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Sculpture and Architecture
Humanities 100
Sculpture
- Sculpture is a three-dimensional
form constructed to represent a
natural or imaginary shape.
- It is shaped from hard materials
such as stone, wood, and metals like
gold, brass and iron.
Types of Sculpture
1. Full Round
2. Relief
3. Linear
4. Kinetic
5. Assemblage
The Thinker (French: Le Penseur) is a
bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin.
Free-standing or full-round
It inhibits three-dimensional
spacein the same way that living
things do.
Sculpture in the round cannot be
appreciated from only a single viewpoint
but must be circled and explored.
Votive statue, Tell Asmar
(Mesopotamia) 2750-2600 BCE
Roman bronze
copy, 2nd century,
Discobolis
Kouros, marble,
Archaic Greek, 600
BCE
The "Terracotta Warriors and Horses" is a collection of
terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi
Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of
funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE
and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his
afterlife.
Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits
containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000
soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry
horses, the majority of which remained buried in the
pits nearby Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other
terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits,
including officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians.
Relief Sculpture
A relief sculpture grows out of flat, two-
dimensional background, and its
projection into three-dimensional space is
relatively shallow.
The back of the relief sculpture is not meant
to be seen, the entire design can be
understood from a frontal view.
Relief sculptures are usually used in
combinations with architecture as wall
decorations.
Relief: attached to a surface
High Relief Bas Relief
Akhenaten- New Kingdom
(1350 BCE)
Centaur & Laptih relief,
metopes, Parthenon
Kinetic Sculpture
A kind of structure where the parts or a certain part are/is
movable.
Assemblage Sculpture
A kind of structure where in the elements present are just
assemble from things that are found in the surrounding.
By Lirio Salvador
Drone Transit
Mixed Media
85×221× 24 cm
2009
SANDATA NI BERNARDO CARPIO
Mixed Media
108×46×7 cm
2008
Lirio says "It's all about the
merging of my native oriental
culture and the present industrial
environment that is slowly
corrupting my native land". He
creates his assemblage of
musical instruments using day to
day materials that are found in
his present environment,
including bicycle gears, drain
cleaning springs and stainless
steel tubes.
Elemento in action
Elements of Sculpture
Orientation- the position or direction of
the object with reference to the background.
“I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to
be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to
pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also,
and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that
it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive
pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing
less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share
in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul
and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may
think that I am lying.” --- St. Theresa of Avila
The Ecstasy of St. Therese by Bernini
Elements of Sculpture
-Proportion- the relative size of each part
in connection to the whole.
David by Michelangelo
Elements of Sculpture
-Scale- how massive or how small the sculpture is in relation to the surrounding.
The Sphinx of Giza –
Ancient Egypt
Elements of Sculpture
-Articulation- manner
by which we move from one element to
the next (how the artist has repeated,
varied, harmonized, & related its
parts and the movement from one part
to another)
Capitoline Wolf - Romulus
and Remus
Elements of Sculpture
Balance- a state in which
various parts form a satisfying and
harmonious whole and nothing is out of
proportion or unduly emphasized at the
expense of the rest.
Tomb KV5 – Tomb of Ramses II /
Ramses the Great
Elements of Sculpture
Space and Mass
a state in which various parts form
a satisfying and harmonious whole and
nothing is out of proportion or unduly
emphasized at the expense of the rest.
Venus de Milo and Venus of Willendorf
Elements of Sculpture
Texture and
Pattern- the way in which an
artist depicts the quality or appearance of a
surface
Triste in bronze resin
Elements of Sculpture
Color
Flamingo - Alexander Calder
Methods of Sculpture
1. Subtraction / carving – cut away unwanted raw material; carving
away
2. Manipulation/ modeling – shape material with the use of hands
3. Substitution/ casting – material that is cast from one state to another
4. Assembling/ fabrication – add an element to another element
Methods of Sculpture
Carving is the process of creating a
sculpture by cutting or chipping a form from a solid
mass of material using some sort of chisel or carving
tool.
