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CoAP, OMA LWM2M, and IPSO Smart
Objects
November13, 2014
Service and Application level Interoperability for IoT
2
IoT Standards That Build On Each Other
 CoAP and related standards from IETF
 REST API for constrained networks and devices
 HTTP Proxy provides abstraction through standard web APIs
 Core-link-format (RFC 6690) provides semantic descriptors in the form of web links
 Resource Directory provides an API for scalable discovery and linking using core link-format
mediatype
 OMA LWM2M is based on CoAP
 Provides a server profile for IoT middleware
 Defines a simple reusable object model
 Defines management objects and reuses REST API for onboarding and device life cycle
management
 IPSO Smart Objects are based on OMA LWM2M
 Defines application objects using the LWM2M Object Model
 Complex objects can be composed from simple objects
 Easy to add new resource and object types as needed
3
IoT Standards “Stack”
Application Software
IPSO Objects
OMA LWM2M
CoAP HTTP
6LowPAN IPV4/IPV6
MCU – 16KiB RAM MPU
802.15.4 WiFi, Ethernet
Hardware
HW Network
Routing
Application Protocol
API and Services
Data Models
Application
4
CoAP
5
Review - CoAP Protocol
 Makes each device a lightweight server
that exposes a REST API
 A CoAP endpoint can be both client and
server
 Roles can be reversed and the sensor, as
a client, can also interact with a REST API
at another endpoint or server node
 Peer to Peer interaction is based on a
duplex client-server pattern
6
Review - Resource Discovery
See draft-ietf-core-
resource-directory
• RFC 6690 CoRE Link Format defines
– The link format media type
– Peer-to-peer discovery
• A directory approach is also useful
– Supports sleeping nodes
– No multicast traffic, longer battery life
– Remote lookup, hierarchical and federated distribution
• CoRE Link Format is used in Resource
Directories
– Nodes register their resource links to an RD
– Nodes refresh the RD periodically
– Nodes may unregister (remove) their RD entry
Application
GET /rd-lookup/ep
</nodea/sensor/temp>
</nodeb/actuator/led>
7
Resource Discovery Example Flow
See draft-ietf-core-resource-directory
core.rd
service
REGISTRATION
POST /rd?ep=“235598376”&lt=19999
</3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”
Endpoint
2.01 Created Location:/rd/235598376
DISCOVERY
GET /rd-lookup?ep&rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”
2.05 Content
</235598376/3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”
Endpoint
8
OMA LWM2M
9
OMA LWM2M Reference Architecture
 M2M Applications
 Application abstraction through
REST API
 Resource Discovery and Linking
 LWM2M Clients are Devices
 Device abstraction through CoAP
 LWM2M Clients are CoAP Servers
 Any IP network connection
 LWM2M Server
 CoAP Protocol
 Supports HTTP Caching Proxy
 Resource Directory
 Gateway and Cloud deployable
10
LWM2M Interfaces
• Bootstrap Interface
– Configure Servers & Keying
– Pre-Configured, Smart Card, or Server
Initiated Bootstrap
– CoAP REST API
• Registration Interface
– RFC6690 and Resource Directory
• Management Interface Using Objects
– Management Objects and Resources
– CoAP REST API
• Reporting Interface
– Object Instances and Resources Report
– Asynchronous notification using CoAP
Observe
11
LWM2M Object Model
• A Client has one or more Object Instances
• An Object is a collection of Resources
• A Resource is an atomic piece of information that
can be
– Read, Written or Executed
• Objects can have multiple instances
• Objects and Resources are identified by a 16-bit
Integer, Instances by an 8-bit Integer
• Objects/Resources are accessed with simple URIs:
/{Object ID}/{Object Instance}/{Resource ID}
Example:
/3/0/1 - Object Type=3 (Device), Instance=0,
Resource Type = 1 (Device Mfg.)
