological properties (Jegathambigai et al., 2010). Andrographis paniculata is one among the prioritized medicinal plants in India and this herb is being used mainly for treating fever, liver disease, diabetes, snake bite (Patidar et al., 2011). It is also used as antibiotic, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti inflammatory, anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-allergic (Jegathambigai et al., 2010). It is also utilised for common cold, hepatoprotective activity, antimalarial, antidiarrheal and intestinal effect, cardiovascular activity, antifertility activity, pain reduction (Jarukamjorn and Nemoto, 2008). It is also possess antifungal activity, cholerectic activity and in the Unani system of medicine, it is considered aperient, emollient, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, gastric tonic, carminative (Akbar, 2011). It is also having potential to be used as herbicidal and it is used as antiarthritis (Alireza et al., 2011). Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) is a popular and expensive tropical fruit widely grown in South-East Asia. Durian is entitled “King of Tropical Fruit” due to the superlative flesh, which is highly nutritional and its appearance which resembles the thorny thrones of Asian kings (Norjana and Noor, 2011). Among exotic fruits durian is less known (Leontowicz et al., 2008). Durian is rich in carbohydrate, protein, fat, phosphorus, iron and vitamin A. Durian is usually used for fresh consumption. The edible portion (aril) of durian has a very strong odor (Norjana and Noor, 2011). Most of the photochemicals are an integral part of the durian fruit and also being used in medicinal formulations. A number of health protective effects of phenolic compounds have been reported due to their antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti- inflammatory, antimicrobial, and other biological possessions. Currently durian fruit is popular in daily utilization because of their first-class flavor and health- promoting compounds, such as flavonoids, phenolics and carotenoides contents (Ashraf et al., 2010). Durian flesh, is said to serve as a medication to eliminate parasitic worms. Moreover, in Malaya, decoction of durian leaves and fruits are applied to swellings and skin diseases while the ash of the burned rind is taken after childbirth (Duazo et al., 2012). Psidium Guajava is Called guayaba in Spanish speaking countries and goiaba in Brazil, guava is a common shade tree or shrub in door yard gardens in
  • 3. Sivananthan and Elamaran 14 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed. the tropics. It belongs to family Myrtaceae, genus: Psidium ,species: guajava and common names of the plant are Guava, goiaba, guayaba. Plant parts which are used are fruits, leaves and barks. Guava is rich in tannins, phenols, triterpenes, flavonoids, essential oils, saponins, carotenoids, lectins, vitamins, fiber and fatty acids. Guava fruit is higher in vitamin C than citrus (80 mg of vitamin C in 100 g of fruit) and contains appreciable amounts of vitamin A as well. Guava fruits are also a good source of pectin a dietary fiber. The leaves of guava are rich in flavonoids, in particular, quercetin. Much of guava's therapeutic activity is attributed to these flavonoids. The flavonoids have demonstrated antibacterial activity. Quercetin is thought to contribute to the antidiarrhea effect of guava, it is able to relax intestinal smooth muscle and inhibit bowel contractions. In addition, other flavonoids and triterpenes in guava leaves show antispasmodic activity (Vyas et al., 2010). Microorganisms have created resistance to various antibiotics and this had developed immense clinical difficulty in the curing of contagious illness. The enlarge in resistance of microbes due to indiscriminate utilize of commercial antimicrobial medicines supported scientists to investigate for modern antimicrobial substances from several sources including medicinal plants (Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012) Thus this study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potentials of Andrographis paniculata leaves, Durio zibethinus wood bark and Psidium guajava leaves against selected bacterial strains. Material and method Collection of plant materials Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots, Durio zibethinus wood bark and Psidium guajava leaves were collected from small village in Raub, Pahang, Malaysia. The plant materials then wash thoroughly under running tap water and dried under shade. They are then finely ground to a powder in an electric blender and stored separately (Soma et al., 2009). Bacterial strains In current research, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae were used. The pure strains were obtain from ASIA Metropolitan University’s laboratory. The organisms were maintained on nutrient agar media at 4oC and sub cultured for 24 hours before use (Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012). Preparation of plant extracts for Andrographis paniculata and Psidium guajava The solvents used for the extraction procedure in the present study was chloroform. About 25 g of