Because material is taken away from the
mass, carving is known as a subtractive
method of sculpture. The most common
materials used in carving sculptures are stone and
wood. In fact, most sculptures throughout history
were made using this method.
Michelangelo's David,
perhaps the most
famous sculpture in
history, was carved
from a block of solid
marble.
Granite sculpture by Verena Schwippert, 2007- By the
Hands of Humans #3
Queen & son Pepi II, 6th
dynasty Egyptian, alabaster
Methods of Sculpture
Modeling is a process in which the artist
uses a soft, pliable material such as wax, clay or
plaster that is gradually built up and shaped until the
desired form is attained.
Unlike carving, modeling is an additive
method, as the sculptor is continually adding
material to the form. The material will typically be
constructed atop some sort of metal frame or skeleton
to lend support to the soft material, so it will be able to
maintain its shape.
2300BCE China, funerary storage jar
• Mimbres pottery, fish with human
headed animal and net trying to catch
the fish, 1000 ce
Sung Dynasty celadon vase, 1000 CE
Manunggul Jar, Terracotta, incised and polychromed,
890-710 BCE, Palawan, Philippines.
Methods of Sculpture
In the casting process, an artist creates a sculpture
from a soft, malleable substance such as wax, plaster or
clay.
This sculpture will serve as the model that will be
encased in plaster, silica or some other substance to
make a cast. Eventually, a fireproof cast is produced that
can be filled with molten metal such as bronze. When the
metal cools, the result is a metal version of the original
sculpture.
The major benefit of casting is that the artist may be
able to produce multiple copies of the sculpture using the
same cast.
Sculpture by Kylo
Chua (2009)
Akan Brass Weights: based on Islamic
ounce. A wedding gift could be a set of
weights for a bridegroom.
Cycladic: 17th century BCE. Gold Ibex
statue. Lost wax
Africa: lost wax bronze, Benin kingdom, late 15th c.
Methods of Sculpture
The most modern sculpting technique, also
known as assembly or construction.
The artist will take existing materials and attach
them together in some fashion, with the resulting
combination of materials
forming the sculpture.
Sculptures created through this process
typically use found objects, such as scrap metal pieces
that are welded together. A creation of art is done
through joining or fastening. It also includes welding,
gluing, stapling, soldering, nailing materials together.
•Assemblage:
assembling found
objects in unique
ways.
Joseph Cornell
By Lirio Salvador
• Kinetic
Sculpture:
movable parts
(wind)
Alexander Calder: the mobile
Famous Sculptors and Sculptures
Gian Lorenzo Bernini was
an Italian artist and a prominent architect who
worked principally in Rome. He was the leading
sculptor of his age, credited with creating the
Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted,
wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage
sets.
Bernini's 1623 marble statue of
"David" resides in Rome
Apollo and Daphne, 1622 -1625
Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers) is
a fountain in the Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy.
Famous Sculptors and Sculptures
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti
Simoni commonly known as
Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor,
painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High
Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled
influence on the development of Western art.
Two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David,
were sculpted before he turned thirty.
Famous Sculptors and Sculptures
François-Auguste-René or most commonly
known as Auguste Rodin was
a French sculptor. Although he is generally
considered the progenitor of modern sculpture,
he did not set out to rebel against the past. He
was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman-
like approach to his work, and desired
academic recognition, although he was never
accepted into Paris's foremost school of art.
The Kiss is an 1889 marble sculpture by the French
sculptor Auguste Rodin. The embracing couple depicted
in the sculpture appeared originally as part of a group
of reliefs decorating Rodin's monumental bronze portal
The Gates of Hell, commissioned for a planned museum
of art in Paris.
The Thinker (French: Le Penseur) is a bronze sculpture
by Auguste Rodin, usually placed on a stone pedestal.