12
LWM2M Management Objects
Object Object ID
LWM2M Security 0
LWM2M Server 1
Access Control 2
Device 3
Connectivity Monitoring 4
Firmware 5
Location 6
Connectivity Statistics 7
13
LWM2M Position Object Example, OMA Template
14
LWM2M Application Server
Web App
LWM2M
Server
Soft Endpoints
IP
Devic
e
IP
Devic
e
LWM2M Clients
/3303/0/5700
/domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700
15
LWM2M Application Server
Web App
LWM2M
Server
IP
Devic
e
IP
Devic
e
LWM2M Clients
/domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700
/3303/0/5700
16
LWM2M Application Server
Web App
LWM2M
Server
IP
Devic
e
IP
Devic
e
LWM2M Clients
17
LWM2M Supports Sleeping Endpoints “b=uq”
 Client uses the registration
refresh to inform LWM2M
server that it is awake, and
listens for any queued
operations
18
Observe Parameters
 LWM2M provides a mechanism to control Observation
 “Write Attributes” Interface using query parameters to set observe attributes:
 Pmin – minimum observation quiet period, to limit notification frequency
 Pmax – maximum observation quiet period, to guarantee notifications
 Lt – low limit measurement notification, like low alarm, in engineering units
 Gt – high limit measurement notification, like a high alarm, in engineering units
 Step – Minimum delta change required to notify, in engineering units
19
LWM2M Bulk Read
 Returns TLV or JSON based on
requested content-format
 CBOR needs to be added
 Linked Objects are supported
{“e”:[
{"n":"0","sv":"Open Mobile Alliance"},
{"n":"1","sv":"Lightweight M2M Client"},
{"n":"2","sv":"345000123"},
{"n":"3","sv":"1.0"},
{"n":"6/0","v":"1"},
{"n":"6/1","v":"5"},
{"n":"7/0","v":"3800"},
{"n":"7/1","v":"5000"},
{"n":"8/0","v":"125"},
{"n":"8/1","v":"900"},
{"n":"9","v":"100"},
{"n":"10","v":"15"},
{"n":"11/0","v":"0"},
{"n":"13","v":"1367491215"},
{"n":"14","sv":"+02:00"},
{"n":"15","sv":"U"}]
}
20
IPSO/LWM2M Uses CoRE RD Resource Links (RFC
6690)
 Links are uploaded during registration to inform the LWM2M server
about resources on the endpoint
 Links are discovered using GET with content type “application/link-
format”
 JSON representation using content type “application/link-format+json”
<4001/0/9002>;rt=“oma.lwm2m”;ct=50;obs=1
Resource Type
Content Type
Observable
21
IPSO Smart Objects
22
Smart Objects Use the LWM2M Object Model
 REST API with a URI template
 Objects
 Object Instances
 Resources
 (Resource Instances)
 Reusable resource and object
IDs
 Common definitions for concepts
 Map to semantic terms e.g.
temperature, currentValue
 IDs are registered with the OMNA
 Can be embedded in a path
hierarchy on the server
 /home/weather/3303/0/5700
3303/0/5700
Object ID, defines object type
Object Instance, one or more
Resource ID, defines resource
type
23
IPSO Smart Object Example
Object with
Internal Resources
24
IPSO Smart Object Starter Pack
25
Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – BLE Heart Rate Sensor
Profile
26
Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – Smart Thermostat
27
Composite IPSO Smart Objects
28
IPSO Smart Object Development
 Smart Objects are Easy to Modify and Customize
 Based on Consistent Design Patterns and Reusable Resource
Definitions
 Object Sets can be Forked and Modified
 Expecting Domain-Specific Object Sets to be Created by
Collaborative Vertical Working Groups
 New Object Sets can be Released as new Smart Object Guidelines
 Objects in Released Smart Object Guidelines are Registered with the
OMA, Use Standard OMA DDF (XML) File Format Object Descriptors
29
IPSO Smart Objects Future Work Examples
 Linked Composite Objects
 Gateway Management Objects – Mapping of TR-069 to REST
 Behavioral Objects – Smart Objects to represent embedded Timers,
Sequencers, Controllers and bindings to resources
 Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Zigbee Application Clusters
(OnOff Cluster Example)
 Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Bluetooth Application Profiles
(Heart Monitor Example)
 Advanced Lighting Objects
30
Summary
Application Software
IPSO Smart Objects
OMA LWM2M
CoAP
REST protocol for constrained devices
IETF Standard (RFC 7252)
Uses TCP or UDP, any IP connection
Discovery using IP Multicast or Directory
Service Layer Specification
Device Management over CoAP
Object Model for DM and Applications
Application Level Interoperability
Reusable Device to Application API
Not tied to any specific protocol
Not tied to specific device or protocol
Any Programming Language