dried Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots and Psidium guajava leaves powder were extracted using 250 ml of the extraction solvents separately for 48 hours (Soma et al., 2009). The filtrates is concentrated using a rota vapour, at 40°C and then in water bath until the paste is form (Rusmiati 2010). The percentage of yield was 11.2% for leaves of Andrographis paniculata, 5.8% for roots of Andrograhis paniculata and 10.9% for Psidium guajava leaves. The paste was then kept in air tied container separately and refrigerated at 4oC. Preparation of plant extract of Durio zibethinus The solvents used for the extraction procedure in the present study was chloroform. About 18 g of dried Durio zibethinus wood bark powder were extracted using 180 ml of the extraction solvents for 48 hours (Soma et al., 2009). The filtrates is concentrated using a rota vapour, at 40°C and then in water bath until the paste is form (Rusmiati 2010). The percentage of yield was 0.6 %. The paste was then kept in air tied container and refrigerated at 4oC. Antibacterial assay for Andrographis paniculata The media used were Muller Hinton agar (Al-Haddad, 2005). 30 mg of extracts of leaves and roots were
  • 4. Sivananthan and Elamaran 15 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed. freshly reconstituted separately with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Antibacterial activity was determined by the well diffusion method. Wells (8 mm diameter) were cut into the agar. 200µl of the plant extracts were tested in a concentration of 30 mg/ ml (leaves and roots) and 200µl of Erythromycin (positive control) were tested in a concentration of 15µg/ ml separately. The agar were seeded with 24hours culture of the Staphylococcus aureus. Incubation was performed at 37ºC for 24 hours for bacterial strain. Bacterial growth was determined by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition in millimeters (Kataky and Handique, 2010). The work was done in triplicate (Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012). Combination activity of Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots with Erythromycin The combination activity study was calculated by means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer technique). Chloroform plant extract of Andrographis paniculata ( leaves and roots) 30 mg/ ml was used in combination with Erythromycin 15 µg/ ml in propotion of 1:1 (100 µl : 100 µl) separately against Staphylococcus aureus . The combination were in homogenous condition. The plates were then incubated at the standard conditions for 24 hours at 37°C and the zone diameters was measured in the second day. The work was done in triplicate. Combination activity of Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots The combination activity study was calculated by means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer technique). Chloroform plant extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves and roots 30 mg/ ml was used in combination with in propotion of 1:1 (100 µl : 100 µl) against Staphylococcus aureus. The combination were in homogenous condition. The plates were then incubated at the standard conditions for 24 hours at 37°C and the zone diameters was measured in the second day. The work was done in triplicate. Antibacterial assay for Durio zibethinus The media used were Muller Hinton agar (Al-Haddad, 2005). 10 mg of extracts of wood bark freshly reconstituted with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Antibacterial activity was determined by the well diffusion method. Wells (8 mm diameter) were cut into the agar. 200µl of the plant extracts were tested in a concentration of 10 mg/ ml (leaves and roots) and 200µl of Penicillin G (positive control) were tested in a concentration of 6.25 µg/ ml separately. The agar were seeded with 24h culture of the Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli. Incubation was performed at 37ºC for 24 hours for bacterial strain. Bacterial growth was determined by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition in millimeters (Kataky and Handique, 2010). The work was done in triplicate (Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012). Combination activity of Durio zibethinus with Penicillin G The combination activity study was calculated by means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer technique). Chloroform plant extract of Durio zibethinus wood bark of 10 mg/ ml was used in combination with Penicillin G 6.25 µg/ ml in propotion of 1:1 (100 µl : 100 µl) separately against Streptococcus agalactiae. The combinations were in homogenous condition. The plates were then incubated at the standard conditions for 24 hours at 37°C and the zone diameters was measured in the second day. The work was done in triplicate. Antibacterial assay for Psidium guajava The media used were Muller Hinton agar (Al-Haddad, 2005). 10 mg of extracts of leaves freshly reconstituted with dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Antibacterial activity was determined by the well diffusion method. Wells (8 mm diameter) were cut into the agar. 200µl of the plant extracts were tested in a concentration of 15 mg/ ml (leaves) and 200µl of Penicillin G (positive control) were tested in a concentration of 6.25 µg/ ml separately. The agar were seeded with 24h culture of
