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Human(e) machine interaction?
A reflection on the
development of products
Lucienne Blessing
Engineering Design and Methodology
University of Luxembourg




21 avril 2009




Product development is all about prediction
 A process, that starts with and idea or need and ends with a complete
 product description, thinking ahead into all life phases.




                                                                  Recycling/
                                                                  Recycling
 Planning       Development   Testing    Production      Use
                                                                   Disposal




  Truly new things only come into existence in the product development
  process: what no one has seen, known or thought of, because it did not
  exist, is generated here, through mental effort, for the first time. Leyer
View on product developers
                              „conservative and insufficiently concerned
                              about the environment, disconnected from
                              community and social impact of their decisions“




        product-oriented user development




Product development and user
                                                                   Recycling/
                                                                   Recycling
     Planning   Development    Testing     Production     Use
                                                                    Disposal

Up till now
    Taking the user into account: market prediction analysis of user needs
                                           prediction,                needs,
     no concrete guidelines on how to do this
    User orientation: many methods and guidelines for dealing with user
     requirements and for usability testing
    Change from seller to buyer market: competitiveness increasingly based
     on product quality as perceived by the user users are becoming more
                                             user,
     active and demanding
     .

         Importance has been identified, but is user-centred sufficient?
What are the problems?
                      t
                                                                             Recycling/
                                                                             Recycling
           Planning
                  g       Development
                                p       Testing
                                              g    Production      Use
                                                                              Disposal
                                                                              Di     l


Time and collaboration gap
         Time between needs analysis, testing and use can be large
         Transformation from the voice of the customer into technical requirements is
          not effective.
         Usability tests expensive, relatively late and not always sufficiently
          informative.
          informative


Knowledge and understanding gap
         Designer tries to empathise and to understand, but is hardly in contact with
          the user and/or is not a user his or herself




 Knowledge and understanding of users
 Focus mainly on primary users, less on
           Secondary users: additional users, involved during the product‘s life
           Tertiary users: persons that are influenced by the product, unintentionally,
            now or in the future
           Other stakeholders: all people having an interest in the product within or
                                                                     product,
            outside the company

 Diversity of users is not considered:
           Knowledge and experience
           Physical ability
              y            y
           Culture
           Age
           Gender

                          Information is lacking
Age
Special devices for the elderly?
    Danger of “over-accommodation”
         g
    Parallel technology, increasing dependence on
     the product
    Low acceptance by elderly people (S h h 2005)
     L           t     b ld l         l (Schuh
    Often inflexible
    Often deficit oriented
           deficit-oriented




Gender: seat belt clip
Information determines solution




Dynamic Concept
Adaptive to
    the user (user models): p
                (            ) passive or active, within one modality or
                                                ,                   y
     through different modalities
    different users, i.e. user perspectives:
    allow f i
       ll   for increasing competence or maintaining competence
                       i          t           i t i i         t
    context
    intention




              Dynamic user models, adaptive customised interfaces, raising
              issues of acceptance (and product liability)

              Do we know our users well enough?
Everyday technology
Challenges regarding user, process and context
    Users difficult to define (large variety)
    No control over operation
    No control over context
    User oft customer (functionality is not the only argument)
    Strongly increased functionality (no simple products)
    Product use often assumes some experience
    User not or hardly trained ( Manual? What manual?“)
                                  („Manual?       manual? )
    Product understanding might be limited
    Safety risks caused by wrong operation or panik reactions




                  Basic design principles: simplicity, clarity and safety




Usability aims:
EN ISO 9241-11 Ergonomic requirements f office work with
    SO                                     for ff
visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 11: Guidance on usability

    Effectiveness
            Relates to the goals ( sub-goals) of the user to the accuracy and
                           g     (or   g    )                           y
            completeness with which the goals can be achieved.

    Efficiency
            Efficiency relates the level of effectiveness to the expenditure of
            resources.

    Satisfaction
            Satisfaction relates to the lack of discomfort experienced and to the
            extent of users’ attitudes towards the use of the product
                      users
Dialogue principles
Ergonomics of human-system interaction –
EN ISO 9241-11 Part 110: Dialogue principles
(term “software” replaced by “product”)

     1.
     1    A product is for solving tasks
     2.   A product must speak the language of users
     3.   Users should be in control of the product
                                            p
     4.   The product should present familiar things in a familiar manner
     5.   Users have a right to err
     6.   Users are different
     7.   A product should qualify




Usability and Intuitiveness


Everyone wants to have
„intuitive“ User Interfaces.

