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Implementation of the
Programme of Work of
the GREEN Action Task Force
Status Update (May 2023 to April 2024)
1. Economy-wide, cross-sectoral policies for green
growth and sustainable development
2. Environmental policies for green growth: Climate
change mitigation, air pollution, circular economy
3. Water and ecosystems management, biodiversity
protection and climate change adaptation
4. Sustainable infrastructure, green investment and
finance
FOUR WORK PROGRAMME AREAS
WORK PROGRAMME AREA 1:
ECONOMY-WIDE, CROSS-SECTORAL
POLICIES FOR GREEN GROWTH AND
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
 Launch of Case studies, Climate-resilient agribusiness in Central Asia: the Nexus approach (May 2023)
 2023 EBRD Annual Meeting, Samarkand (May 2023); Central Asia Climate Change Conference, Almaty (May
2023), EU-OECD workshop, Innovative Solutions for strengthening regional cooperation, Dushanbe (June
2023); Almaty Energy Forum (November 2023)
 Start of the main phase of the project on Water, Energy, Land-use Nexus in Central Asia
 Upcoming launch of a regional e-book for the EU Eastern Partnerships (EaP) countries on green growth and
environmental indicators on the OECD Environment at a Glance Platform (June 2024)
 Publication of Greening the Economy in Uzbekistan: State of Play in 2023.
 EU4Environment – Green Economy Regional Assembly meetings (September 2023 and March 2024)
 Analysis of administrative capacity for environmental management and greening the economy in the EaP
countries
 Campaign within the EU Green Week 2023 – Regional event “Enhancing skills for a green transition in the
Eastern Partnership countries”
 Support to the development of the post-war reconstruction and recovery plan for Ukraine, including support
to developing methodologies for assessing environmental impacts of the Russian aggression against
Ukraine (ongoing)
 Launch of Environmental component of OECD Country Programme for Ukraine – alignment with OECD
instruments
Programme Area 1: Progress since
the 2023 Annual Meeting
WORK PROGRAMME AREA 2:
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES FOR
GREEN GROWTH: CLIMATE CHANGE
MITIGATION, AIR POLLUTION,
CIRCULAR ECONOMY
 Contribution to the environmental chapter of the OECD evaluation of the SME Policy Index in the EaP countries
 Presentation of recent developments on BAT implementation with updates from the Eastern Partnership countries
at the 8th meeting of the OECD Expert Group on Best Available Techniques (9-10 November 2023 in Seville,
Spain)
 Regional meeting «Applying the Polluter-Pays Principle to environmental compliance assurance in the
Eastern Partnership» (11 March 2024, online)
 Publication of the reviews on compliance assurance:
 «Environmental inspections and compliance assurance in Azerbaijan» (24 January 2024, in English
and in Azerbaijani) and its online discussion with the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of
Azerbaijan (5 October 2023)
 «Environmental compliance assurance in Georgia: Current Situation and Recommendations» (9
October 2023, in English and in Georgian)
 Publication of the reports on environmental liability:
 «Environmental liability provisions in Armenia: Damage prevention and assessment» (25 January
2024, in English and in Armenian) and its online discussion with the Ministry of Environment of Armenia
(16 November 2023)
 «Developing environmental liability legislation in the Republic of Moldova» (22 September 2023, in
English)
Programme Area 2: Progress since
the 2023 Annual Meeting
 Finalisation of analysis of how Ukraine’s draft Law on State Environmental Control
corresponds to the OECD Recommendation on Environmental Compliance Assurance (in
English and Ukrainian) and its presentation to the Committee of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on
Environmental Policy and Environmental Protection (1 December 2023)
 Webinar with Ukraine on environmental inspections in the framework of the EU Industrial
Emissions Directive and the role of laboratories (30-31 August 2023)
 Provision of comments by two legal experts on the damage assessment methodology for air
pollution from war and their participation in meetings of Ukraine’s Scientific Expert Council of the
State Environmental Inspection of Ukraine (21 June 2023 and 13 February 2024)
 Publication of the report: Ukrainians and climate policies: What are Ukrainians’ preferences for
using carbon revenues?"
 Participation of EU4Environment: Green Economy Programme at the 4 Networks Conference in
Rome (28-29 September 2023) and the IMPEL Water & Land Conference (17 October 2023) (the
latter was also open to EaP online participation)
 Launch of a project on decarbonization of the agribusiness sector in the EU Eastern Partner
Countries (ProGRess) funded by Germany, to be implemented with GIZ in the period 2024-2028
Programme Area 2: Progress since
the 2023 Annual Meeting (continued)
PROGRAMME AREA 3:
WATER AND ECOSYSTEMS
MANAGEMENT, BIODIVERSITY
PROTECTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE
ADAPTATION
Multi-stakeholder dialogues on water policy in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus
• National Policy Dialogues on Water in Moldova (March
2024), Georgia (January 2024), Armenia (October
2023) and Ukraine (May 2023) with UNECE under
EU4Environment Water and data
• Workshops on assessing the enabling environment for
financing water, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova
• 2nd EU4Environment Water and Data Regional Action
Group Meeting (Vienna, June 2023)
• Regional Workshop: Facilitating the Financing Of
Water And Environmental Resilience in EaP
Countries and Site Visits of EU Practice For
Naturebased Solutions (Vienna, June 2023) 9
Programme Area 3: Progress since
the 2023 Annual Meeting
• Working Paper on the
Enabling Environment for
Financing Water Security
in Armenia (December
2023)
• Workshop on financing
biodiversity in EECCA
countries (October 2023)
Programme Area 3: Progress since
the 2023 Annual Meeting
PROGRAMME AREA 4:
SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE,
GREEN INVESTMENT AND FINANCE
 Regional conference on green finance in the EU EaP and Central Asia (19-20 September 2023)
 Publication of Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition: Capital Market Development and
Opportunities for Green Bond Issuance (7 December 2023)
 Publication of Review of environmental taxation and environmental expenditure in Ukraine
 Publication of Review of energy subsidies in the context of energy sector reforms in Ukraine
 Support to reforming the National Ecological Fund and reform of environmental taxes and
charges in Moldova
 Publication of reports on designing Green Public Investment Programmes in Georgia
(biowaste), Moldova (urban transport) and Azerbaijan (water supply in rural areas)
 Upcoming launch of a report on the use of green bonds in the EaP countries and Kazakhstan
 Analysis of existing de-risking instruments in support of green investments in the EaP
countries and Central Asia
 Launch of a new project EU4Climate Resilience, funded by the EU and implemented by GIZ and
OECD (OECD work will focus on the promotion of the use of green bonds)
Programme Area 4: Progress since
the 2023 Annual Meeting
 Kazakhstan – “The Policy of Achieving Carbon Neutrality” expert seminar – Ecojer (Astana, 2 June 2023)
 Kazakhstan – Public-private discussion on sustainable infrastructure for the decarbonisation of hard-to-abate
industries (Astana, 3 July 2023)
 Kazakhstan – Regional workshop on ISO standards for carbon management in energy and industrial sectors (Astana,
4-5 July 2023)
 SIPA Summer School – Focusing on sustainable transport infrastructure planning and financing in Central Asia
(Istanbul, 3-5 October 2023)
 Uzbekistan – Expert workshop on low-carbon development – IDDRI (Tashkent, 27 November 2023)
 Kazakhstan – Workshop on fossil fuel subsidies reform – IISD (Astana, 28 November 2023)
 Kazakhstan – discussion on deep decarbonization pathways at the COP28 (Dubai, 1 December) – IDDRI
 Publication – OECD Report “Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition” (7 December 2023)
 Eurasia Week 2023 – Session on low carbon transitions in Eurasia (Paris, 14 December 2023)
 Regional webinar – Decarbonization of the energy sector in Central Asia - UCA (online, 19 December 2023)
 Kazakhstan – SIPA workshop on Best Practices and International Experience for Industrial Exporters in Hard-to-abate
Sectors in Kazakhstan (Astana, March 2024)
 Mongolia – Mission to launch the work to support LTS development (Ulaanbaatar, April 2024) - IDDRI
 Mongolia – Dissemination of the findings of the report “Towards a renewable hydrogen strategy development in
Mongolia” (Ulaanbaatar, April 2024)
Programme Area 4: Progress since
the 2023 Annual Meeting
STRENGTHENING COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE
WITH ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS, WITH A
FOCUS ON MINING/CRITICAL MINERALS
OECD Scene-setting presentation
16 April 2024
Agenda Item #3
The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024
Environmental compliance assurance consists of
three main elements
Promotion
Supporting framework
e.g. Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), legislation, standards and regulations, permitting,
institutions, transparency and integrity
• Communication
• Assistance
• Incentives and rewards
• Inspections
• Ambient monitoring
• Self-monitoring
• Examination of
complaints
• Audits
• Recognition of
management systems
• Enforcement policy
• Penalties
• Liability for damage
• Financial security instruments
Enforcement
Monitoring
Environmental compliance assurance: governmental activity aimed at ensuring that
regulated entities adhere to environmental regulations
Environmental compliance assurance has societal
and economic benefits
protects public health and the environment
helps obtain better environmental outcomes at lower
overall costs
promotes the rule of law and good governance
increases investor confidence by reducing business risks
stimulates innovation and creates new jobs
promotes a level playing field
enhances transparency and promotes citizen involvement in
enforcement
There is a need for differentiated responses based on
the behaviour of regulated entities
Source: European Commission.