The work shows a nude male figure of over life-size
sitting on a rock with his chin resting on one hand as
though deep in thought, and is often used as an image
to represent philosophy.
Famous Sculptors and Sculptures
Guillermo Estrella
Tolentino
is a product of the Revival period in Philippine art.
Returning from Europe (where he was enrolled at the
Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Rome) in 1925, he was
appointed as professor at the UP School of Fine Arts
where the idea also of executing a monument for
national heroes struck him. The result was the UP
Oblation that became the symbol of freedom at the
campus. Acknowledged as his masterpiece and
completed in 1933, The Bonifacio Monument in
Caloocan stands as an enduring symbol of the
Filipinos' cry for freedom.
Famous Sculptors and Sculptures
Napoleón Isabelo
Veloso Abueva
(born January 26, 1930), more popularly known as
Napoleón Abueva, is a Filipino artist. He is a
sculptor given the distinction as the Philippines'
National Artist for Sculpture. He is also entitled as
the "Father of Modern Philippine Sculpture". He is
the only Boholano given the distinction as National
Artist of the Philippines in the field of Visual Arts.
Blood Compact. This shows the international ties
between the Filipinos and the Spanish were first sealed
on March 16, 1565, through Datu Sikatuna and Miguel
Lopez de Legazpi. This commemorative sculpture by
National Artist Napoleon Abueva, a Boholano himself,
takes one to the times when palabra de honor didn’t
mean just signing a pile of documents, when blood used
to be thicker than ink.
Architecture
- is both the process and the product of
planning, designing, and constructing
buildings and other physical structures.
Architectural works, in the material form
of buildings, are often perceived as
cultural symbols and as works of art.
Historical civilizations are often
identified with their surviving
architectural achievements.
Mesopotamia and Ancient
Egypt
Ancient Egypt
The Great Pyramid of Giza
(also known as the Pyramid of
Khufu or the Pyramid of
Cheops) is the oldest and
largest of the three pyramids
in the Giza Necropolis
bordering what is now El
Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of
the Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World, and the only
one to remain largely intact.
Ancient Egypt
The Great Sphinx of Giza
commonly referred to as the Sphinx,
is a limestone statue of a reclining
or couchant sphinx that stands on
the Giza Plateau on the west bank
of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. The face
of the Sphinx is generally believed
to represent the face of the Pharaoh
Khafra.
It is the largest monolith
statue in the world. It is also the
oldest known monumental
sculpture, and is commonly believed
to have been built by ancient
Egyptians of the Old Kingdom
during the reign of the Pharaoh
Khafra
Ancient Egypt
Temple of Ramesses II, Abu SImbel, Aswan, Egypt
The Abu Simbel temples are two massive
rock temples in Abu Simbel, Egypt. They
are situated on the western bank of Lake
Nasser, about 230 km southwest of Aswan
(about 300 km by road). The twin temples
were originally carved out of the
mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh
Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, as a
lasting monument to himself and his
queen Nefertari, to commemorate his
alleged victory at the Battle of Kadesh.
However, the complex was relocated in its
entirety in 1968, on an artificial hill made
from a domed structure, high above the
Aswan High Dam reservoir.
The Valley of the Kings or the Valley of
the Gates of the Kings is a valley in
Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500
years from the 16th to 11th century BC,
tombs were constructed for the
Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the
New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the
Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt).
The valley stands on the west bank of
the Nile, opposite Thebes (modern
Luxor), within the heart of the Theban
Necropolis. The wadi consists of two
valleys, East Valley (where the majority
of the royal tombs are situated) and
West Valley.
Mesopotamian Architecture
The architecture of Mesopotamia is the ancient architecture of the
region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as
Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a
period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first permanent
structures were built, to the 6th century BC. Among the Mesopotamian
architectural accomplishments are the development of urban planning,
the courtyard house, and ziggurats. No architectural profession existed
in Mesopotamia; however, scribes drafted and managed construction for
the government, nobility, or royalty.
Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
Ancient Rome and Greece
The Parthenon
The Parthenon is a temple on the
Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated
to the goddess Athena, whom the
people of Athens considered their
patron. Construction began in 447 BC
when the Athenian Empire was at the
height of its power. It was completed in
438 BC although decoration of the
building continued until 432 BC. It is
the most important surviving building
of Classical Greece, generally
considered the zenith of the Doric
order.
The Coliseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also
known as the Flavian
Amphitheatre is an elliptical
amphitheatre in the centre of the
city of Rome, Italy. Built of
concrete and stone, it was the
largest amphitheatre of the Roman
Empire, and is considered one of
the greatest works of Roman
architecture and engineering. It is
the largest amphitheatre in the
world.
The Colosseum was used to host
gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of
other events.
The shows, called munera, were always
given by private individuals rather than
the state. They had a strong religious
element but were also demonstrations of
power and family prestige, and were
immensely popular with the population.
Another popular type of show was the
animal hunt, or venatio. This utilized a
great variety of wild beasts, mainly
imported from Africa and the Middle
East, and included creatures such as
rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants,
giraffes, aurochs, wisents, Barbary lions,
panthers, leopards, bears, Caspian tigers,
crocodiles and ostriches.
The Pantheon
The Pantheon is a building in Rome,
Italy, commissioned by Marcus
Agrippa during the reign of Augustus
(27 BC - 14 AD) and rebuilt by the
emperor Hadrian about 126 AD.[2]
The building is circular with a portico
of large granite Corinthian columns
under a pediment. A rectangular
vestibule links the porch to the
rotunda, which is under a coffered
concrete dome, with a central opening
(oculus) to the sky. Almost two
thousand years after it was built, the
Pantheon's dome is still the world's
largest unreinforced concrete dome
The Bath
Bathing played a major part in ancient Roman
culture and society. Bathing was one of the most
common daily activities in Roman culture, and
was practiced across a wide variety of social
classes. Though many contemporary cultures
see bathing as a very private activity conducted
in the home, bathing in Rome was a communal
activity.
While the extremely wealthy could afford
bathing facilities in their homes, bathing most
commonly occurred in public facilities called
thermae. In some ways, these resembled
modern-day spas. The Romans raised bathing to
a high art as they socialized in these communal
baths. Courtship was conducted, as well as
sealing business deals, as they built lavish
baths on natural hot springs. Such was the
importance of baths to Romans that a catalogue
of buildings in Rome from 354 AD documented
952 baths of varying sizes in the city
Asia and the Pacific
Taj Mahal (India)
The Taj Mahal (“crown of palaces”) is
a white marble mausoleum located in
Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was
built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan
in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz
Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely
recognized as "the jewel of Muslim
art in India and one of the
universally admired masterpieces of
the world's heritage".
Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the
finest example of Mughal
architecture, a style that combines
elements from Islamic, Persian,
Ottoman Turkish and Indian
architectural styles.
Angkor Wat (Cambodia)
Angkor Wat was first a Hindu, then
subsequently a Buddhist, temple
complex in Cambodia and the largest
religious monument in the world.
The temple was built by the Khmer
King Suryavarman II in the early
12th century in Yaśodharapura
(Angkor), the capital of the Khmer
Empire, as his state temple and
eventual mausoleum. Breaking from
the Shaiva tradition of previous
kings, Angkor Wat was instead
dedicated to Vishnu.
Japanese Architecture
Japanese architecture has traditionally
been typified by wooden structures,
elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled
or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (fusuma)
were used in place of walls, allowing the
internal configuration of a space to be
customized for different occasions. People
usually sat on cushions or otherwise on
the floor, traditionally; chairs and high
tables were not widely used until the 20th
century. Since the 19th century, however,
Japan has incorporated much of Western,
modern, and post-modern architecture
into construction and design, and is today
a leader in cutting-edge architectural
design and technology.