No-one knows exactly
what it means.

Everyone has them.
Intuitive interface?


„Intuitive interface designed
to make searching fast and
easy“

http://www.hurricanesoft.com/hsearch.jsp




Design for Intuitivity
„Intuitive interface allows end users to
use without help“

http://www.desktopdarkroom.com/upcr10l.html




  Intuitive use
    the extent to which a product can be used
    by subconsciously applying prior knowledge,
    resulting in an effective and satisfying interaction
    using a minimum of cognitive resources.
                                              Hurtienne
Intuitiveness and image schemata


           BAD         GOOD




           GOOD         BAD




                                               Hurtienne




Non-intuitive Interaction
                  Interaction Problem

                                        System

    User




                                        Task

                  Content Problem
Intuitive Interaction


                                                          System
      User

                                 A fit between user,
                                  task and system
                                 that enables users
                                 to fulfill their tasks
                                      effectively,
                                  efficiently and to
                                              y
                                  their satisfaction


                                                          Task

                  Content Problem




What about satisfaction?
Survey of 1255 British PC Users
                       PC-Users

    almost a quarter of respondents said
     they had to disrupt their work at least
     once a day because of a computer
     problem
    half of them complaint about time loss
     because of crashes and system errors
    two fifth criticised computer jargon in
     manuals and help texts
    Users frequently reacted with
     „swearing, hitti or pulling th plug t
             i    hitting     lli the l to
     intractable information technology“ at
     the work place
                           Knauer (2000)
                           K      (2000):
What is satisfaction?




Who is satisfied?


„And thanks to the
electronic surveillance
we only need a home
helper every half year
to adjust the generator“
              generator
Is that all there is?
Usability
     takes into account effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a
      specified context of use. ISO 9241 part 11
     in line with a user-centred design approach
     in practice heavily focused on task fulfillment and objective
         practice,
      performance data

             emotional involvement of the user has to be taken into account.



User experience
     takes into account non-instrumental qualities of a system
                                          q               y
     and its emotional responses by the user




Conceptual User Experience Lifecycle Model
ContinUE [continuous user experience] model, illustrating the
sequential phases of a user experience lifecycle and the
associated aspects of appraisal forming
                      appraisal-forming




                                               Pohlmeyer, Hecht, Blessing, 2009
New ISO standard on user experience
  User experience incorporates
       “all aspects of the user’s experience when interacting with the product,
        service, environment or f ili I i a consequence of the presentation,
              i      i             facility. It is                f h           i
        functionality, system performance, interactive behaviour, and assistive
        capabilities of the interactive system. It includes all aspects of usability
        and d i bilit of a product, system or service from the user’s
           d desirability f       d t         t         i f      th      ’
        perspective’.

                 ISO CD 9241-210 Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 210: Human-centred
                 design process for interactive systems. ISO, 2008




      “Designing satisfying products and motivating potential users to interact
      with them is something different than the mere attempt to avoid a
      dissatisfying solution. Thi i already k
      di    ti f i    l ti    This is l d known f from ergonomics where
                                                                 i    h
      discomforting features are generally independent from comforting
      features.”
                                                          Pohlmeyer, Hecht, Blessing,
                                                          Pohlmeyer Hecht Blessing 2009




Emotional design

                                                                                      ?




usability f t
   bilit factors determine whether a device can b used
                 d t   i    h th     d i        be     d
emotional factors determine whether a device will be used
                                                                        adapted from Forlizzi et al., 2001



“Emotions must be generated by a product itself, not simply tacked
on through advertising. People are willing to pay more for products
with emotionally rich features.”                   Boatwright and Cagan, 2010
User involvement
                                                                 User

User-centred design:
    No direct communication between user and
     product developer
    User involvement only during phases of                    Marketing




                                                          on
     market analysis and prototyping




                                                  Evaluatio
    Already shaped product limits user
     imagination
 




                                                  E
     User i not i
     U    is t involved i solution fi di
                    l d in l ti finding                         Product
                                                                P d t
     process                                                   Developer