  • 5. Sivananthan and Elamaran 16 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed. the Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. Incubation was performed at 37ºC for 24 hours for bacterial strain. Bacterial growth was determined by measuring the diameter of zone of inhibition in millimeters (Kataky and Handique, 2010). The work was done in triplicate (Alagesaboopathi and Kalaiselvi, 2012). Combination activity of Psidium guajava with Penicillin G The combination activity study was calculated by means of cup plate method (Kirby and Bauer technique). Chloroform plant extract of Psidium guajava leaves of 15 mg/ ml was used in combination with Penicillin G 6.25 µg/ ml in propotion of 1:1 (100 µl : 100 µl) separately against Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. The combination were in homogenous condition. The plates were then incubated at the standard conditions for 24 hours at 37°C and the zone diameters was measured in the second day. The work was done in triplicate. Statistical analysis The mean and standard deviation of zone of inhibition was calculated. Result and discussion From the Table 1, Andrographis paniculata do possesses some antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Leaves (17.33 mm), roots (10.67 mm), erythromycin (24.00 mm), leaves and erythromycin (20.67 mm), roots and erythromycin (21.67 mm), leaves and roots (17.33 mm). From the previous studies mentioned that andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata’s plant was playing vital role in antimicrobial properties of the plant (Chowdhury et al., 2012). Four xanthones such as 1,8-di-hydroxy-3,7- dimethoxy-xanthone; 4,8-dihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxy- xanthones; 1,2-dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxy-xanthones and 3,7,8-trimethoxy-1-hydroxy xanthone were isolated from Andrographis paniculata’s root (Chowdhury et al., 2012). Phytochemistry studies need to be conducted with these four xanthones to identify which compound out of these four compounds are having the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Table 1. Antibacterial activity of leaves and roots of Andrographis paniculata against Staphylococcus aureus. Zone of inhibition (in mm) Leaves 17.33 ± 0.47 Roots 10.67 ± 0.47 Erythromycin 24.00 ± 0.82 Leaves + Erythromycin 20.67 ± 0.47 Roots + Erythromycin 21.67 ± 0.47 Leaves + Roots DMSO 17.33 ± 0.47 00.00 ± 0.00 Table 2. Antibacterial activity of wood bark of Durio zibethinus against Streptococcus agalactiae. Zone of inhibition (in mm) Wood bark 14.67 ± 0.47 Penicillin G 14.00 ± 0.00 Wood bark + Penicillin G DMSO 16.67 ± 0.47 00.00 ± 0.00 Table 3. Antibacterial activity of wood bark of Durio zibethinus against Escherichia coli. Zone of inhibition (in mm) Wood bark 11.00 ± 0.82 Penicillin G 13.33 ± 1.24 DMSO 00.00 ± 0.00 Erythromycin which was used as a positive control against Staphylococcus aureus showed a largest inhibition zone. Erythromycin belongs to the macrolides group of antibiotics, which mostly produced from Streptomyces. Erythromycin is a 14 membered ring macrolide shows a broad spectrum
  • 6. Sivananthan and Elamaran 17 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed. antimicrobial activities against gram positive and gram negative bacteria (Hawkyard and Koerner, 2007). The macrolides mainly achieve inhibition of protein synthesis by binding in the exit tunnel of the ribosome where the evolving peptide is primarily formed by 23S rRNA (Hawkyard and Koerner, 2007). This type of action by erythromycin causes the bacteria to be killed due to the protein synthesis inhibition within the bacteria. Combination of leaves and erythromycin (20.67 mm), roots and erythromycin (21.67 mm) however do not show synergistic or additive activity but the combination showed the antagonism effect where the zone of inhibition was less than 24mm that had been achieved by the erythromycin. Combination of leaves and roots does not produce any significant effect where it was just representing the value of the leaves’s inhibition value. Table 4. Antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Zone of inhibition (in mm) Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus agalactiae Leaves 17.33 ± 0.47 14.67 ± 0.47 Penicillin G 12.67 ± 0.47 14.33 ± 0.47 Leaves + Penicillin G 17.67 ± 0.47 15.00 ± 0.00 DMSO 00.00 ± 0.00 00.00 ± 0.00 From the table 2, Durio zibethinus wood bark showed some antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae. The wood bark (14.67 mm), Penicillin G (14.00 mm), and combination of these both showed 16.67 mm. In wood bark extract of Durio zibethinus, two new triterpenoids, namely, methyl 27-O-trans- caffeoylcylicodiscate and methyl 27-O-cis- caffeoylcylicodiscate, a new phenolic, 1,2- diarylpropane-3-ol, and seven known compounds, fraxidin, eucryphin, boehmenan, threo-carolignan E, (−)-(3R,4 S)-4-hydroxymellein, methyl protocatechuate, and (+)-(R)-de-O- methyllasiodiplodin contents were present (Lim, 2012). These compounds need to be included in further