Chinese Architecture
Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in
East Asia over many centuries. The structural principles of Chinese architecture have
remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Since
the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural
styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
The Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China is a
series of fortifications made of
stone, brick, tamped earth,
wood, and other materials,
generally built along an east-to-
west line across the historical
northern borders of China in
part to protect the Chinese
Empire or its prototypical
states against intrusions by
various nomadic groups or
military incursions by various
warlike peoples or forces.
The Forbidden City
The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the
Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty. It is located in the center of
Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost 500
years, it served as the home of emperors and their households, as well as
the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government.
Philippine Architecture
The architecture of the Philippines is a reflection of the history and
heritage of the country. The most prominent historic constructions in the
archipelago are based on a mix of Indian, Japanese, Chinese, indigenous
Austronesian, American, and Spanish influences.
The pre-colonial architecture of the Philippines consisted of the Nipa hut
made from natural materials but there are some traces of large-scale
construction before the Spanish colonizers came but not well
documented. An example of this is the pre-colonial walled city of Manila
although later after the Spanish colonization, dismantled by the
Spaniards and rebuilt as Intramuros.
The Nipa Hut (Bahay Kubo)
Intramuros, Manila

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Humanities 100: Sculpture and Architecture

  • 2. Sculpture - Sculpture is a three-dimensional form constructed to represent a natural or imaginary shape. - It is shaped from hard materials such as stone, wood, and metals like gold, brass and iron.
  • 3. Types of Sculpture 1. Full Round 2. Relief 3. Linear 4. Kinetic 5. Assemblage The Thinker (French: Le Penseur) is a bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin.
  • 4. Free-standing or full-round It inhibits three-dimensional spacein the same way that living things do. Sculpture in the round cannot be appreciated from only a single viewpoint but must be circled and explored. Votive statue, Tell Asmar (Mesopotamia) 2750-2600 BCE
  • 5. Roman bronze copy, 2nd century, Discobolis Kouros, marble, Archaic Greek, 600 BCE
  • 6. The "Terracotta Warriors and Horses" is a collection of terracotta sculptures depicting the armies of Qin Shi Huang, the first Emperor of China. It is a form of funerary art buried with the emperor in 210–209 BCE and whose purpose was to protect the emperor in his afterlife. Estimates from 2007 were that the three pits containing the Terracotta Army held more than 8,000 soldiers, 130 chariots with 520 horses and 150 cavalry horses, the majority of which remained buried in the pits nearby Qin Shi Huang's mausoleum. Other terracotta non-military figures were found in other pits, including officials, acrobats, strongmen and musicians.
  • 7. Relief Sculpture A relief sculpture grows out of flat, two- dimensional background, and its projection into three-dimensional space is relatively shallow. The back of the relief sculpture is not meant to be seen, the entire design can be understood from a frontal view. Relief sculptures are usually used in combinations with architecture as wall decorations.
  • 8. Relief: attached to a surface High Relief Bas Relief
  • 9. Akhenaten- New Kingdom (1350 BCE) Centaur & Laptih relief, metopes, Parthenon
  • 10. Kinetic Sculpture A kind of structure where the parts or a certain part are/is movable.
  • 11. Assemblage Sculpture A kind of structure where in the elements present are just assemble from things that are found in the surrounding.