                                                                Product




User integration


                                                                          Recycling/
                                                                          Recycling
     Planning   Development   Testing     Production           Use
                                                                           Disposal




 A systematic procedure for integration of all users throughout the
 development process is necessary


  „User were more often involved and invested more resources in the
   development of successful products, than of products that did not
                      lead to market success.“
In summary

    User centred design is necessary but not sufficient
    User diversity and user experiences have to be taken into account
    Intuitiveness is key to usability and safety
    User integration is required to provide the necessary information
               g            q         p                  y




            Considerable research and development of methods is necessary.




But until then ……




                                                           from: www. Dilbert.com

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Human(e) machine interaction? A reflection on the development of products

  • 1. Human(e) machine interaction? A reflection on the development of products Lucienne Blessing Engineering Design and Methodology University of Luxembourg 21 avril 2009 Product development is all about prediction A process, that starts with and idea or need and ends with a complete product description, thinking ahead into all life phases. Recycling/ Recycling Planning Development Testing Production Use Disposal Truly new things only come into existence in the product development process: what no one has seen, known or thought of, because it did not exist, is generated here, through mental effort, for the first time. Leyer
  • 2. View on product developers „conservative and insufficiently concerned about the environment, disconnected from community and social impact of their decisions“ product-oriented user development Product development and user Recycling/ Recycling Planning Development Testing Production Use Disposal Up till now  Taking the user into account: market prediction analysis of user needs prediction, needs, no concrete guidelines on how to do this  User orientation: many methods and guidelines for dealing with user requirements and for usability testing  Change from seller to buyer market: competitiveness increasingly based on product quality as perceived by the user users are becoming more user, active and demanding . Importance has been identified, but is user-centred sufficient?
  • 3. What are the problems? t Recycling/ Recycling Planning g Development p Testing g Production Use Disposal Di l Time and collaboration gap  Time between needs analysis, testing and use can be large  Transformation from the voice of the customer into technical requirements is not effective.  Usability tests expensive, relatively late and not always sufficiently informative. informative Knowledge and understanding gap  Designer tries to empathise and to understand, but is hardly in contact with the user and/or is not a user his or herself Knowledge and understanding of users Focus mainly on primary users, less on  Secondary users: additional users, involved during the product‘s life  Tertiary users: persons that are influenced by the product, unintentionally, now or in the future  Other stakeholders: all people having an interest in the product within or product, outside the company Diversity of users is not considered:  Knowledge and experience  Physical ability y y  Culture  Age  Gender Information is lacking
  • 4. Age Special devices for the elderly?  Danger of “over-accommodation” g  Parallel technology, increasing dependence on the product  Low acceptance by elderly people (S h h 2005) L t b ld l l (Schuh  Often inflexible  Often deficit oriented deficit-oriented Gender: seat belt clip
  • 5. Information determines solution Dynamic Concept Adaptive to  the user (user models): p ( ) passive or active, within one modality or , y through different modalities  different users, i.e. user perspectives:  allow f i ll for increasing competence or maintaining competence i t i t i i t  context  intention Dynamic user models, adaptive customised interfaces, raising issues of acceptance (and product liability) Do we know our users well enough?
  • 6. Everyday technology Challenges regarding user, process and context  Users difficult to define (large variety)  No control over operation  No control over context  User oft customer (functionality is not the only argument)  Strongly increased functionality (no simple products)  Product use often assumes some experience  User not or hardly trained ( Manual? What manual?“) („Manual? manual? )  Product understanding might be limited  Safety risks caused by wrong operation or panik reactions Basic design principles: simplicity, clarity and safety Usability aims: EN ISO 9241-11 Ergonomic requirements f office work with SO for ff visual display terminals (VDTs) - Part 11: Guidance on usability  Effectiveness Relates to the goals ( sub-goals) of the user to the accuracy and g (or g ) y completeness with which the goals can be achieved.  Efficiency Efficiency relates the level of effectiveness to the expenditure of resources.  Satisfaction Satisfaction relates to the lack of discomfort experienced and to the extent of users’ attitudes towards the use of the product users