Runs on devices, gateways, and services
31
References
IPSO Smart Object Guideline
http://www.ipso-alliance.org/smart-object-guidelines
OMA LWM2M Specification
http://openmobilealliance.hs-sites.com/lightweight-m2m-specification-from-
oma
IETF CoAP and Related Specifications
CoAP (RFC 7252):
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7252
CoRE Link-Format (RFC 6690):
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6690
CoRE Resource Directory: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-core-resource-
directory-01
CoAP Community Site
http://coap.technology/

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Ietf91 ad hoc-coap-lwm2m-ipso

  • 1. 1 CoAP, OMA LWM2M, and IPSO Smart Objects November13, 2014 Service and Application level Interoperability for IoT
  • 2. 2 IoT Standards That Build On Each Other  CoAP and related standards from IETF  REST API for constrained networks and devices  HTTP Proxy provides abstraction through standard web APIs  Core-link-format (RFC 6690) provides semantic descriptors in the form of web links  Resource Directory provides an API for scalable discovery and linking using core link-format mediatype  OMA LWM2M is based on CoAP  Provides a server profile for IoT middleware  Defines a simple reusable object model  Defines management objects and reuses REST API for onboarding and device life cycle management  IPSO Smart Objects are based on OMA LWM2M  Defines application objects using the LWM2M Object Model  Complex objects can be composed from simple objects  Easy to add new resource and object types as needed
  • 3. 3 IoT Standards “Stack” Application Software IPSO Objects OMA LWM2M CoAP HTTP 6LowPAN IPV4/IPV6 MCU – 16KiB RAM MPU 802.15.4 WiFi, Ethernet Hardware HW Network Routing Application Protocol API and Services Data Models Application
  • 5. 5 Review - CoAP Protocol  Makes each device a lightweight server that exposes a REST API  A CoAP endpoint can be both client and server  Roles can be reversed and the sensor, as a client, can also interact with a REST API at another endpoint or server node  Peer to Peer interaction is based on a duplex client-server pattern
  • 6. 6 Review - Resource Discovery See draft-ietf-core- resource-directory • RFC 6690 CoRE Link Format defines – The link format media type – Peer-to-peer discovery • A directory approach is also useful – Supports sleeping nodes – No multicast traffic, longer battery life – Remote lookup, hierarchical and federated distribution • CoRE Link Format is used in Resource Directories – Nodes register their resource links to an RD – Nodes refresh the RD periodically – Nodes may unregister (remove) their RD entry Application GET /rd-lookup/ep </nodea/sensor/temp> </nodeb/actuator/led>
  • 7. 7 Resource Discovery Example Flow See draft-ietf-core-resource-directory core.rd service REGISTRATION POST /rd?ep=“235598376”&lt=19999 </3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C” Endpoint 2.01 Created Location:/rd/235598376 DISCOVERY GET /rd-lookup?ep&rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C” 2.05 Content </235598376/3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C” Endpoint
  • 9. 9 OMA LWM2M Reference Architecture  M2M Applications  Application abstraction through REST API  Resource Discovery and Linking  LWM2M Clients are Devices  Device abstraction through CoAP  LWM2M Clients are CoAP Servers  Any IP network connection  LWM2M Server  CoAP Protocol  Supports HTTP Caching Proxy  Resource Directory  Gateway and Cloud deployable
  • 10. 10 LWM2M Interfaces • Bootstrap Interface – Configure Servers & Keying – Pre-Configured, Smart Card, or Server Initiated Bootstrap – CoAP REST API • Registration Interface – RFC6690 and Resource Directory • Management Interface Using Objects – Management Objects and Resources – CoAP REST API • Reporting Interface – Object Instances and Resources Report – Asynchronous notification using CoAP Observe
  • 11. 11 LWM2M Object Model • A Client has one or more Object Instances • An Object is a collection of Resources • A Resource is an atomic piece of information that can be – Read, Written or Executed • Objects can have multiple instances • Objects and Resources are identified by a 16-bit Integer, Instances by an 8-bit Integer • Objects/Resources are accessed with simple URIs: /{Object ID}/{Object Instance}/{Resource ID} Example: /3/0/1 - Object Type=3 (Device), Instance=0, Resource Type = 1 (Device Mfg.)
