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1 
CoAP, OMA LWM2M, and IPSO Smart Objects 
Service and Application level Interoperability for IoT 
November13, 2014
IoT Standards That Build On Each Other 
2 
§ CoAP and related standards from IETF 
§ REST API for constrained networks and devices 
§ HTTP Proxy provides abstraction through standard web APIs 
§ Core-link-format (RFC 6690) provides semantic descriptors in the form of web links 
§ Resource Directory provides an API for scalable discovery and linking using core link-format mediatype 
§ OMA LWM2M is based on CoAP 
§ Provides a server profile for IoT middleware 
§ Defines a simple reusable object model 
§ Defines management objects and reuses REST API for onboarding and device life cycle management 
§ IPSO Smart Objects are based on OMA LWM2M 
§ Defines application objects using the LWM2M Object Model 
§ Complex objects can be composed from simple objects 
§ Easy to add new resource and object types as needed
IoT Standards “Stack” 
3 
Application Software 
IPSO Objects 
OMA LWM2M 
CoAP HTTP 
6LowPAN IPV4/IPV6 
802.15.4 WiFi, Ethernet 
MCU – 16KiB RAM MPU 
Application 
Data Models 
API and Services 
Application Protocol 
Routing 
HW Network 
Hardware
4 
CoAP
Review - CoAP Protocol 
5 
§ Makes each device a lightweight server 
that exposes a REST API 
§ A CoAP endpoint can be both client and 
server 
§ Roles can be reversed and the sensor, as 
a client, can also interact with a REST API 
at another endpoint or server node 
§ Peer to Peer interaction is based on a 
duplex client-server pattern
Review - Resource Discovery 
6 
See draft-ietf-core-resource- 
directory 
• RFC 6690 CoRE Link Format defines 
– The link format media type 
– Peer-to-peer discovery 
• A directory approach is also useful 
– Supports sleeping nodes 
– No multicast traffic, longer battery life 
– Remote lookup, hierarchical and federated distribution 
• CoRE Link Format is used in Resource 
Directories 
– Nodes register their resource links to an RD 
– Nodes refresh the RD periodically 
– Nodes may unregister (remove) their RD entry 
Application 
GET /rd-lookup/ep </nodea/sensor/temp> 
</nodeb/actuator/led>
Resource Discovery Example Flow 
7 
See draft-ietf-core-resource-directory 
core.rd 
service 
REGISTRATION! 
POST /rd?ep=“235598376”&lt=19999! 
</3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”! 
Endpoint 
2.01 Created Location:/rd/235598376 
DISCOVERY! 
GET /rd-lookup?ep&rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”! 
2.05 Content ! 
</235598376/3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”! 
Endpoint
8 
OMA LWM2M
OMA LWM2M Reference Architecture 
9 
§ M2M Applications 
§ Application abstraction through 
REST API 
§ Resource Discovery and Linking 
§ LWM2M Server 
§ CoAP Protocol 
§ Supports HTTP Caching Proxy 
§ Resource Directory 
§ Gateway and Cloud deployable 
§ LWM2M Clients are Devices 
§ Device abstraction through CoAP 
§ LWM2M Clients are CoAP Servers 
§ Any IP network connection
LWM2M Interfaces 
• Bootstrap Interface 
10 
– Configure Servers & Keying 
– Pre-Configured, Smart Card, or Server 
Initiated Bootstrap 
– CoAP REST API 
• Registration Interface 
– RFC6690 and Resource Directory 
• Management Interface Using Objects 
– Management Objects and Resources 
– CoAP REST API 
• Reporting Interface 
– Object Instances and Resources Report 
– Asynchronous notification using CoAP 
Observe
LWM2M Object Model 
11 
• A Client has one or more Object Instances 
• An Object is a collection of Resources 
• A Resource is an atomic piece of information that 
can be 
– Read, Written or Executed 
• Objects can have multiple instances 
• Objects and Resources are identified by a 16-bit 
Integer, Instances by an 8-bit Integer 
• Objects/Resources are accessed with simple URIs: 
/{Object ID}/{Object Instance}/{Resource ID} 
Example: 
/3/0/1 - Object Type=3 (Device), Instance=0, 
Resource Type = 1 (Device Mfg.)