  • 12. By Lirio Salvador Drone Transit Mixed Media 85×221× 24 cm 2009 SANDATA NI BERNARDO CARPIO Mixed Media 108×46×7 cm 2008
  • 13. Lirio says "It's all about the merging of my native oriental culture and the present industrial environment that is slowly corrupting my native land". He creates his assemblage of musical instruments using day to day materials that are found in his present environment, including bicycle gears, drain cleaning springs and stainless steel tubes. Elemento in action
  • 14. Elements of Sculpture Orientation- the position or direction of the object with reference to the background. “I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and to leave me all on fire with a great love of God. The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it. The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love so sweet which now takes place between the soul and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make him experience it who may think that I am lying.” --- St. Theresa of Avila The Ecstasy of St. Therese by Bernini
  • 15. Elements of Sculpture -Proportion- the relative size of each part in connection to the whole. David by Michelangelo
  • 16. Elements of Sculpture -Scale- how massive or how small the sculpture is in relation to the surrounding. The Sphinx of Giza – Ancient Egypt
  • 17. Elements of Sculpture -Articulation- manner by which we move from one element to the next (how the artist has repeated, varied, harmonized, & related its parts and the movement from one part to another) Capitoline Wolf - Romulus and Remus
  • 18. Elements of Sculpture Balance- a state in which various parts form a satisfying and harmonious whole and nothing is out of proportion or unduly emphasized at the expense of the rest. Tomb KV5 – Tomb of Ramses II / Ramses the Great
  • 19. Elements of Sculpture Space and Mass a state in which various parts form a satisfying and harmonious whole and nothing is out of proportion or unduly emphasized at the expense of the rest. Venus de Milo and Venus of Willendorf
  • 20. Elements of Sculpture Texture and Pattern- the way in which an artist depicts the quality or appearance of a surface Triste in bronze resin
  • 22. Methods of Sculpture 1. Subtraction / carving – cut away unwanted raw material; carving away 2. Manipulation/ modeling – shape material with the use of hands 3. Substitution/ casting – material that is cast from one state to another 4. Assembling/ fabrication – add an element to another element
  • 23. Methods of Sculpture Carving is the process of creating a sculpture by cutting or chipping a form from a solid mass of material using some sort of chisel or carving tool. Because material is taken away from the mass, carving is known as a subtractive method of sculpture. The most common materials used in carving sculptures are stone and wood. In fact, most sculptures throughout history were made using this method.
  • 24. Michelangelo's David, perhaps the most famous sculpture in history, was carved from a block of solid marble.
  • 25. Granite sculpture by Verena Schwippert, 2007- By the Hands of Humans #3
  • 26. Queen & son Pepi II, 6th dynasty Egyptian, alabaster
  • 27. Methods of Sculpture Modeling is a process in which the artist uses a soft, pliable material such as wax, clay or plaster that is gradually built up and shaped until the desired form is attained. Unlike carving, modeling is an additive method, as the sculptor is continually adding material to the form. The material will typically be constructed atop some sort of metal frame or skeleton to lend support to the soft material, so it will be able to maintain its shape.
  • 28. 2300BCE China, funerary storage jar
  • 29. • Mimbres pottery, fish with human headed animal and net trying to catch the fish, 1000 ce
  • 30. Sung Dynasty celadon vase, 1000 CE
  • 31. Manunggul Jar, Terracotta, incised and polychromed, 890-710 BCE, Palawan, Philippines.
  • 32. Methods of Sculpture In the casting process, an artist creates a sculpture from a soft, malleable substance such as wax, plaster or clay. This sculpture will serve as the model that will be encased in plaster, silica or some other substance to make a cast. Eventually, a fireproof cast is produced that can be filled with molten metal such as bronze. When the metal cools, the result is a metal version of the original sculpture. The major benefit of casting is that the artist may be able to produce multiple copies of the sculpture using the same cast.
  • 34. Akan Brass Weights: based on Islamic ounce. A wedding gift could be a set of weights for a bridegroom.
  • 35. Cycladic: 17th century BCE. Gold Ibex statue. Lost wax
  • 36. Africa: lost wax bronze, Benin kingdom, late 15th c.
  • 37. Methods of Sculpture The most modern sculpting technique, also known as assembly or construction. The artist will take existing materials and attach them together in some fashion, with the resulting combination of materials forming the sculpture. Sculptures created through this process typically use found objects, such as scrap metal pieces that are welded together. A creation of art is done through joining or fastening. It also includes welding, gluing, stapling, soldering, nailing materials together.
  • 38. •Assemblage: assembling found objects in unique ways. Joseph Cornell
  • 41.