  • 12. 12 LWM2M Management Objects Object Object ID LWM2M Security 0 LWM2M Server 1 Access Control 2 Device 3 Connectivity Monitoring 4 Firmware 5 Location 6 Connectivity Statistics 7
  • 13. 13 LWM2M Position Object Example, OMA Template
  • 14. 14 LWM2M Application Server Web App LWM2M Server Soft Endpoints IP Devic e IP Devic e LWM2M Clients /3303/0/5700 /domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700
  • 15. 15 LWM2M Application Server Web App LWM2M Server IP Devic e IP Devic e LWM2M Clients /domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700 /3303/0/5700
  • 16. 16 LWM2M Application Server Web App LWM2M Server IP Devic e IP Devic e LWM2M Clients
  • 17. 17 LWM2M Supports Sleeping Endpoints “b=uq”  Client uses the registration refresh to inform LWM2M server that it is awake, and listens for any queued operations
  • 18. 18 Observe Parameters  LWM2M provides a mechanism to control Observation  “Write Attributes” Interface using query parameters to set observe attributes:  Pmin – minimum observation quiet period, to limit notification frequency  Pmax – maximum observation quiet period, to guarantee notifications  Lt – low limit measurement notification, like low alarm, in engineering units  Gt – high limit measurement notification, like a high alarm, in engineering units  Step – Minimum delta change required to notify, in engineering units
  • 19. 19 LWM2M Bulk Read  Returns TLV or JSON based on requested content-format  CBOR needs to be added  Linked Objects are supported {“e”:[ {"n":"0","sv":"Open Mobile Alliance"}, {"n":"1","sv":"Lightweight M2M Client"}, {"n":"2","sv":"345000123"}, {"n":"3","sv":"1.0"}, {"n":"6/0","v":"1"}, {"n":"6/1","v":"5"}, {"n":"7/0","v":"3800"}, {"n":"7/1","v":"5000"}, {"n":"8/0","v":"125"}, {"n":"8/1","v":"900"}, {"n":"9","v":"100"}, {"n":"10","v":"15"}, {"n":"11/0","v":"0"}, {"n":"13","v":"1367491215"}, {"n":"14","sv":"+02:00"}, {"n":"15","sv":"U"}] }
  • 20. 20 IPSO/LWM2M Uses CoRE RD Resource Links (RFC 6690)  Links are uploaded during registration to inform the LWM2M server about resources on the endpoint  Links are discovered using GET with content type “application/link- format”  JSON representation using content type “application/link-format+json” <4001/0/9002>;rt=“oma.lwm2m”;ct=50;obs=1 Resource Type Content Type Observable
  • 22. 22 Smart Objects Use the LWM2M Object Model  REST API with a URI template  Objects  Object Instances  Resources  (Resource Instances)  Reusable resource and object IDs  Common definitions for concepts  Map to semantic terms e.g. temperature, currentValue  IDs are registered with the OMNA  Can be embedded in a path hierarchy on the server  /home/weather/3303/0/5700 3303/0/5700 Object ID, defines object type Object Instance, one or more Resource ID, defines resource type
  • 23. 23 IPSO Smart Object Example Object with Internal Resources
  • 24. 24 IPSO Smart Object Starter Pack
  • 25. 25 Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – BLE Heart Rate Sensor Profile
  • 26. 26 Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – Smart Thermostat
  • 28. 28 IPSO Smart Object Development  Smart Objects are Easy to Modify and Customize  Based on Consistent Design Patterns and Reusable Resource Definitions  Object Sets can be Forked and Modified  Expecting Domain-Specific Object Sets to be Created by Collaborative Vertical Working Groups  New Object Sets can be Released as new Smart Object Guidelines  Objects in Released Smart Object Guidelines are Registered with the OMA, Use Standard OMA DDF (XML) File Format Object Descriptors
  • 29. 29 IPSO Smart Objects Future Work Examples  Linked Composite Objects  Gateway Management Objects – Mapping of TR-069 to REST  Behavioral Objects – Smart Objects to represent embedded Timers, Sequencers, Controllers and bindings to resources  Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Zigbee Application Clusters (OnOff Cluster Example)  Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Bluetooth Application Profiles (Heart Monitor Example)  Advanced Lighting Objects
  • 30. 30 Summary Application Software IPSO Smart Objects OMA LWM2M CoAP REST protocol for constrained devices IETF Standard (RFC 7252) Uses TCP or UDP, any IP connection Discovery using IP Multicast or Directory Service Layer Specification Device Management over CoAP Object Model for DM and Applications Application Level Interoperability Reusable Device to Application API Not tied to any specific protocol Not tied to specific device or protocol Any Programming Language Runs on devices, gateways, and services
  • 31. 31 References IPSO Smart Object Guideline http://www.ipso-alliance.org/smart-object-guidelines OMA LWM2M Specification http://openmobilealliance.hs-sites.com/lightweight-m2m-specification-from- oma IETF CoAP and Related Specifications CoAP (RFC 7252): http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7252 CoRE Link-Format (RFC 6690): http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6690 CoRE Resource Directory: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-core-resource- directory-01 CoAP Community Site http://coap.technology/