The GATF has supported environmental compliance
assurance in EECCA
Over 20 years of work on compliance promotion,
monitoring and enforcement
OECD Council
Recommendation on
Environmental
Compliance Assurance
(2023)
Examples
The EU4Environment: Green Economy Programme (2019-2024)
provided analytical support to the Eastern Partner countries
6 country
reports
•Assessments of environmental compliance assurance
systems: Armenia (2022), Moldova (2022), Georgia (2023),
Azerbaijan (2024)
•Assessments of legal environmental liability provisions:
Moldova (2023), Armenia (2024)
Regional
analysis
•Brochure on regional developments in environmental
compliance assurance in the Eastern Partner countries
(forthcoming)
•Chapter in the OECD publication “Green Economy Transition in
Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: Progress and Ways
Forward” (2022)
Analytical
support to
Ukraine
•Analysis of how Ukraine’s draft Law on State Environmental
Control corresponds to the OECD Recommendation on
Environmental Compliance Assurance
•Analytical support on the methodology for assessing
environmental impact of Russia’s aggression on air
3 regional capacity
building events
•Information systems (2021)
•Joint environmental inspections (2022)
•Environmental liability (2022)
1 online training •Forthcoming modules on EU best practices
2 national trainings •Georgia (identification and assessment of remediation measures) (2022)
•Ukraine (inspections according to the EU IED and the role of laboratories) (2023)
4 regional meetings •Risk-based approaches (2020)
•Enforcement (2021)
•Inspections (2022)
•Polluter-Pays Principle (2024)
Facilitation of
participation in
networks
•EU4Environment observer status in IMPEL and EUFJE
•8 IMPEL events and 1 EUFJE events opened to EaP
•Ukraine became IMPEL member in 2023
EU4Environment also carried out capacity building and
networking activities
Eastern Partner countries have strengthened their inspectorates,
but must address systemic institutional challenges
−Insufficient co-ordination between
permitting and inspection bodies
−No complete overview of all regulated
operations/enterprises
−High staff turnover and insufficient
qualifications
−Lack of information systems and
equipment
−No accreditation and obsolete equipment
at sampling laboratories
−Integrity is a concern
 .
New inspection bodies
Separated permitting and inspection
functions
Guidance documents in place
Prioritisation of electronic information
management system development
Some inspector training and performance
monitoring
Inspectorates participate in environmental
law elaboration in Azerbaijan and Moldova
-
Eastern Partner countries have prioritised awareness-raising,
but awareness remains low among the regulated community
Awareness-raising campaigns
Awareness-raising plans in Armenia and
Azerbaijan
Dedicated websites for environmental
inspectorates
Some meetings with the private sector
Use of social media
Dedicated institutions in Azerbaijan and
Georgia
−Low awareness among the regulated community
−Few activities aimed at the regulated
community
−Reactive information-sharing
−Quality of information on inspectorates’
websites can be improved
 . -
Eastern Partner countries use a variety of compliance
monitoring tools which can be further improved
Risk methodologies for planning inspections
Move towards integrated control through
laws on industrial emissions (Georgia,
Moldova, Ukraine)
A variety of tools to receive alerts
Requirements for self-monitoring and
reporting, with some digitalisation of systems
Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers
(PRTRs) in Moldova and Ukraine
−Too few planned inspections
−Long response times and lack of mechanisms to
track handling of alerts
−No 24/7 response capacity (except for Georgia)
−Self-monitoring reports lack verification
mechanisms, timely submission and
digitalisation
−PRTRs need further development
 . -
Eastern Partner countries use a pyramid of penalties, but
must update them
Penalties follow the standard “enforcement
pyramid”
Countries have revised/plan to revise
penalties
Georgia adopted a Law on Environmental
Liability
Azerbaijan’s prosecutors receive
environmental training
−No comprehensive and publicly available
enforcement policy guidance document
−Largely outdated legislation on penalties
−Heavy reliance on administrative fines
−Lack of specialised prosecutors
−Low fine levels
−Lack of provisions for liability and financial
security for environmental damage
 . -
Mining is an important source of economic rents and
exports in some EECCA countries
Source: Elaboration based on World Bank data.
Note: Data on ores and metals exports (% of merchandise exports) is not available for Uzbekistan for 2012.
• Mining rents and ores and metals exports exceed the world average in all EECCA countries except for Azerbaijan,
Moldova and Turkmenistan
• Mining rents (% of GDP) increased for all EECCA countries except for Georgia, Moldova and Turkmenistan during
2011-2021.
• Ores and metals exports (as % of merchandise exports) increased for all EECCA countries except for Armenia,
Moldova, Mongolia and Turkmenistan during 2012-2022.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
%
of
GDP
Mineral rents (% of GDP)
2011 2021
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
%
of
merchandise
exports
Ores and metals exports (% of merchandise
exports)
2012 2022
The mining sector in some EECCA countries ranks
highly globally
The International Council of Mines and Metals’
Mining Contribution Index (2022)
2. Mongolia
6. Kyrgyzstan
9. Uzbekistan
11. Tajikistan
20. Kazakhstan
23. Armenia
28. Georgia
35. Ukraine
Sources: International Council of Mines and Metals, 2022 Mining Contribution Index, 2022; Canada Energy Regulator, Market Snapshot: Critical Minerals Are Key to the Global Energy
Transition, 2023.
Shares in global production of certain
critical minerals (2020)
Note: Out of 183 countries
Armenia
Kazakhstan
Mongolia
Tajikistan
Ukraine
Uzbekistan
41% for uranium
17% for chromium
9% for fluorspar
25% for antimony
7% for uranium
6% for titanium
4% for manganese
4% for molybdenum
Note: Based on Canada’s list of critical minerals
Mining presents many environmental challenges, highlighting the
importance of compliance promotion, monitoring and enforcement
• Poorly maintained non-
operational sites and legacy
pollution
• Ageing mining facilities and
equipment
• Non-adherence to modern
standards in mining waste
and tailings facilities
• Lack of monitoring
Source: OECD (2019), Mining and Green Growth in the EECCA Region.
Environmental impacts of mining Challenges in EECCA
countries
1. What progress has been achieved in the promotion,
monitoring and enforcement of environmental compliance to
encourage voluntary compliance, and detect and remedy
non-compliance with regulations? What are the priority
areas of reform?
2.What are the biggest challenges in regulating and ensuring
compliance with regulations in the mining sector? What
analytical or capacity building support can GATF provide in
this area?
Discussion questions
FINANCING WATER IN EECCA
Updates and future projects
Agenda Item # 4
The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024
EaP Countries:
EU4Environment – Water and Environmental Data
2
Enabling Environment for Water Financing:
Tool structure and methodology
3
Enabling
environment for
investment in
water security
Investment
Policy
Framework
Water Policy
Framework
Water projects
Other
economic
sectors
How attractive is the
country for
investments?
How attractive are
water policy
frameworks for
investments?
Are projects in the water
sector sustainable and
bankable?
Do economic sectors
contribute to water
security?