  • 42.
  • 43. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Gian Lorenzo Bernini was an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome. He was the leading sculptor of his age, credited with creating the Baroque style of sculpture. In addition, he painted, wrote plays, and designed metalwork and stage sets.
  • 44. Bernini's 1623 marble statue of "David" resides in Rome Apollo and Daphne, 1622 -1625
  • 45. Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi (Fountain of the Four Rivers) is a fountain in the Piazza Navona in Rome, Italy.
  • 46.
  • 47. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni commonly known as Michelangelo was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, were sculpted before he turned thirty.
  • 48.
  • 49. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures François-Auguste-René or most commonly known as Auguste Rodin was a French sculptor. Although he is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past. He was schooled traditionally, took a craftsman- like approach to his work, and desired academic recognition, although he was never accepted into Paris's foremost school of art.
  • 50. The Kiss is an 1889 marble sculpture by the French sculptor Auguste Rodin. The embracing couple depicted in the sculpture appeared originally as part of a group of reliefs decorating Rodin's monumental bronze portal The Gates of Hell, commissioned for a planned museum of art in Paris.
  • 51. The Thinker (French: Le Penseur) is a bronze sculpture by Auguste Rodin, usually placed on a stone pedestal. The work shows a nude male figure of over life-size sitting on a rock with his chin resting on one hand as though deep in thought, and is often used as an image to represent philosophy.
  • 52. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Guillermo Estrella Tolentino is a product of the Revival period in Philippine art. Returning from Europe (where he was enrolled at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Rome) in 1925, he was appointed as professor at the UP School of Fine Arts where the idea also of executing a monument for national heroes struck him. The result was the UP Oblation that became the symbol of freedom at the campus. Acknowledged as his masterpiece and completed in 1933, The Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan stands as an enduring symbol of the Filipinos' cry for freedom.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55. Famous Sculptors and Sculptures Napoleón Isabelo Veloso Abueva (born January 26, 1930), more popularly known as Napoleón Abueva, is a Filipino artist. He is a sculptor given the distinction as the Philippines' National Artist for Sculpture. He is also entitled as the "Father of Modern Philippine Sculpture". He is the only Boholano given the distinction as National Artist of the Philippines in the field of Visual Arts.
  • 56. Blood Compact. This shows the international ties between the Filipinos and the Spanish were first sealed on March 16, 1565, through Datu Sikatuna and Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. This commemorative sculpture by National Artist Napoleon Abueva, a Boholano himself, takes one to the times when palabra de honor didn’t mean just signing a pile of documents, when blood used to be thicker than ink.
  • 57. Architecture - is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements.
  • 59. Ancient Egypt The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.
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  • 62. Ancient Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza commonly referred to as the Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx that stands on the Giza Plateau on the west bank of the Nile in Giza, Egypt. The face of the Sphinx is generally believed to represent the face of the Pharaoh Khafra. It is the largest monolith statue in the world. It is also the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the Pharaoh Khafra
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  • 64. Ancient Egypt Temple of Ramesses II, Abu SImbel, Aswan, Egypt The Abu Simbel temples are two massive rock temples in Abu Simbel, Egypt. They are situated on the western bank of Lake Nasser, about 230 km southwest of Aswan (about 300 km by road). The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside during the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II in the 13th century BC, as a lasting monument to himself and his queen Nefertari, to commemorate his alleged victory at the Battle of Kadesh. However, the complex was relocated in its entirety in 1968, on an artificial hill made from a domed structure, high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir.
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  • 67. The Valley of the Kings or the Valley of the Gates of the Kings is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt). The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes (modern Luxor), within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley (where the majority of the royal tombs are situated) and West Valley.
  • 68. Mesopotamian Architecture The architecture of Mesopotamia is the ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first permanent structures were built, to the 6th century BC. Among the Mesopotamian architectural accomplishments are the development of urban planning, the courtyard house, and ziggurats. No architectural profession existed in Mesopotamia; however, scribes drafted and managed construction for the government, nobility, or royalty.