  • 7. Dialogue principles Ergonomics of human-system interaction – EN ISO 9241-11 Part 110: Dialogue principles (term “software” replaced by “product”) 1. 1 A product is for solving tasks 2. A product must speak the language of users 3. Users should be in control of the product p 4. The product should present familiar things in a familiar manner 5. Users have a right to err 6. Users are different 7. A product should qualify Usability and Intuitiveness Everyone wants to have „intuitive“ User Interfaces. No-one knows exactly what it means. Everyone has them.
  • 8. Intuitive interface? „Intuitive interface designed to make searching fast and easy“ http://www.hurricanesoft.com/hsearch.jsp Design for Intuitivity „Intuitive interface allows end users to use without help“ http://www.desktopdarkroom.com/upcr10l.html Intuitive use the extent to which a product can be used by subconsciously applying prior knowledge, resulting in an effective and satisfying interaction using a minimum of cognitive resources. Hurtienne
  • 9. Intuitiveness and image schemata BAD GOOD GOOD BAD Hurtienne Non-intuitive Interaction Interaction Problem System User Task Content Problem
  • 10. Intuitive Interaction System User A fit between user, task and system that enables users to fulfill their tasks effectively, efficiently and to y their satisfaction Task Content Problem What about satisfaction? Survey of 1255 British PC Users PC-Users  almost a quarter of respondents said they had to disrupt their work at least once a day because of a computer problem  half of them complaint about time loss because of crashes and system errors  two fifth criticised computer jargon in manuals and help texts  Users frequently reacted with „swearing, hitti or pulling th plug t i hitting lli the l to intractable information technology“ at the work place Knauer (2000) K (2000):
  • 11. What is satisfaction? Who is satisfied? „And thanks to the electronic surveillance we only need a home helper every half year to adjust the generator“ generator
  • 12. Is that all there is? Usability  takes into account effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use. ISO 9241 part 11  in line with a user-centred design approach  in practice heavily focused on task fulfillment and objective practice, performance data emotional involvement of the user has to be taken into account. User experience  takes into account non-instrumental qualities of a system q y  and its emotional responses by the user Conceptual User Experience Lifecycle Model ContinUE [continuous user experience] model, illustrating the sequential phases of a user experience lifecycle and the associated aspects of appraisal forming appraisal-forming Pohlmeyer, Hecht, Blessing, 2009
  • 13. New ISO standard on user experience User experience incorporates  “all aspects of the user’s experience when interacting with the product, service, environment or f ili I i a consequence of the presentation, i i facility. It is f h i functionality, system performance, interactive behaviour, and assistive capabilities of the interactive system. It includes all aspects of usability and d i bilit of a product, system or service from the user’s d desirability f d t t i f th ’ perspective’. ISO CD 9241-210 Ergonomics of human-system interaction - Part 210: Human-centred design process for interactive systems. ISO, 2008 “Designing satisfying products and motivating potential users to interact with them is something different than the mere attempt to avoid a dissatisfying solution. Thi i already k di ti f i l ti This is l d known f from ergonomics where i h discomforting features are generally independent from comforting features.” Pohlmeyer, Hecht, Blessing, Pohlmeyer Hecht Blessing 2009 Emotional design ? usability f t bilit factors determine whether a device can b used d t i h th d i be d emotional factors determine whether a device will be used adapted from Forlizzi et al., 2001 “Emotions must be generated by a product itself, not simply tacked on through advertising. People are willing to pay more for products with emotionally rich features.” Boatwright and Cagan, 2010
  • 14. User involvement User User-centred design:  No direct communication between user and product developer  User involvement only during phases of Marketing on market analysis and prototyping Evaluatio  Already shaped product limits user imagination  E User i not i U is t involved i solution fi di l d in l ti finding Product P d t process Developer Product User integration Recycling/ Recycling Planning Development Testing Production Use Disposal A systematic procedure for integration of all users throughout the development process is necessary „User were more often involved and invested more resources in the development of successful products, than of products that did not lead to market success.“
  • 15. In summary  User centred design is necessary but not sufficient  User diversity and user experiences have to be taken into account  Intuitiveness is key to usability and safety  User integration is required to provide the necessary information g q p y Considerable research and development of methods is necessary. But until then …… from: www. Dilbert.com