LWM2M Management Objects 
12 
Object Object ID 
LWM2M Security 0 
LWM2M Server 1 
Access Control 2 
Device 3 
Connectivity Monitoring 4 
Firmware 5 
Location 6 
Connectivity Statistics 7
LWM2M Position Object Example, OMA Template 
13
LWM2M Application Server 
14 
Web App 
LWM2M 
Server 
Soft Endpoints 
IP 
Device 
/domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700 
/3303/0/5700 
IP 
Device 
LWM2M Clients
LWM2M Application Server 
15 
Web App 
LWM2M 
Server 
IP 
Device 
/domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700 
/3303/0/5700 
IP 
Device 
LWM2M Clients
LWM2M Application Server 
16 
Web App 
LWM2M 
Server 
IP 
Device 
1. NOTIFY 
IP 
Device 
LWM2M Clients
LWM2M Supports Sleeping Endpoints “b=uq” 
§ Client uses the registration 
refresh to inform LWM2M server 
that it is awake, and listens for 
any queued operations 
17
Observe Parameters 
§ LWM2M provides a mechanism to control Observation 
§ “Write Attributes” Interface using query parameters to set observe attributes: 
§ Pmin – minimum observation quiet period, to limit notification frequency 
§ Pmax – maximum observation quiet period, to guarantee notifications 
§ Lt – low limit measurement notification, like low alarm, in engineering units 
§ Gt – high limit measurement notification, like a high alarm, in engineering units 
§ Step – Minimum delta change required to notify, in engineering units 
18
LWM2M Bulk Read 
19 
§ Returns TLV or JSON based on 
requested content-format 
§ CBOR needs to be added 
§ Linked Objects are supported 
{“e”:[ 
{"n":"0","sv":"Open Mobile Alliance"}, 
{"n":"1","sv":"Lightweight M2M Client"}, 
{"n":"2","sv":"345000123"}, 
{"n":"3","sv":"1.0"}, 
{"n":"6/0","v":"1"}, 
{"n":"6/1","v":"5"}, 
{"n":"7/0","v":"3800"}, 
{"n":"7/1","v":"5000"}, 
{"n":"8/0","v":"125"}, 
{"n":"8/1","v":"900"}, 
{"n":"9","v":"100"}, 
{"n":"10","v":"15"}, 
{"n":"11/0","v":"0"}, 
{"n":"13","v":"1367491215"}, 
{"n":"14","sv":"+02:00"}, 
{"n":"15","sv":"U"}] 
}
IPSO/LWM2M Uses CoRE RD Resource Links (RFC 6690) 
20 
<4001/0/9002>;rt=“oma.lwm2m”;ct=50;obs=1! 
Resource Type 
Content Type 
Observable 
§ Links are uploaded during registration to inform the LWM2M server about 
resources on the endpoint 
§ Links are discovered using GET with content type “application/link-format” 
§ JSON representation using content type “application/link-format+json”
21 
IPSO Smart Objects
Smart Objects Use the LWM2M Object Model 
§ REST API with a URI template 
22 
§ Objects 
§ Object Instances 
§ Resources 
§ (Resource Instances) 
§ Reusable resource and object IDs 
§ Common definitions for concepts 
§ Map to semantic terms e.g. 
temperature, currentValue 
§ IDs are registered with the OMNA 
§ Can be embedded in a path 
hierarchy on the server 
§ /home/weather/3303/0/5700 
3303/0/5700! 
Object ID, defines object type 
Object Instance, one or more 
Resource ID, defines resource type
IPSO Smart Object Example 
23 
Object with 
Internal Resources
IPSO Smart Object Starter Pack 
24
Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – BLE Heart Rate Sensor Profile 
25
Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – Smart Thermostat 
26
Composite IPSO Smart Objects 
27
IPSO Smart Object Development 
28 
§ Smart Objects are Easy to Modify and Customize 
§ Based on Consistent Design Patterns and Reusable Resource 
Definitions 
§ Object Sets can be Forked and Modified 
§ Expecting Domain-Specific Object Sets to be Created by 
Collaborative Vertical Working Groups 
§ New Object Sets can be Released as new Smart Object Guidelines 
§ Objects in Released Smart Object Guidelines are Registered with the 
OMA, Use Standard OMA DDF (XML) File Format Object Descriptors
IPSO Smart Objects Future Work Examples 
29 
§ Linked Composite Objects 
§ Gateway Management Objects – Mapping of TR-069 to REST 
§ Behavioral Objects – Smart Objects to represent embedded Timers, 
Sequencers, Controllers and bindings to resources 
§ Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Zigbee Application Clusters 
(OnOff Cluster Example) 
§ Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Bluetooth Application Profiles 
(Heart Monitor Example) 
§ Advanced Lighting Objects
Summary 
30 
Application Software 
IPSO Smart Objects 
OMA LWM2M 
CoAP 
Not tied to specific device or protocol 
Any Programming Language 
Runs on devices, gateways, and services 
Application Level Interoperability 
Reusable Device to Application API 
Not tied to any specific protocol 
Service Layer Specification 
Device Management over CoAP 
Object Model for DM and Applications 
