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Jak narody porozumiewają się ze sobą w komunikacji
   międzykulturowej i komunikowaniu medialnym
[Intercultural communication and media communication between nations]
                    Jerzy Mikułowski Pomorski
                       Kraków: Universitas, 2007


   Selected chapters abridged and summarised by
    Intercultural Communication Course students,
                 English Studies Jagiellonian University
                                2012/13
Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
by Bożena Cieślar, Paulina Juszczak and Karolina Zarzycka
Outline of the presentation
1.   Geert Hofstede
2.   High vs Low context cultures
3.   Power distance
4.   Collectivism vs Individualism
5.   Masculinity vs Femininity
6.   Uncertainty avoidance
7.   Long vs Short term orientation
8.   Discussion
Geert Hofstede
Geert Hofstede, (born 2
October 1928 in Haarlem,
Netherlands) is an influential
Dutch researcher in the
fields   of    organisational
studies,       organisational
culture, cultural economics
and management. He is a
well-known pioneer in his
research of cross-cultural
groups and organisations.
Hofstede’s1 cultural dimensions:
•   High vs. Low context cultures
•   Power distance
•   Collectivism vs. Individualism
•   Masculinity vs. Femininity
•   Uncertainty avoidance
•   Long vs. Short term orientation

    1Hofstede, G. (1966) ‘An American in Paris: The influence of nationality on
    organisation theories’. In: Organisation Studies 17/3.
High vs Low context cultures
• This division, which stems from E. T.
  Hall’s1 research, applies to the reliance on
  the immediate physical context in
  communication.

 1   Hall, E. T. (1984) Poza kulturą [Beyond Culture]. PWN: Warszawa.
High vs. Low context cultures
Features of high context cultures       Features of low context cultures
Communicate through high context        Communicate through low context
messages                                messages
Many things are left unsaid, allowing   The communicator needs to be much
the culture to explain.                 more explicit.

People feel responsible for their family Independence and individualism is
and their subordinates at work           emphasized.

The concept of ‘face’, i.e. strong      No concept of ‘face’.
public image.
If a member’s face is threatened, the   Everyone is responsible for
whole group’s honour is in danger       themselves
Power distance
• This dimension applies to the perception
  of power and authority by the less
  influential members of a given community.
  It is the extent to which the less powerful
  members of organisations and institutions
  accept and expect that power is distributed
  unequally.
High vs. Low power distance
Features of high power distance cultures        Features of low power distance cultures
Members accept power distance as part of        Power is exerted only where it is necessary.
social order, it determines what is right and
wrong.
More powerful members of society perceive       People are equal, they consider social
their subordinates as unequal.                  inequalities obsolete.
Subordinates fear the more powerful             Cooperation should be based on the
members.                                        principle of solidarity.
There is not much trust among co-workers        Subordinates are considered as older, more
                                                experienced colleagues.
Majority of people are dependent on others.     Co-workers are prone to trust one another.

Subordinates are blamed for mistakes.           The system is blamed for mistakes.

There is a strong conflict between the strong   Everyone should have equal rights
and the weak members
Social inequalities are accepted; every         Strong and weak members coexist in
person has a high or low place in the social    harmony
order and is protected by law
Individualism vs Collectivism
• It is the degree to which individuals are
  integrated into groups. In individualistic
  societies, the stress is put on personal
  achievements and individual rights. In
  collectivist societies, individuals act
  predominantly as members of a lifelong
  and cohesive group.
Individualism vs Collectivism
Features of individualistic cultures                  Features of collectivistic cultures

Everyone has the right to have their own opinions.    Opinions are shaped by the group.

A person’s commitments include: their own interest,   Commitments towards the family: harmony, respect,
self-education, their own debts.                      family honoor and loyalty.
Education is a lifelong process, one learns how to    Education is for young people, one learns how to
learn and acquire useful information and skills.      behave.
People are expected to care for themselves and        Everyone is a part of a larger group and is expected
their immediate family.                               to be loyal and care for its well-being.
People have high self-awareness and are               Group awareness precedes, mutual relationships
independent.                                          and ties are emphasized.
Friendship is a basic human need.                     Friendships are determined by group membership.

Decisions are made individually and are influenced    The group makes all decisions.
by people’s beliefs and opinions
Masculinity vs Femininity
• Masculine cultures value success, money and material
  possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more
  value on relationships and quality of life. In masculine
  cultures, the differences between gender roles are more
  rigid and less fluid than in feminine cultures.
• Interestingly, masculine cultures are those that used to
  be at war often, while feminine cultures are those in
  which men and women had to support each other in
  order to persevere in harsh life conditions.
Masculinity vs Femininity
Typical opinions of people from a                 Typical opinions of people from a feminine
masculine culture                                 culture
Men’s role is to rule, women’s role is to raise   Men are also involved in children’s
up children.                                      upbringing.
Gender roles are explicit and concrete.           Gender roles are interchangeable.