Enabling Environment for Water Financing:
Piloting the tool in the EaP countries
4
Pilot phase
• Armenia complete
• Azerbaijan, Georgia,
Moldova and
Ukraine underway
Regional
Discussion
• May 30-31 OECD
High-level
Roundtable on
Water Financing
Preliminary findings
• Progress on water strategies and acts aligned
with EU acquis
• Challenges with differences in rural and urban
service provision, including centralisation and
standards
• Need for long-term investment planning at the
sectoral level
• Tariffs and water taxes are too low to cover
operational costs
Water tariffs and taxes: Reform proposals
5
• Water abstraction fees and water pollution taxes
Armenia:
• Water pricing for agriculture
Azerbaijan:
• Surface water abstraction fees
Georgia:
• Taxes for water use
Moldova:
• Economic instruments to support revitalization of freshwater ecosystems
• Assessment of tariff framework
Ukraine:
• roles and
responsibilities
• water allocation
between users
• Stocktake on funding
flows
Governance
situation
• Economic
• Environmental
• Climate
• Transboundary
• Food security
• etc
Pressures
• Fit for purpose?
• Sufficiently funded?
• Alignment with EU
and international
practices?
Current
functionality
• Review of recent and
planned actions to
address issues in the
water sector
Government
plans
6
Roadmaps for implementing reforms to enhance
finance for water security
Context
• Potential areas
including finance, water
allocation, governance
reform, and water user
associations
Options for
reform
• Analysis of the potential
options with clear
recommendations for
government
Recommendations
• prerequisites, necessary
modifications or
introductions of
legislation, and a
proposed schedule of
actions.
Implementation
• Proposals to test
recommendations
through pilot projects
Testing
Solutions
• 30-31 May, Brussels, Belgium
• To incentivise efficient water-related investment
in EaP countries in alignment with the EU’s
Global Gateway Initiative and the Economic
and Investment Plan for EaP.
• Expression of interest by 23 April 2024 at:
https://forms.office.com/e/JzZNaP0v2T
• Webpage: https://oe.cd/11-roundtable-eap
7
11th meeting of the Roundtable on Financing Water –
Focus on EaP countries
Central Asia: Water, Energy & Land-use Nexus
8
Water, energy, land-use Nexus approach – A case
study on agribusiness
https://oe.cd/well-nexus-case-studies
9
• Agriculture accounts for 16% of Central Asian
countries’ GDP and 25% of total employment.
• Climate change impacts are occurring on top
of socio-economic, demographic, and
geopolitical challenges to Central Asia's food,
energy, and water security.
• Examples of recent investment in agribusiness
companies in the region have led to the
creation of new markets and jobs in local
communities while pursuing environmental
sustainability and food security.
OECD and Asia Water Council partnership
10
• Since 2019, the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea,
the OECD and the Asia Water Council has cooperated in helping
to achieve the water-related Sustainable Development Goals in
Asia through the five-year collaboration "National Dialogue on
Water“
• Dialogues in Thailand and Indonesia have been completed and a
dialogue in Mongolia is ongoing
• Managing and Financing Water for Growth in Thailand
• Water Financing and Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia
• Uzbekistan was nominated as the next AWC member country for
a dialogue and the GATF will support this process
• Kick-off mission was held in March 2024 and financing issues
such as water/energy exchange and PPP are expected to feature
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
ATTENTION
Matthew Griffiths
Senior Programme Manager
OECD Environment Directorate
Finance, Investment and Global Relations Division
Guy Halpern
Policy Analyst
OECD Environment Directorate
Finance, Investment and Global Relations Division
FINANCING BIODIVERSITY
PROTECTION IN EECCA
OECD Secretariat Scene-setting presentation
17 April 2024
Annual Meeting of the GREEN Action Task Force
Chisinau, the Republic of Moldova
Insights from a preliminary assessment of biodiversity loss
drivers in Central Asia and GATF brainstorming session
2
Context: Outcomes from the previous GREEN Action TF
meetings and additional consultations since May 2023
• Understand “for what” public finance and private-sector
investment should be mobilised in EECCA*
• Map key drivers for biodiversity loss across the region
• Stock-take existing projects to address the drivers
The economics
and finance of
action
• Assess entry points for biodiversity action into different sectoral
policies / thematic areas (e.g. climate, water, energy…)
• Policy dialogue on biodiversity in collaboration with multiple
ministries and non-state actors (incl. private-sector)
• Assess economic and financial instruments for biodiversity
• Review methodologies for valuation of biodiversity
• Case studies on financial mechanisms and instruments in
support of biodiversity protection
Enhancing
evidence base
for policy
discussion
Governance
and policy
processes
*EECCA: Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia
• Following the previous consultations with the GREEN Action TF members:
– Assessing key drivers for biodiversity loss and identifying examples of financing
mechanisms for biodiversity protection, in cooperation with ZOÏ Environment Network
– Starting with Central Asia region, with the possibility to include Eastern Europe and
Caucasus region in the scope
– Possibly publication of a consolidated report and/or regional workshop on biodiversity
finance
On-going work under the GREEN Action TF
Central Asia
Eastern Europe &
Caucasus
Publication of a
consolidated report
Discussions at
2023 AM,
brainstorming and
Bureau meeting
Potentially a regional
workshop on
biodiversity finance
3
Preliminary findings from an assessment of key drivers
for biodiversity loss
Relative importance of impacts on ecosystems and
trends in Central Asia
Source:
Novikov
&
Kato
(forthcoming)
Key
drivers
for
biodiversity
loss
and
financing
conservation
in
Central
Asia
(Preliminary
findings
-
Not
for
citation)
5
Progress in certain policy areas for biodiversity
protection (2013-2023)
Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in
Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
6
Existing and emerging pressures on biodiversity
continue to grow (2013-2023)
Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in
Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
7
Sensitive ecosystems that are exposed to human
activities
Source:
Novikov
&
Kato
(forthcoming)
Key
drivers
for
biodiversity
loss
and
financing
conservation
in
Central
Asia
(Preliminary
findings
-
Not
for
citation)
Ecosystems types and selected examples of
biodiversity loss drivers in Central Asia
Natural pasture Impacts of overgrazing and associated soil degradation
Forests Overexploitation, wildfires, illegal logging, costs of reforestation
Water ecosystems
Industrial pollution, gravel extraction, water scarcity due to
water extraction for irrigation
Downstream
wetlands
Degradation and depletion of water resources, pollution,
Alpine ecosystems Damages from mining activities and infrastructure development
Wild flora and fauna
Damage from illegal collection of flora, poaching, over-tourism,
plastic pollution
Type Selected Examples
Source:
Novikov
&
Kato
(forthcoming)
Key
drivers
for
biodiversity
loss
and
financing
conservation
in
Central
Asia
(Preliminary
findings
-
Not
for
citation)
Where does finance for biodiversity protection in
Central Asia come from?
Sources of funding for biodiversity in Central Asia
Source:
Novikov
&
Kato
(forthcoming)
based
on
UNDP
Biodiversity
Finance
Initiative
country
pages
and
reports
in
Kazakhstan,
Kyrgyzstan
and
Uzbekistan
11
How can biodiversity finance be scaled up
in Central Asia (and broader EECCA region)?
- Insights from GATF brainstorming (Oct 2023) -
• Strengthen evidence base of financially viable projects for biodiversity protection,
and their economic benefits (e.g. avoided losses and costs) as well as non-
economic ones.
• Multi-stakeholder policy dialogue based on enhanced evidence to discuss both the
enabling environment for finance and investment readiness in EECCA region
• Support the updating of NBSAPs* and integration of biodiversity considerations into
economic and sectoral policies, regulations, and project planning processes.
• Enhance national and regional understanding of the key catchments/river
basins/ecosystems in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) and
their priorities for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
Further understand the economics of biodiversity protection
and factor it into decision making
* NBSAPs: National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans 13
• Further understand existing and available economic instruments to internalise
biodiversity-related externalities (e.g. taxes, fees and charges, subsidies,
biodiversity credits)
• Collect more examples of financial instruments/mechanisms (e.g. biodiversity
restoration funds, conservation bonds, project finance model, insurance
mechanisms, blended finance mechanisms)
• Develop multi-level, multi-sectoral finance targeted to specific biodiversity
challenges in EECCA (e.g. NbS to create the value recognition)
• Develop a "portfolio" of biodiversity projects in EECCA, rather focusing too much on
projects (especially those supported by grants)
Identify, apply and strengthen economic and financial
instruments and mechanisms
14
• Link biodiversity priorities to political statements from heads of states and national
development strategies in EECCA countries
• Develop a dictionary / taxonomy / typology for government officials and financial
institutions to better communicate on biodiversity issues with relevant stakeholders
in EECCA (or apply/adopt existing ones suitable for EECCA).