REST protocol for constrained devices 
IETF Standard (RFC 7252) 
Uses TCP or UDP, any IP connection 
Discovery using IP Multicast or Directory
References 
IPSO Smart Object Guideline 
31 
http://www.ipso-alliance.org/smart-object-guidelines 
OMA LWM2M Specification 
http://openmobilealliance.hs-sites.com/lightweight-m2m-specification-from-oma 
IETF CoAP and Related Specifications 
CoAP (RFC 7252): 
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7252 
CoRE Link-Format (RFC 6690): 
http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6690 
CoRE Resource Directory: 
http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-core-resource-directory-01 
CoAP Community Site 
http://coap.technology/

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Ietf91 ad hoc-coap-lwm2m-ipso

  • 1. 1 CoAP, OMA LWM2M, and IPSO Smart Objects Service and Application level Interoperability for IoT November13, 2014
  • 2. IoT Standards That Build On Each Other 2 § CoAP and related standards from IETF § REST API for constrained networks and devices § HTTP Proxy provides abstraction through standard web APIs § Core-link-format (RFC 6690) provides semantic descriptors in the form of web links § Resource Directory provides an API for scalable discovery and linking using core link-format mediatype § OMA LWM2M is based on CoAP § Provides a server profile for IoT middleware § Defines a simple reusable object model § Defines management objects and reuses REST API for onboarding and device life cycle management § IPSO Smart Objects are based on OMA LWM2M § Defines application objects using the LWM2M Object Model § Complex objects can be composed from simple objects § Easy to add new resource and object types as needed
  • 3. IoT Standards “Stack” 3 Application Software IPSO Objects OMA LWM2M CoAP HTTP 6LowPAN IPV4/IPV6 802.15.4 WiFi, Ethernet MCU – 16KiB RAM MPU Application Data Models API and Services Application Protocol Routing HW Network Hardware
  • 5. Review - CoAP Protocol 5 § Makes each device a lightweight server that exposes a REST API § A CoAP endpoint can be both client and server § Roles can be reversed and the sensor, as a client, can also interact with a REST API at another endpoint or server node § Peer to Peer interaction is based on a duplex client-server pattern
  • 6. Review - Resource Discovery 6 See draft-ietf-core-resource- directory • RFC 6690 CoRE Link Format defines – The link format media type – Peer-to-peer discovery • A directory approach is also useful – Supports sleeping nodes – No multicast traffic, longer battery life – Remote lookup, hierarchical and federated distribution • CoRE Link Format is used in Resource Directories – Nodes register their resource links to an RD – Nodes refresh the RD periodically – Nodes may unregister (remove) their RD entry Application GET /rd-lookup/ep </nodea/sensor/temp> </nodeb/actuator/led>
  • 7. Resource Discovery Example Flow 7 See draft-ietf-core-resource-directory core.rd service REGISTRATION! POST /rd?ep=“235598376”&lt=19999! </3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”! Endpoint 2.01 Created Location:/rd/235598376 DISCOVERY! GET /rd-lookup?ep&rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”! 2.05 Content ! </235598376/3303/0/5700>;rt=“urn:X-ipso:temp-C”! Endpoint
  • 9. OMA LWM2M Reference Architecture 9 § M2M Applications § Application abstraction through REST API § Resource Discovery and Linking § LWM2M Server § CoAP Protocol § Supports HTTP Caching Proxy § Resource Directory § Gateway and Cloud deployable § LWM2M Clients are Devices § Device abstraction through CoAP § LWM2M Clients are CoAP Servers § Any IP network connection
  • 10. LWM2M Interfaces • Bootstrap Interface 10 – Configure Servers & Keying – Pre-Configured, Smart Card, or Server Initiated Bootstrap – CoAP REST API • Registration Interface – RFC6690 and Resource Directory • Management Interface Using Objects – Management Objects and Resources – CoAP REST API • Reporting Interface – Object Instances and Resources Report – Asynchronous notification using CoAP Observe
  • 11. LWM2M Object Model 11 • A Client has one or more Object Instances • An Object is a collection of Resources • A Resource is an atomic piece of information that can be – Read, Written or Executed • Objects can have multiple instances • Objects and Resources are identified by a 16-bit Integer, Instances by an 8-bit Integer • Objects/Resources are accessed with simple URIs: /{Object ID}/{Object Instance}/{Resource ID} Example: /3/0/1 - Object Type=3 (Device), Instance=0, Resource Type = 1 (Device Mfg.)