Men should dominate in a society.                 Genders should be treated equally.
Independence is the highest ideal.                Mutual dependence is the highest ideal.
People who achieve success are worthy of          People who handle adversity deserve
admiration.                                       appreciation.
Ambitions lead to action.                         Service is the greatest motivator to action.

The great and the fast are beautiful.             The little and the slow are beautiful.
You live to work.                                 You work to live.
Uncertainty Avoidance
• High uncertainty avoidance stems from
  striving for truth and the belief that it is in
  fact cognizable. This conviction is
  important in the Western rationalistic
  tradition. It can be juxtaposed with the
  Eastern pursuit of virtues stemming from
  Confucius‘ philosophy.
Uncertainty Avoidance
Typical opinions of people in a high              Typical opinions of people in a low uncertainty
uncertainty avoidance culture                     avoidance culture
Uncertainty is an inevitable; therefore it is a   Life’s uncertainty is inevitable; therefore,
constant threat of life.                          accepting it should be easier.
I feel anxious and stressed.                      I feel peaceful. I do not experience stress.

I feel an inner imperative to work.               Hard work is not a value in itself.

I find people’s deviant tendencies and ideas      I do not treat deviance as a threat - tolerance.
threatening – lack of tolerance.
I do not trust young people.                      I am friendly to young people.

I am unwilling to take risks.                     I am ready to take risks.

I need strict rules and regulations.              The fewer rules, the better.

Experts’ knowledge is the source of my            My convictions are shaped by my own common
convicitons.                                      sense.
Long vs Short Term Orientation
• This distinction was added as the last one
  to Hofstede's typology. It describes
  societies’ time perspective. Long term
  oriented societies attach more importance
  to the future. In short term oriented
  societies, the past and the present are
  more valued.
Long vs Short Term Orientation
Typical opinions of people from         Typical opinions of people from
long term orientation culture           short term orientation culture
Tradition needs to be adjusted to the   Respect for tradition
present conditions.
Frugality, even meanness                A need to behave as others do
                                        regardless of consequences
Expecting delayed gratification         Expecting immediate gratification
Importance of preserving one’s own      Do anything to achieve a goal
face
Saving for future investments           No money saved for investments
Fulfilling social obligations within    Fulfilling social obligations no matter
reason                                  the cost
Discussion
1. How would you characterise your native
   culture using Hofstede’s dimensions?
   What makes you perceive it this way?
2. Do you find Hofstede's typology helpful in
   terms    of   increasing     international
   understanding? Justify.

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Hofstede's cultural dimensions