• Ensure compliance with standards, frameworks, guidance for high environmental
integrity of biodiversity-related projects.
• Support in enhancing capacity to develop projects on biodiversity (e.g. the Nature+
Accelerator Fund), including skills in appraisal of costs and benefits of projects for
biodiversity protection
Enhance efforts for capacity development and awareness
raising
15
1. What could be priority geographical or thematic areas for promoting
biodiversity finance in your country or partner countries?
2. What kind of analytical or capacity development work by the GREEN Action
Task Force could be helpful for your effort to mobile finance for biodiversity?
3. What evidence will be needed to translate the increasing political interest on
biodiversity protection into financing and investment? How can the Task
Force support the countries in doing so?
Discussion questions
Thank you
Supplementary slides
Rehabilitation of the Aral Sea region
Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in
Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
Protecting the snow leopard populations and habitats
Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in
Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
Reducing grazing pressure on forests and pastures
Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in
Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
MODERNIZING FOREST GOVERNANCE IN MOLDOVA FOR
SUSTAINABLE AFFORESTATION & EU ALIGNMENT
NICOLAS TREMBLAY, TASK TEAM LEADER
AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIODIVERSITY, AFD
ANNUAL MEETING OF THE GREEN ACTION TASK FORCE - BIODIVERSITY FINANCE SESSION
17 APRIL 2024
CHISINAU, MOLDOVA
MOLDOVA FORESTS
OWNERSHIP STATUS OF FORESTS
85%
Public
(Moldsilva)
14%
Communal
(Municipalities)
1%
Private
11%
40%
FOREST COVERAGE
Main threats identified:
 Climate change
 Energy demand
 Some unsustainable practices (even-aged forests)
AWARENESS AND POLITICAL WILL ARE THERE
AFFORESTATION IS A TOP PRIORITY FOR THE PRESIDENT SANDU
1 2 3
National Forest Extension
and Rehabilitation Program
(NFERP)  Ambitious targets:15 000
ha/year * 10 years
Adoption of a
New Forest Code
Alignment with EU rules &
regulations (e.g. PEFC)
Afforestation needs:
FUNDING
MODERNIZATION OF FOREST
GOVERNANCE
POLICIES AND
INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
AWARENESS AND POLITICAL WILL ARE THERE
2023
Policy Dialogue with Ministry of Environment
supported by Technical Experts (Société forestière, CDC, France)
19 action tracks over 5-6 years
 Reform Program “Strengthening and Modernization of the Forestry Sector in Moldova”
2024
2025
Implementation of PBL Matrix covering the first tranche of the Reform Program
Contractual document guiding loan disbursement based on 6 pillars with 28 SMART milestones to be
achieved for the period 2024-2025
Technical assistance program to support reform implementation
2026
2028
Follow-up financing: Investment or Policy-Based Loan (TBD)
Project to be developed late 2025 following progress review of reform implementation
Continued… Technical assistance program
STRUCTURE OF THE PBL MATRIX
Reform Pillar Description
1 Adoption of the new Forest Code
Modernization – and alignment with EU standards and regulations – of key
legislation governing forestry activities in Moldova
2 Institutional Reform
Restructuring of forest-related Departments and public institutions overseen
by the Ministry of Environment
3
Promotion of biodiversity, carbon
capture and adaptation to climate
change
Development of key plans and programmes to promote environmentally
sound forestry practices aligned with EU standards and regulations
4
Promotion of sustainable forest-
based economic development
Support the creation of an enabling environment for the growth of
economic activities in the forest value chain
5
Implementation of the National
Afforestation Programme
Define the conditions for the operational implementation of the
afforestation plan
6
Enhancement of national capacity
in forest management
Academic collaboration with European institutions. Develop professionals'
and students’ capacity to address changing conditions (e.g. climate
change, EU standards).
PBL GOVERNANCE & TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
FORESEEABLE CHALLENGES
Funding of the
Ministry of
Environment to
initiate the reform
process
Institutional Resistance
to the reform process
Inter-ministerial
coordination (e.g.
ministries of Agriculture
& Education)
2
1 4
3
Coordination with
multiple partners with
interest in the forestry
sector (national &
international)
Thank you. Questions?
HIGHLIGHTS FROM A RECENT GREEN
FINANCE CONFERENCE AND SIPA’S
WORK ON CAPITAL MARKET
DEVELOPMENT
Agenda Item 3
The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting
Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024
Nelly Petkova and Douglas Herrick, OECD
• Background:
– Held on 19 and 20 September 2023 in Brussels and organised jointly with the European
Commission, and financed by the EC and Germany
– Final regional event as part of the work on green investments and finance in the EaP
region under the EU4Environment Programme
• Main objectives: take stock of recent policy and regulatory initiatives and financial
vehicles, identify key challenges and ways forward to speed up the green transition
as well as highlight new topics
• Participants: About 130 participants (60 in person and 70 online), representing
governments, international organisations, IFIs, private sector actors, NGOs
• Conference website: https://www.eu4environment.org/events/financing-the-green-
and-net-zero-transition-in-the-eu-eastern-partnership-countries-and-central-asia/
Background, objectives and participants
Session 2: Green
finance in EECCA:
Magnitude of needs
Session 3: Greening
capital markets
Session 4:
Improving market
conditions and de-
risking investments
Session 5: Public
revenue for green
finance
Session 6: Using
domestic public
finance to leverage
private resources
Session 7: Greening
domes and
international finance
Main discussion issues
• The green and net-zero transition financing gap remains large in EECCA countries:
while estimates show that on average up to about 20% of GDP will need to be invested
between 2023-2050, the current green public and private expenditure is low
• Governments need to create demand for scaled green investments and mobilise all
possible sources, particularly commercial capital from financial and capital markets: green
bonds are gaining traction (Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Ukraine,
Uzbekistan)
• To grow the green bond market and make it predictable and stable green finance
frameworks need to be put in place and harmonised with international standards:
current green finance frameworks and regulations are still in their infancy but promising
examples are already appearing (e.g. Georgia, Kazakhstan), more demonstration issuances,
particularly by sovereigns, are needed
• There is a wealth of programmes and instruments, offered by international partners,
that EECCA countries can use to stimulate and de-risk green and net-zero investments:
these include, among others, grants, guarantees, currency hedging instruments, support for
green bonds to develop green capital markets. One of the main challenges in applying these
instruments is matching demand with supply and subsequent uptake by the countries
Discussion highlights 1
• Reforming environmental taxes in line with the OECD and EU standards can help make
them more efficient and increase available revenue to support green investments:
– Moldova and Ukraine have already started such reforms and other countries could follow.
– While carbon pricing is not yet seen as a key instrument in the climate change policy area, some
governments have started considering it. It is important that countries start pricing carbon emissions
even at low rates and putting the infrastructure in place as it usually takes time to get the scheme
right and operational. This is also important in the context of the forthcoming European Carbon
Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) which will go into full effect in 2026.
• A number of countries have managed to mobilise additional public finance and have
set up well-governed public funds:
– Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine have aimed to align them with maturing market conditions or have
reformed existing institutions in line with good international practices. However, governments need
to do more to design public investment programmes and develop robust project pipelines that
ensure that scarce public resources are used cost-effectively and efficiently.
– Further improvement of the capacity of governments and transfer of targeted know-how to manage
green public investments, including through dedicated public Environmental Funds, is essential
• Partnerships are vital for promoting green finance and speeding up the green
transition: the OECD, the European Union and its members jointly with other international
partners, continue working together to make such partnerships deliver
Discussion highlights 2
SIPA’s work on capital market development and
opportunities for green bond issuances in Uzbekistan
Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition: Capital Market
Development and Opportunities for Green Bond Issuance
was published on the 7 December 2023
Read the report
Green bonds have gone from a niche instrument to a
substantial market
– Issuances of thematic
bonds have accelerated
sharply in recent years,
including in emerging
markets
– Emerging market
issuances still make up
only a small fraction of the
total market
– Transition economies in
Eastern Europe, the
Caucasus and Central Asia
(EECCA) began issuing
green bonds in 2019
8
Emergence of green bonds in EECCA
29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting
2019 2020 2021 2022 2023
DTEK Renewables
EUR 325 mn
5 years, 8.5%
->RE projects
Georgia Global Utilities
USD 250 mn
2 years, 7.75%
->refinance assets
Ameriabank I
EUR 42 mn
5 years, 3.05%
->RE + other
DAMU Fund
USD 0.5 mn
3 years
->solar
ADB
USD 32 mn
2 years, 10.1%
->solar
Georgian Railways JSC
USD 500 mn
7 years, 4%
->refinance debt, rail infra
Ukrenergo
EUR 325 mn
5 years, 8.5%
->sust.-linked portion
Ministry of Finance
USD 635 mn / USD 235 mn
3/10 years
3.9%/14%
-> “SDG bond”
Ameriabank II
USD 8 mn; AMD
3 bn
27 months
3.5% (USD);
9.5% (AMD)
->RE + other
L
L
L
SQB
USD 100 million
5 years
% n.d.