studies to look at the antibacterial potential because to the best knowledge the identification of compound which is having the antibacterial activity has been not conducted. Definitely 1 or more compound do possesses antibacterial properties since the chloroform wood bark extract inhibit the bacterial growth on the Muller Hinton agar plate. Penicillin G act on cell wall. Pencillin G, inhibits the third and final stage which is involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan, which is a heteropolymeric component of the cell wall, where it provides a rigid mechanical stability by virtue of its highly cross-linked lattice work structure. This cross linking is accomplished by a transpeptidation reaction that occurs outside the cell membrane (Esimone et al., 2006). Combination of both wood bark and penicillin G showed 16.67 mm of zone of inhibition. This double attack of the both agent (penicillin G on the cell wall and wood bark need to do further studies) caused the bacterial cell to die. Penicillin G is a preferred drug for curing disease related to Streptococcus agalactiae but it is reported that allergy reaction due to penicillin in some patients forced the physician to prescribed erythromycin as a second line drug (Beitune et al., 2005). From the table 3, wood bark extract of Durio zibethinus showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (11.00mm) and Penicillin G (13.33 mm). From the table 4, Psidium guajava leaves extract showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. In both bacteria, leaves were having slightly higher activity than Penicillin G and in combination activity also the leaves were having a slightly higher activity than Penicillin G. The leaves of guava are rich in flavonoids, in particular, quercetin. Much of guava's therapeutic activity is
  • 7. Sivananthan and Elamaran 18 Int. J. Biomol. Biomed. attributed to these flavonoids. The flavonoids have demonstrated antibacterial activity (Vyas et al., 2010). Most Staphylococci isolated from individuals outside the hospital are resistant to Penicillin G due to beta lactamases, which inactivate the drug (Esimone et al., 2006). In current world, the bacterial resistance towards the antibiotics has created big problems in healthcare industry. Basically the bacterial resistances can occurs in three ways that are preventing the drug from reaching its target, altering the target and inactivating the antibiotic (Soares et al., 2012). Acknowledgement We would like to thank all the supports given by the laboratory assistance. References Akbar S. 2011. Andrographis paniculata: A Review of Pharmacological Activities and Clinical Effects. Alternative Medicine Review 16(1), 66- 77. Alagesaboopathi C, Kalaiselvi N. 2012. Antimicrobial activities of the root, stem and leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L. International Journal of Bioscience 2(5), 61- 68. Al-Haddad AM. 2005. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Al-Mukalla district, Yemen. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 11(3), 505- 510. Alireza V, Mihdzar AK, Soon GT, Daryush T, Mohd PA, Sonia N. 2011. Nain-e Havandi Andrographis paniculata present yesterday, absent today: A plenary review on underutilized herb of Iran’s pharmaceutical plants. An International Journal on Molecular and Cellular Biology 39(5), 5409- 5424. Ashraf MA, Maah MJ, Yusoff I. 2010. Estimation of Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Four Different Varieties of Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murray) Fruit. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research 6(5), 465- 471. Beitune PE, Duarte G, Maffei CML. 2005. Colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae During Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Prognosis. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 9(3), 276- 282. Chowdhury A, Biswas SK, Raihan SZ, Das J, Paul S. 2012. Pharmacological Potentials of Andrographis paniculata: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacology 8, 6- 9. Duazo NO, Bautista JR, Teves FG. 2012. Crude methanolic extract activity from rinds and seeds of native durian (Durio zibethinus) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. African Journal of Microbiology Reseach 6(35), 6483- 6486. Esimone CO, Iroha IR, Ibezim EC, Okeh CO, Okpana EM. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between tea extracts and Penicillin G against staphylococcus aureus. African Journal of Biotecnology 5(11), 1082- 1086. Hawkyard CV, Koerner RJ. 2007. The use of Erythromycin as a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent in adult critical care: benefits versus risks. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 59, 347– 358. Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N. 2008. Pharmacological aspect of Andrographis paniculata on health and its major diterpenoid constituent andrographolide. Journal of Health Science 54(4), 370- 381. Jegathambigai R, Devaraj S, Kumar P, Sivaramakrishnan S. 2010. Study on the hepatoprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) nees on mice. Journal of Phytology 2(11), 25- 30.
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