  • 1. Jak narody porozumiewają się ze sobą w komunikacji międzykulturowej i komunikowaniu medialnym [Intercultural communication and media communication between nations] Jerzy Mikułowski Pomorski Kraków: Universitas, 2007 Selected chapters abridged and summarised by Intercultural Communication Course students, English Studies Jagiellonian University 2012/13
  • 2. Hofstede’s cultural dimensions by Bożena Cieślar, Paulina Juszczak and Karolina Zarzycka
  • 3. Outline of the presentation 1. Geert Hofstede 2. High vs Low context cultures 3. Power distance 4. Collectivism vs Individualism 5. Masculinity vs Femininity 6. Uncertainty avoidance 7. Long vs Short term orientation 8. Discussion
  • 4. Geert Hofstede Geert Hofstede, (born 2 October 1928 in Haarlem, Netherlands) is an influential Dutch researcher in the fields of organisational studies, organisational culture, cultural economics and management. He is a well-known pioneer in his research of cross-cultural groups and organisations.
  • 5. Hofstede’s1 cultural dimensions: • High vs. Low context cultures • Power distance • Collectivism vs. Individualism • Masculinity vs. Femininity • Uncertainty avoidance • Long vs. Short term orientation 1Hofstede, G. (1966) ‘An American in Paris: The influence of nationality on organisation theories’. In: Organisation Studies 17/3.
  • 6. High vs Low context cultures • This division, which stems from E. T. Hall’s1 research, applies to the reliance on the immediate physical context in communication. 1 Hall, E. T. (1984) Poza kulturą [Beyond Culture]. PWN: Warszawa.
  • 7. High vs. Low context cultures Features of high context cultures Features of low context cultures Communicate through high context Communicate through low context messages messages Many things are left unsaid, allowing The communicator needs to be much the culture to explain. more explicit. People feel responsible for their family Independence and individualism is and their subordinates at work emphasized. The concept of ‘face’, i.e. strong No concept of ‘face’. public image. If a member’s face is threatened, the Everyone is responsible for whole group’s honour is in danger themselves
  • 8. Power distance • This dimension applies to the perception of power and authority by the less influential members of a given community. It is the extent to which the less powerful members of organisations and institutions accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.
  • 9. High vs. Low power distance Features of high power distance cultures Features of low power distance cultures Members accept power distance as part of Power is exerted only where it is necessary. social order, it determines what is right and wrong. More powerful members of society perceive People are equal, they consider social their subordinates as unequal. inequalities obsolete. Subordinates fear the more powerful Cooperation should be based on the members. principle of solidarity. There is not much trust among co-workers Subordinates are considered as older, more experienced colleagues. Majority of people are dependent on others. Co-workers are prone to trust one another. Subordinates are blamed for mistakes. The system is blamed for mistakes. There is a strong conflict between the strong Everyone should have equal rights and the weak members Social inequalities are accepted; every Strong and weak members coexist in person has a high or low place in the social harmony order and is protected by law
  • 10. Individualism vs Collectivism • It is the degree to which individuals are integrated into groups. In individualistic societies, the stress is put on personal achievements and individual rights. In collectivist societies, individuals act predominantly as members of a lifelong and cohesive group.
  • 11. Individualism vs Collectivism Features of individualistic cultures Features of collectivistic cultures Everyone has the right to have their own opinions. Opinions are shaped by the group. A person’s commitments include: their own interest, Commitments towards the family: harmony, respect, self-education, their own debts. family honoor and loyalty. Education is a lifelong process, one learns how to Education is for young people, one learns how to learn and acquire useful information and skills. behave. People are expected to care for themselves and Everyone is a part of a larger group and is expected their immediate family. to be loyal and care for its well-being. People have high self-awareness and are Group awareness precedes, mutual relationships independent. and ties are emphasized. Friendship is a basic human need. Friendships are determined by group membership. Decisions are made individually and are influenced The group makes all decisions. by people’s beliefs and opinions
  • 12. Masculinity vs Femininity • Masculine cultures value success, money and material possessions, whereas feminine cultures place more value on relationships and quality of life. In masculine cultures, the differences between gender roles are more rigid and less fluid than in feminine cultures. • Interestingly, masculine cultures are those that used to be at war often, while feminine cultures are those in which men and women had to support each other in order to persevere in harsh life conditions.
  • 13. Masculinity vs Femininity Typical opinions of people from a Typical opinions of people from a feminine masculine culture culture Men’s role is to rule, women’s role is to raise Men are also involved in children’s up children. upbringing. Gender roles are explicit and concrete. Gender roles are interchangeable. Men should dominate in a society. Genders should be treated equally. Independence is the highest ideal. Mutual dependence is the highest ideal. People who achieve success are worthy of People who handle adversity deserve admiration. appreciation. Ambitions lead to action. Service is the greatest motivator to action. The great and the fast are beautiful. The little and the slow are beautiful. You live to work. You work to live.
  • 14. Uncertainty Avoidance • High uncertainty avoidance stems from striving for truth and the belief that it is in fact cognizable. This conviction is important in the Western rationalistic tradition. It can be juxtaposed with the Eastern pursuit of virtues stemming from Confucius‘ philosophy.
  • 15. Uncertainty Avoidance Typical opinions of people in a high Typical opinions of people in a low uncertainty uncertainty avoidance culture avoidance culture Uncertainty is an inevitable; therefore it is a Life’s uncertainty is inevitable; therefore, constant threat of life. accepting it should be easier. I feel anxious and stressed. I feel peaceful. I do not experience stress. I feel an inner imperative to work. Hard work is not a value in itself. I find people’s deviant tendencies and ideas I do not treat deviance as a threat - tolerance. threatening – lack of tolerance. I do not trust young people. I am friendly to young people. I am unwilling to take risks. I am ready to take risks. I need strict rules and regulations. The fewer rules, the better. Experts’ knowledge is the source of my My convictions are shaped by my own common convicitons. sense.
  • 16. Long vs Short Term Orientation • This distinction was added as the last one to Hofstede's typology. It describes societies’ time perspective. Long term oriented societies attach more importance to the future. In short term oriented societies, the past and the present are more valued.
  • 17. Long vs Short Term Orientation Typical opinions of people from Typical opinions of people from long term orientation culture short term orientation culture Tradition needs to be adjusted to the Respect for tradition present conditions. Frugality, even meanness A need to behave as others do regardless of consequences Expecting delayed gratification Expecting immediate gratification Importance of preserving one’s own Do anything to achieve a goal face Saving for future investments No money saved for investments Fulfilling social obligations within Fulfilling social obligations no matter reason the cost
  • 18. Discussion 1. How would you characterise your native culture using Hofstede’s dimensions? What makes you perceive it this way? 2. Do you find Hofstede's typology helpful in terms of increasing international understanding? Justify.