->RE + other
• Uzbekistan faces a sizeable financing gap between current
spending and estimated needs to achieve the SDGs and
domestic development goals
• Uzbekistan needs to diversify its financing sources.
– Public budgets, historically the main source of financing through the
country’s state-led economic model, are under strain
– International development finance available now, but loans at
concessional rates will become less accessible as per capita GDP
growth continues at pace
9
Why green bonds?
29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting
• In Uzbekistan, like many other post-Soviet republics, SOEs and
state-owned banks dominate the economy:
– just 5 state-owned banks manage 61% of all assets in the banking
sector
• Uzbekistan’s capital markets are shallow and underdeveloped
• Market infrastructure is insufficient for a well-functioning market.
– Uzbekistan’s securities market is divided across two platforms
– most corporate transactions occur via informal broker-dealer networks.
10
Barriers to green bonds in Uzbekistan
29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting
• Capacity constraints and a lack of qualified
financial professionals have hampered
Uzbekistan’s financial system’s development
• Given the novelty of debt instruments in
Uzbekistan, peer learning from experienced
financial actors is essential
• Under SIPA, a peer-learning exercise between
SQB (one of Uzbekistan’s largest banks) and
Ameriabank (an Armenian peer bank and
regional leader in green bonds) was organised
11
Opportunity: Peer learning
29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting
RENEWABLE HYDROGEN
DEVELOPMENT IN MONGOLIA
Insights from the report
The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting
Chisinau, the Republic of Moldova,
16-17 April 2024
Introduction to the report
Context and objectives Approach
 Context:
• Private-led nascent hydrogen sector in Mongolia
• Government aims to include renewable
hydrogen into policy plans
• Opportunities: competitive RE, export, decarb
 Objectives:
• Investigate the potential in Mongolia for green
hydrogen development
• Analysis of water-renewable hydrogen linkages
• Set of policy recommendations and roadmap to
H2 strategy
 Methodology:
• Over 30 interviews and consultations
• 6 case studies of renewable hydrogen projects in
Mongolia and in Central Asia
• Extensive review of the relevant policy, scientific
and technical literature
 The report looks at four areas for H2 development:
1. Aligning the innovation and industrial policy
framework
2. Investment framework for clean energy and
low-carbon technologies
3. Access to and sustainable use of water
4. Next steps: strategy governance and planning
STI policies for renewable hydrogen development
Main findings and recommendations
• Hydrogen innovation is concentrated within
large firms and across a small number of
economies  technology transfer central in
emerging economies such as Mongolia
• Demand-side policies needed: off-take is
critical, domestic demand important for sector
early development and LT low carbon growth
• Mongolia’s STI policy framework not aligned
with low-carbon objectives: limited resources
available so priority-setting is key
• Set of measures for low-carbon innovation
(dedicated agency, R&D tax credit, financial
tools)
• Technology transfer unit creation, options for
academic-industry placements, international co-
operation mechanisms
• Expand concessional finance instruments and
mobilise development finance
• Stimulate demand: consider effective carbon
pricing policies, public procurements, bilateral
trade agreements, public-backed de-risking
instruments for off-take contracts and
awareness raising
Main findings Recommendations
STI policies for renewable hydrogen development
Technology transfer for renewable hydrogen
Example of Japan’s Joint Crediting
Mechanism (JCM)
• Japanese mechanism to facilitate diffusion
of leading decarbonisation technologies,
products, services, infrastructure, etc.
• Allows offsetting of Japan’s GHG emission
reductions in line with NDC commitments
• Mongolia is a partner country of the JCM,
existing JCM projects in the country;
Renewable hydrogen projects in Mongolia
soliciting JCM
• Allows a 30% grant (up to a ceiling) to cover
the purchase of equipment from Japanese
technology providers where this enables
local emissions reduction
Enabling transfer of knowledge, technology and
capacities between STI system and industry
International
co-operation
Domestic
mechanisms
• Technology transfer units within higher
education and public research (e.g., Mongolian
Academy of Sciences);
 Giving HEIs tech transfer mandate
• Industry-research partnerships (e.g., between
large multinationals in mining and local STI)
• Public funding to target country-specific H2
challenges
• Awareness raising in industry of renewable H2
applications
Investment policies for renewable hydrogen development
Main findings and recommendations
• Mongolia has a relatively open statutory
framework for investment
• Some investment incentives for low carbon
technologies, but not strategically applied
• Key issues for investors are to do with trust and
confidence in public sector/SOEs, notably due to
legal disputes in RE sector
• Planned expansion mainly in coal sector and no
signal on effective carbon pricing
• No specific de-risking instrument in place for
renewable hydrogen
• Very little infrastructure, both soft and hard
(permitting, licensing, standards), needed for a
possible development at scale
Main findings Recommendations
• Integrate low-carbon investment mission into the
new Mongolian investment and trade agency
• Formulate clear energy strategy and clarify long-
term objectives: coal expansion vs RE
• Accelerate reforms for RE development
(regulated electricity prices, FiTs) and solve
ongoing disputes to reestablish trust
• Consider import duty and tax relief for low-
carbon technologies
• Assess hard infrastructure needs for renewable
hydrogen development and mainstream into
national infrastructure development plans
• Monitor international hydrogen regulations and
standards development and plan alignment
Minimal regulatory barriers to FDI in
RE, but low levels of actual
investment since 2015.
Despite NDC commitments to
decarbonise power sector, majority
of planned power capacity
expansion to be fueled by coal.
Investment policies for renewable hydrogen development
There has been limited RE investment, capacity expansion primarily to come from coal
Access to water for renewable hydrogen
Main findings and recommendations
• At the nascent stage, renewable hydrogen’s impact
on water sector should be very limited, but will
become problematic in scale-up phase
• Spatial mismatch between RE potential and water
availability
• Seawater desalination not possible, hence water
efficiency and innovation and treated wastewater
use are the only known viable options
• Water policy framework generally aligned with
requirements for H2 sector development, but more
capabilities and resources needed, as well as
incentives for water efficiency and savings (fees)
• Water infrastructure lacking, co-location and
shared infrastructure should be prioritized
Main findings Recommendations
• Anticipate, monitor and develop metrics and
standards for H2 water needs
• Embed water innovation in STI and investment
framework for H2 (e.g. incentives, approvals etc.)
• Consider cross-sectoral co-operation with a focus
on wastewater use
• Enhance water policy framework:
 Cross-sectoral co-ordination and institutional
capabilities (RBOs)
 Multi-stakeholder dialogue incl. through EIAs
 Water data and management (groundwater)
 Water tariff system revision
 Mainstream needs and risks into future water
infrastructure plans
Access to water for renewable hydrogen: key findings (3/7)
High risks of competing new usage and barrier to investment
606,200
338,600
92,540
86,380
31,209
29,018
580
44
0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000
Total - 2022
Agriculture - 2022
Total mining - 2022
Household consumption - 2022
Mining in South Gobi - 2030e
Renewable H2 - 1 MT
Local renewable H2 project Phase III
Local renewable H2 project Phase I
Water demand of a potential renewable hydrogen sector
versus other user sectors in Mongolia
• Lack of / uncertainties regarding access to
water / what water resources are available
hindering investment projects
• Competing use with the mining sector
• Tensions with other local water users
(herders)
• Lack of support / tensions around the
development of a renewable hydrogen
sector
A
Risks
Next steps towards a renewable hydrogen strategy
for Mongolia
• Establish a steering platform for the development and implementation of Mongolia’s
renewable hydrogen strategy as well as working groups for addressing critical issues
• Define a timeline for strategy formulation, but also for monitoring, reviewing and
maintaining the strategy
• Define a shared vision for a renewable hydrogen industry development in Mongolia
with short and longer-term targets and objectives
 Aligned on NDC commitments and LTS
 Articulated with a domestic industry decarbonisation strategy (e.g. mining
sector)
 Identifying how the production of renewable hydrogen and other low-carbon
technologies could create new opportunities for Mongolian industry in global
value chains
Examples of strategies’ targets
Indicator Canada Chile Morocco Namibia Oman
Production targets
(2030)
4 Mt
25 GW of electrolysis
capacity
export: 10.3 TWhrs
industry: 3.1 TWhrs
1-2 Mt 1-1.25 Mt
Production targets
(2050)
20 Mt N/A
export: 114.7 TWhrs
industry: 20.7 TWhrs
10-12 Mt 7.5 - 8.5 Mt
Clean hydrogen
products
low carbon H2
green H2, green
ammonia, e-
methanol, e-gasoline,
green steel
green H2, green
ammonia, green
methanol
e-kerosene, green
ammonia, green H2,
hot-briquetted iron,
methanol
green H2, green
ammonia
Sectors of application
oil and natural gas
industry, transport,
heating, export
power, mining, export
fertilizers, transport,
power, export.