  • 12. LWM2M Management Objects 12 Object Object ID LWM2M Security 0 LWM2M Server 1 Access Control 2 Device 3 Connectivity Monitoring 4 Firmware 5 Location 6 Connectivity Statistics 7
  • 13. LWM2M Position Object Example, OMA Template 13
  • 14. LWM2M Application Server 14 Web App LWM2M Server Soft Endpoints IP Device /domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700 /3303/0/5700 IP Device LWM2M Clients
  • 15. LWM2M Application Server 15 Web App LWM2M Server IP Device /domain/endpoints/3303/0/5700 /3303/0/5700 IP Device LWM2M Clients
  • 16. LWM2M Application Server 16 Web App LWM2M Server IP Device 1. NOTIFY IP Device LWM2M Clients
  • 17. LWM2M Supports Sleeping Endpoints “b=uq” § Client uses the registration refresh to inform LWM2M server that it is awake, and listens for any queued operations 17
  • 18. Observe Parameters § LWM2M provides a mechanism to control Observation § “Write Attributes” Interface using query parameters to set observe attributes: § Pmin – minimum observation quiet period, to limit notification frequency § Pmax – maximum observation quiet period, to guarantee notifications § Lt – low limit measurement notification, like low alarm, in engineering units § Gt – high limit measurement notification, like a high alarm, in engineering units § Step – Minimum delta change required to notify, in engineering units 18
  • 19. LWM2M Bulk Read 19 § Returns TLV or JSON based on requested content-format § CBOR needs to be added § Linked Objects are supported {“e”:[ {"n":"0","sv":"Open Mobile Alliance"}, {"n":"1","sv":"Lightweight M2M Client"}, {"n":"2","sv":"345000123"}, {"n":"3","sv":"1.0"}, {"n":"6/0","v":"1"}, {"n":"6/1","v":"5"}, {"n":"7/0","v":"3800"}, {"n":"7/1","v":"5000"}, {"n":"8/0","v":"125"}, {"n":"8/1","v":"900"}, {"n":"9","v":"100"}, {"n":"10","v":"15"}, {"n":"11/0","v":"0"}, {"n":"13","v":"1367491215"}, {"n":"14","sv":"+02:00"}, {"n":"15","sv":"U"}] }
  • 20. IPSO/LWM2M Uses CoRE RD Resource Links (RFC 6690) 20 <4001/0/9002>;rt=“oma.lwm2m”;ct=50;obs=1! Resource Type Content Type Observable § Links are uploaded during registration to inform the LWM2M server about resources on the endpoint § Links are discovered using GET with content type “application/link-format” § JSON representation using content type “application/link-format+json”
  • 21. 21 IPSO Smart Objects
  • 22. Smart Objects Use the LWM2M Object Model § REST API with a URI template 22 § Objects § Object Instances § Resources § (Resource Instances) § Reusable resource and object IDs § Common definitions for concepts § Map to semantic terms e.g. temperature, currentValue § IDs are registered with the OMNA § Can be embedded in a path hierarchy on the server § /home/weather/3303/0/5700 3303/0/5700! Object ID, defines object type Object Instance, one or more Resource ID, defines resource type
  • 23. IPSO Smart Object Example 23 Object with Internal Resources
  • 24. IPSO Smart Object Starter Pack 24
  • 25. Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – BLE Heart Rate Sensor Profile 25
  • 26. Ad-Hoc IPSO Smart Object – Smart Thermostat 26
  • 27. Composite IPSO Smart Objects 27
  • 28. IPSO Smart Object Development 28 § Smart Objects are Easy to Modify and Customize § Based on Consistent Design Patterns and Reusable Resource Definitions § Object Sets can be Forked and Modified § Expecting Domain-Specific Object Sets to be Created by Collaborative Vertical Working Groups § New Object Sets can be Released as new Smart Object Guidelines § Objects in Released Smart Object Guidelines are Registered with the OMA, Use Standard OMA DDF (XML) File Format Object Descriptors
  • 29. IPSO Smart Objects Future Work Examples 29 § Linked Composite Objects § Gateway Management Objects – Mapping of TR-069 to REST § Behavioral Objects – Smart Objects to represent embedded Timers, Sequencers, Controllers and bindings to resources § Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Zigbee Application Clusters (OnOff Cluster Example) § Mapping and Binding of Smart Objects to Bluetooth Application Profiles (Heart Monitor Example) § Advanced Lighting Objects
  • 30. Summary 30 Application Software IPSO Smart Objects OMA LWM2M CoAP Not tied to specific device or protocol Any Programming Language Runs on devices, gateways, and services Application Level Interoperability Reusable Device to Application API Not tied to any specific protocol Service Layer Specification Device Management over CoAP Object Model for DM and Applications REST protocol for constrained devices IETF Standard (RFC 7252) Uses TCP or UDP, any IP connection Discovery using IP Multicast or Directory
  • 31. References IPSO Smart Object Guideline 31 http://www.ipso-alliance.org/smart-object-guidelines OMA LWM2M Specification http://openmobilealliance.hs-sites.com/lightweight-m2m-specification-from-oma IETF CoAP and Related Specifications CoAP (RFC 7252): http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7252 CoRE Link-Format (RFC 6690): http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6690 CoRE Resource Directory: http://tools.ietf.org/html/draft-ietf-core-resource-directory-01 CoAP Community Site http://coap.technology/