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  • 73. The Parthenon The Parthenon is a temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the height of its power. It was completed in 438 BC although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order.
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  • 75. The Coliseum The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and stone, it was the largest amphitheatre of the Roman Empire, and is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and engineering. It is the largest amphitheatre in the world.
  • 76. The Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events. The shows, called munera, were always given by private individuals rather than the state. They had a strong religious element but were also demonstrations of power and family prestige, and were immensely popular with the population. Another popular type of show was the animal hunt, or venatio. This utilized a great variety of wild beasts, mainly imported from Africa and the Middle East, and included creatures such as rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, aurochs, wisents, Barbary lions, panthers, leopards, bears, Caspian tigers, crocodiles and ostriches.
  • 77. The Pantheon The Pantheon is a building in Rome, Italy, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD) and rebuilt by the emperor Hadrian about 126 AD.[2] The building is circular with a portico of large granite Corinthian columns under a pediment. A rectangular vestibule links the porch to the rotunda, which is under a coffered concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus) to the sky. Almost two thousand years after it was built, the Pantheon's dome is still the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome
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  • 81. Bathing played a major part in ancient Roman culture and society. Bathing was one of the most common daily activities in Roman culture, and was practiced across a wide variety of social classes. Though many contemporary cultures see bathing as a very private activity conducted in the home, bathing in Rome was a communal activity. While the extremely wealthy could afford bathing facilities in their homes, bathing most commonly occurred in public facilities called thermae. In some ways, these resembled modern-day spas. The Romans raised bathing to a high art as they socialized in these communal baths. Courtship was conducted, as well as sealing business deals, as they built lavish baths on natural hot springs. Such was the importance of baths to Romans that a catalogue of buildings in Rome from 354 AD documented 952 baths of varying sizes in the city
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  • 83. Asia and the Pacific
  • 84. Taj Mahal (India) The Taj Mahal (“crown of palaces”) is a white marble mausoleum located in Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. It was built by Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is widely recognized as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage". Taj Mahal is regarded by many as the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements from Islamic, Persian, Ottoman Turkish and Indian architectural styles.
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  • 87. Angkor Wat (Cambodia) Angkor Wat was first a Hindu, then subsequently a Buddhist, temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world. The temple was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in Yaśodharapura (Angkor), the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu.
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  • 90. Japanese Architecture Japanese architecture has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (fusuma) were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized for different occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 20th century. Since the 19th century, however, Japan has incorporated much of Western, modern, and post-modern architecture into construction and design, and is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design and technology.
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  • 93. Chinese Architecture Chinese architecture refers to a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries. The structural principles of Chinese architecture have remained largely unchanged, the main changes being only the decorative details. Since the Tang Dynasty, Chinese architecture has had a major influence on the architectural styles of Korea, Vietnam, and Japan.
  • 94. The Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to- west line across the historical northern borders of China in part to protect the Chinese Empire or its prototypical states against intrusions by various nomadic groups or military incursions by various warlike peoples or forces.
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  • 97. The Forbidden City The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty. It is located in the center of Beijing, China, and now houses the Palace Museum. For almost 500 years, it served as the home of emperors and their households, as well as the ceremonial and political center of Chinese government.
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  • 100. Philippine Architecture The architecture of the Philippines is a reflection of the history and heritage of the country. The most prominent historic constructions in the archipelago are based on a mix of Indian, Japanese, Chinese, indigenous Austronesian, American, and Spanish influences. The pre-colonial architecture of the Philippines consisted of the Nipa hut made from natural materials but there are some traces of large-scale construction before the Spanish colonizers came but not well documented. An example of this is the pre-colonial walled city of Manila although later after the Spanish colonization, dismantled by the Spaniards and rebuilt as Intramuros.
  • 101. The Nipa Hut (Bahay Kubo)