export, power refinery, export
Expected LCOE (2030) 5-12 CAD/kg 0.95-1.05 USD/kg N/A 1.2-1.3 USD/kg 1.6 USD/kg
Estimated investment
(2050)
N/A USD 330B USD 77B USD 190B USD 140B
Peline Atamer
Senior Policy Analyst and Head of SIPA – Central Asia
Peline.Atamer@OECD.org
UKRAINIANS AND CLIMATE POLICIES
Day 2
The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting
Chisinau, the Republic of Moldova,
16-17 April 2024
Background document
Neuweg, I. (2023), "Ukrainians and climate policies: What are Ukrainians’
preferences for using carbon revenues?", OECD Environment Working Papers, No.
229, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/00c8ec08-en
Ukraine’s National Strategies (GHG and other)
• Reduce GHG emissions by 65% by 2030,
compared to 1990 (including LULUCF)
• National Economic Strategy until 2030,
approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of
Ministers of Ukraine of March 3, 2021 #
179:
– Reach carbon neutrality by 2060
• DRAFT NATIONAL ENERGY AND CLIMATE
PLAN OF UKRAINE 2025-2030
– environmental tax reforms (including
CO2 emissions tax) are still being
developed
Source:https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/ndcstaging/PublishedDocuments/
Ukraine%20First/Ukraine%20NDC_July%2031.pdf
A complex environmentally-related tax landscape,
with increasing revenues from the CO2 tax
0.4% 0.4% 0.4%
0.7%
1.2%
0.2%
0.3%
0.2%
0.3%
0.4%
0.3%
0.0%
0.2%
0.4%
0.6%
0.8%
1.0%
1.2%
1.4%
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
UAH million
Environmental tax on CO₂ Environmental tax on fuel
Environmental tax on vehicles Environmental tax on other emissions
Environmental tax on effluents Environmental tax on waste
Environmental tax on radioactive waste Charge for pollution
Share in total state budget revenue (right axis)
Source: Neuweg, I., et al. (2023), "Review of environmental taxation and environmental expenditure in Ukraine", OECD
Environment Working Papers, No. 231, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/921319bc-en
Survey of the public acceptability of climate change
mitigation policies
Overall goal: construct country-specific advice on policies to deal with the
transition to a low-carbon economy
Mechanism: understand people’s perceptions about climate change and
preferences over available climate policies
Methodology: large-scale surveys with three different and randomized information
treatment groups about the impacts of climate change and related policies in OECD
countries and selected non-members.
• >1,500 respondents in Ukraine, representative of the population
Main research questions
Drivers of policy support: reveal how social attitudes, values, and
perceptions drive support or opposition for climate policies
Effects of targeted information: understand how perceptions may change
after receiving new information on the effects of policies/climate change
(in a video format) and how it translates into beliefs and support
Cross-country comparisons: analyze how social preferences on climate
change mitigation policies differ between countries
Information treatments
~1,500
respondents
Control
group
Policy video treatment
Climate impact video
treatment
Climate impact + policy
video treatment
Random assignment
29.4% 23.5%
No video information
provided
Local impacts of
climate change
1. Ban on combustion-car engines
2. Carbon tax w/ cash transfers
3. Green infrastructure program
Treatment consists in watching 2-5min. videos either informing the participant about the effects of the three
main climate policies, or underlying the effects of climate change in their country
Key findings
Perceptions of main climate policies in Ukraine and other countries in the survey
Key findings
Governments can use the revenues from carbon taxes in different ways. Would you support or
oppose introducing a carbon tax that would raise gasoline prices by 3hrn/L, if the government used this revenue
to finance...
Further reading
Neuweg, I. (2023), "Ukrainians and climate policies: What are
Ukrainians’ preferences for using carbon revenues?", OECD
Environment Working Papers, No. 229, OECD Publishing,
Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/00c8ec08-en.
APPLYING THE OECD GREEN
GROWTH INDICATOR FRAMEWORK
TO UZBEKISTAN
• The OECD Green Growth Indicator framework was
applied to Uzbekistan
• Data was collected for 23 GG Indicators from 1990-
2022:
– Carbon, energy, material, water productivity and forest
coverage have been increasing over the past thirty
years;
– However, total GHG emissions, energy-intensity, water
stress levels and air pollution remain significant
concerns.
• The results were presented at the Ministry of
Economy and Finance in Tashkent in October 2023
• The GG report can be found here:
https://www.oecd.org/environment/outreach/Green-
growth-indicators-Uzbekistan-report.pdf
11
Measuring Green Growth in Uzbekistan
ENVIRONMENT AT A GLANCE
IN THE EU'S EASTERN
PARTNER (EaP) COUNTRIES
Presentation to the GREEN Action Taskforce
17 April 2024
Guy Halpern, Policy Analyst
A focus on the green transition
2
• Socio-economic context
– GDP growth
– Population
• Natural asset base
– Land use
– Freshwater resources
– Waste generation and treatment
• Environmental resource
productivity
– CO2 productivity
– Energy mix and consumption
– Material productivity and footprint
• Environmental quality of life
– Exposure to environmental hazards
– Exposure to climate-related hazards
– Access to drinking water and sewage
treatment
• Economic opportunities and policy
responses
– Technology and innovation
– Taxes and transfers
– Protected areas
3
Online interface
Climate change adaptation and mitigation:
the need for data in decision-making
Note: Based on data available as of 202XX
4
Population exposure to river flooding
Population exposed (%), latest year available
20 years 100 years 50 years 10 years
OECD Armenia Azerbaijan Moldova Ukraine Georgia
0
20
40
60
Annual surface temperature change
in degrees Celsius
European Union (27 countries) OECD
Georgia Ukraine
Azerbaijan Armenia
Moldova
-2
0
2
4
Natural asset base in EaP countries
Note: Based on data available as of 202XX
5
Land use
As a percentage of land area (and in square kilometres when hovering)
Other areas Arable land and permanent crops
Forest Permanent meadows and pastures
Moldova Armenia Georgia Azerbaijan Ukraine OECD - Total
0
25
50
75
100
Freshwater abstractions
Gross abstractions per capita, cubic metre per capita
Ukraine Moldova Georgia OECD - Total Armenia Azerbaijan
0
250
500
750
1000
1250
1500
Energy and CO2 productivity
Note: Based on data available as of 202XX
6
Energy productivity
GDP per unit of TES, USD per tonne of oil equivalent
0
5k
10k
15k
Production-based CO2 productivity
GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions in 2021, US dollars per unit of CO2
0
2
4
6
8
The need to modernise infrastructure and transport
Note: Based on data available as of 202XX
7
Mean population exposure to PM2.5 fine particules
Micrgrams per cubic metre
0
10
20
30
40
Mortality for selected pollutants
Per one million inhabitant
Mortality from exposure to lead Mortality from exposure to ambient ozone
Mortality from exposure to ambient PM2.5 Mortality from exposure to residential radon
Exposure to environmental risks Environmental dimension of quality of life
0
500
1000
1500
THANK YOU

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  • 2. 1. Economy-wide, cross-sectoral policies for green growth and sustainable development 2. Environmental policies for green growth: Climate change mitigation, air pollution, circular economy 3. Water and ecosystems management, biodiversity protection and climate change adaptation 4. Sustainable infrastructure, green investment and finance FOUR WORK PROGRAMME AREAS
  • 3. WORK PROGRAMME AREA 1: ECONOMY-WIDE, CROSS-SECTORAL POLICIES FOR GREEN GROWTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  • 4.  Launch of Case studies, Climate-resilient agribusiness in Central Asia: the Nexus approach (May 2023)  2023 EBRD Annual Meeting, Samarkand (May 2023); Central Asia Climate Change Conference, Almaty (May 2023), EU-OECD workshop, Innovative Solutions for strengthening regional cooperation, Dushanbe (June 2023); Almaty Energy Forum (November 2023)  Start of the main phase of the project on Water, Energy, Land-use Nexus in Central Asia  Upcoming launch of a regional e-book for the EU Eastern Partnerships (EaP) countries on green growth and environmental indicators on the OECD Environment at a Glance Platform (June 2024)  Publication of Greening the Economy in Uzbekistan: State of Play in 2023.  EU4Environment – Green Economy Regional Assembly meetings (September 2023 and March 2024)  Analysis of administrative capacity for environmental management and greening the economy in the EaP countries  Campaign within the EU Green Week 2023 – Regional event “Enhancing skills for a green transition in the Eastern Partnership countries”  Support to the development of the post-war reconstruction and recovery plan for Ukraine, including support to developing methodologies for assessing environmental impacts of the Russian aggression against Ukraine (ongoing)  Launch of Environmental component of OECD Country Programme for Ukraine – alignment with OECD instruments Programme Area 1: Progress since the 2023 Annual Meeting
  • 5. WORK PROGRAMME AREA 2: ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES FOR GREEN GROWTH: CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION, AIR POLLUTION, CIRCULAR ECONOMY
  • 6.  Contribution to the environmental chapter of the OECD evaluation of the SME Policy Index in the EaP countries  Presentation of recent developments on BAT implementation with updates from the Eastern Partnership countries at the 8th meeting of the OECD Expert Group on Best Available Techniques (9-10 November 2023 in Seville, Spain)  Regional meeting «Applying the Polluter-Pays Principle to environmental compliance assurance in the Eastern Partnership» (11 March 2024, online)  Publication of the reviews on compliance assurance:  «Environmental inspections and compliance assurance in Azerbaijan» (24 January 2024, in English and in Azerbaijani) and its online discussion with the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Azerbaijan (5 October 2023)  «Environmental compliance assurance in Georgia: Current Situation and Recommendations» (9 October 2023, in English and in Georgian)  Publication of the reports on environmental liability:  «Environmental liability provisions in Armenia: Damage prevention and assessment» (25 January 2024, in English and in Armenian) and its online discussion with the Ministry of Environment of Armenia (16 November 2023)  «Developing environmental liability legislation in the Republic of Moldova» (22 September 2023, in English) Programme Area 2: Progress since the 2023 Annual Meeting
  • 7.  Finalisation of analysis of how Ukraine’s draft Law on State Environmental Control corresponds to the OECD Recommendation on Environmental Compliance Assurance (in English and Ukrainian) and its presentation to the Committee of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine on Environmental Policy and Environmental Protection (1 December 2023)  Webinar with Ukraine on environmental inspections in the framework of the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the role of laboratories (30-31 August 2023)  Provision of comments by two legal experts on the damage assessment methodology for air pollution from war and their participation in meetings of Ukraine’s Scientific Expert Council of the State Environmental Inspection of Ukraine (21 June 2023 and 13 February 2024)  Publication of the report: Ukrainians and climate policies: What are Ukrainians’ preferences for using carbon revenues?"  Participation of EU4Environment: Green Economy Programme at the 4 Networks Conference in Rome (28-29 September 2023) and the IMPEL Water & Land Conference (17 October 2023) (the latter was also open to EaP online participation)  Launch of a project on decarbonization of the agribusiness sector in the EU Eastern Partner Countries (ProGRess) funded by Germany, to be implemented with GIZ in the period 2024-2028 Programme Area 2: Progress since the 2023 Annual Meeting (continued)
  • 8. PROGRAMME AREA 3: WATER AND ECOSYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION
  • 9. Multi-stakeholder dialogues on water policy in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus • National Policy Dialogues on Water in Moldova (March 2024), Georgia (January 2024), Armenia (October 2023) and Ukraine (May 2023) with UNECE under EU4Environment Water and data • Workshops on assessing the enabling environment for financing water, Armenia, Georgia and Moldova • 2nd EU4Environment Water and Data Regional Action Group Meeting (Vienna, June 2023) • Regional Workshop: Facilitating the Financing Of Water And Environmental Resilience in EaP Countries and Site Visits of EU Practice For Naturebased Solutions (Vienna, June 2023) 9 Programme Area 3: Progress since the 2023 Annual Meeting
  • 10. • Working Paper on the Enabling Environment for Financing Water Security in Armenia (December 2023) • Workshop on financing biodiversity in EECCA countries (October 2023) Programme Area 3: Progress since the 2023 Annual Meeting
  • 11. PROGRAMME AREA 4: SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE, GREEN INVESTMENT AND FINANCE
  • 12.  Regional conference on green finance in the EU EaP and Central Asia (19-20 September 2023)  Publication of Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition: Capital Market Development and Opportunities for Green Bond Issuance (7 December 2023)  Publication of Review of environmental taxation and environmental expenditure in Ukraine  Publication of Review of energy subsidies in the context of energy sector reforms in Ukraine  Support to reforming the National Ecological Fund and reform of environmental taxes and charges in Moldova  Publication of reports on designing Green Public Investment Programmes in Georgia (biowaste), Moldova (urban transport) and Azerbaijan (water supply in rural areas)  Upcoming launch of a report on the use of green bonds in the EaP countries and Kazakhstan  Analysis of existing de-risking instruments in support of green investments in the EaP countries and Central Asia  Launch of a new project EU4Climate Resilience, funded by the EU and implemented by GIZ and OECD (OECD work will focus on the promotion of the use of green bonds) Programme Area 4: Progress since the 2023 Annual Meeting
  • 13.  Kazakhstan – “The Policy of Achieving Carbon Neutrality” expert seminar – Ecojer (Astana, 2 June 2023)  Kazakhstan – Public-private discussion on sustainable infrastructure for the decarbonisation of hard-to-abate industries (Astana, 3 July 2023)  Kazakhstan – Regional workshop on ISO standards for carbon management in energy and industrial sectors (Astana, 4-5 July 2023)  SIPA Summer School – Focusing on sustainable transport infrastructure planning and financing in Central Asia (Istanbul, 3-5 October 2023)  Uzbekistan – Expert workshop on low-carbon development – IDDRI (Tashkent, 27 November 2023)  Kazakhstan – Workshop on fossil fuel subsidies reform – IISD (Astana, 28 November 2023)  Kazakhstan – discussion on deep decarbonization pathways at the COP28 (Dubai, 1 December) – IDDRI  Publication – OECD Report “Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition” (7 December 2023)  Eurasia Week 2023 – Session on low carbon transitions in Eurasia (Paris, 14 December 2023)  Regional webinar – Decarbonization of the energy sector in Central Asia - UCA (online, 19 December 2023)  Kazakhstan – SIPA workshop on Best Practices and International Experience for Industrial Exporters in Hard-to-abate Sectors in Kazakhstan (Astana, March 2024)  Mongolia – Mission to launch the work to support LTS development (Ulaanbaatar, April 2024) - IDDRI  Mongolia – Dissemination of the findings of the report “Towards a renewable hydrogen strategy development in Mongolia” (Ulaanbaatar, April 2024) Programme Area 4: Progress since the 2023 Annual Meeting
  • 14. STRENGTHENING COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS, WITH A FOCUS ON MINING/CRITICAL MINERALS OECD Scene-setting presentation 16 April 2024 Agenda Item #3 The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024
  • 15. Environmental compliance assurance consists of three main elements Promotion Supporting framework e.g. Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), legislation, standards and regulations, permitting, institutions, transparency and integrity • Communication • Assistance • Incentives and rewards • Inspections • Ambient monitoring • Self-monitoring • Examination of complaints • Audits • Recognition of management systems • Enforcement policy • Penalties • Liability for damage • Financial security instruments Enforcement Monitoring Environmental compliance assurance: governmental activity aimed at ensuring that regulated entities adhere to environmental regulations
  • 16. Environmental compliance assurance has societal and economic benefits protects public health and the environment helps obtain better environmental outcomes at lower overall costs promotes the rule of law and good governance increases investor confidence by reducing business risks stimulates innovation and creates new jobs promotes a level playing field enhances transparency and promotes citizen involvement in enforcement
  • 17. There is a need for differentiated responses based on the behaviour of regulated entities Source: European Commission.
  • 18. The GATF has supported environmental compliance assurance in EECCA Over 20 years of work on compliance promotion, monitoring and enforcement OECD Council Recommendation on Environmental Compliance Assurance (2023) Examples
  • 19. The EU4Environment: Green Economy Programme (2019-2024) provided analytical support to the Eastern Partner countries 6 country reports •Assessments of environmental compliance assurance systems: Armenia (2022), Moldova (2022), Georgia (2023), Azerbaijan (2024) •Assessments of legal environmental liability provisions: Moldova (2023), Armenia (2024) Regional analysis •Brochure on regional developments in environmental compliance assurance in the Eastern Partner countries (forthcoming) •Chapter in the OECD publication “Green Economy Transition in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: Progress and Ways Forward” (2022) Analytical support to Ukraine •Analysis of how Ukraine’s draft Law on State Environmental Control corresponds to the OECD Recommendation on Environmental Compliance Assurance •Analytical support on the methodology for assessing environmental impact of Russia’s aggression on air
  • 20. 3 regional capacity building events •Information systems (2021) •Joint environmental inspections (2022) •Environmental liability (2022) 1 online training •Forthcoming modules on EU best practices 2 national trainings •Georgia (identification and assessment of remediation measures) (2022) •Ukraine (inspections according to the EU IED and the role of laboratories) (2023) 4 regional meetings •Risk-based approaches (2020) •Enforcement (2021) •Inspections (2022) •Polluter-Pays Principle (2024) Facilitation of participation in networks •EU4Environment observer status in IMPEL and EUFJE •8 IMPEL events and 1 EUFJE events opened to EaP •Ukraine became IMPEL member in 2023 EU4Environment also carried out capacity building and networking activities
  • 21. Eastern Partner countries have strengthened their inspectorates, but must address systemic institutional challenges −Insufficient co-ordination between permitting and inspection bodies −No complete overview of all regulated operations/enterprises −High staff turnover and insufficient qualifications −Lack of information systems and equipment −No accreditation and obsolete equipment at sampling laboratories −Integrity is a concern  . New inspection bodies Separated permitting and inspection functions Guidance documents in place Prioritisation of electronic information management system development Some inspector training and performance monitoring Inspectorates participate in environmental law elaboration in Azerbaijan and Moldova -
  • 22. Eastern Partner countries have prioritised awareness-raising, but awareness remains low among the regulated community Awareness-raising campaigns Awareness-raising plans in Armenia and Azerbaijan Dedicated websites for environmental inspectorates Some meetings with the private sector Use of social media Dedicated institutions in Azerbaijan and Georgia −Low awareness among the regulated community −Few activities aimed at the regulated community −Reactive information-sharing −Quality of information on inspectorates’ websites can be improved  . -
  • 23. Eastern Partner countries use a variety of compliance monitoring tools which can be further improved Risk methodologies for planning inspections Move towards integrated control through laws on industrial emissions (Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine) A variety of tools to receive alerts Requirements for self-monitoring and reporting, with some digitalisation of systems Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Moldova and Ukraine −Too few planned inspections −Long response times and lack of mechanisms to track handling of alerts −No 24/7 response capacity (except for Georgia) −Self-monitoring reports lack verification mechanisms, timely submission and digitalisation −PRTRs need further development  . -
  • 24. Eastern Partner countries use a pyramid of penalties, but must update them Penalties follow the standard “enforcement pyramid” Countries have revised/plan to revise penalties Georgia adopted a Law on Environmental Liability Azerbaijan’s prosecutors receive environmental training −No comprehensive and publicly available enforcement policy guidance document −Largely outdated legislation on penalties −Heavy reliance on administrative fines −Lack of specialised prosecutors −Low fine levels −Lack of provisions for liability and financial security for environmental damage  . -
  • 25. Mining is an important source of economic rents and exports in some EECCA countries Source: Elaboration based on World Bank data. Note: Data on ores and metals exports (% of merchandise exports) is not available for Uzbekistan for 2012. • Mining rents and ores and metals exports exceed the world average in all EECCA countries except for Azerbaijan, Moldova and Turkmenistan • Mining rents (% of GDP) increased for all EECCA countries except for Georgia, Moldova and Turkmenistan during 2011-2021. • Ores and metals exports (as % of merchandise exports) increased for all EECCA countries except for Armenia, Moldova, Mongolia and Turkmenistan during 2012-2022. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 % of GDP Mineral rents (% of GDP) 2011 2021 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 % of merchandise exports Ores and metals exports (% of merchandise exports) 2012 2022
  • 26. The mining sector in some EECCA countries ranks highly globally The International Council of Mines and Metals’ Mining Contribution Index (2022) 2. Mongolia 6. Kyrgyzstan 9. Uzbekistan 11. Tajikistan 20. Kazakhstan 23. Armenia 28. Georgia 35. Ukraine Sources: International Council of Mines and Metals, 2022 Mining Contribution Index, 2022; Canada Energy Regulator, Market Snapshot: Critical Minerals Are Key to the Global Energy Transition, 2023. Shares in global production of certain critical minerals (2020) Note: Out of 183 countries Armenia Kazakhstan Mongolia Tajikistan Ukraine Uzbekistan 41% for uranium 17% for chromium 9% for fluorspar 25% for antimony 7% for uranium 6% for titanium 4% for manganese 4% for molybdenum Note: Based on Canada’s list of critical minerals
  • 27. Mining presents many environmental challenges, highlighting the importance of compliance promotion, monitoring and enforcement • Poorly maintained non- operational sites and legacy pollution • Ageing mining facilities and equipment • Non-adherence to modern standards in mining waste and tailings facilities • Lack of monitoring Source: OECD (2019), Mining and Green Growth in the EECCA Region. Environmental impacts of mining Challenges in EECCA countries
  • 28. 1. What progress has been achieved in the promotion, monitoring and enforcement of environmental compliance to encourage voluntary compliance, and detect and remedy non-compliance with regulations? What are the priority areas of reform? 2.What are the biggest challenges in regulating and ensuring compliance with regulations in the mining sector? What analytical or capacity building support can GATF provide in this area? Discussion questions
  • 29. FINANCING WATER IN EECCA Updates and future projects Agenda Item # 4 The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024
  • 30. EaP Countries: EU4Environment – Water and Environmental Data 2
  • 31. Enabling Environment for Water Financing: Tool structure and methodology 3 Enabling environment for investment in water security Investment Policy Framework Water Policy Framework Water projects Other economic sectors How attractive is the country for investments? How attractive are water policy frameworks for investments? Are projects in the water sector sustainable and bankable? Do economic sectors contribute to water security?
  • 32. Enabling Environment for Water Financing: Piloting the tool in the EaP countries 4 Pilot phase • Armenia complete • Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine underway Regional Discussion • May 30-31 OECD High-level Roundtable on Water Financing Preliminary findings • Progress on water strategies and acts aligned with EU acquis • Challenges with differences in rural and urban service provision, including centralisation and standards • Need for long-term investment planning at the sectoral level • Tariffs and water taxes are too low to cover operational costs
  • 33. Water tariffs and taxes: Reform proposals 5 • Water abstraction fees and water pollution taxes Armenia: • Water pricing for agriculture Azerbaijan: • Surface water abstraction fees Georgia: • Taxes for water use Moldova: • Economic instruments to support revitalization of freshwater ecosystems • Assessment of tariff framework Ukraine:
  • 34. • roles and responsibilities • water allocation between users • Stocktake on funding flows Governance situation • Economic • Environmental • Climate • Transboundary • Food security • etc Pressures • Fit for purpose? • Sufficiently funded? • Alignment with EU and international practices? Current functionality • Review of recent and planned actions to address issues in the water sector Government plans 6 Roadmaps for implementing reforms to enhance finance for water security Context • Potential areas including finance, water allocation, governance reform, and water user associations Options for reform • Analysis of the potential options with clear recommendations for government Recommendations • prerequisites, necessary modifications or introductions of legislation, and a proposed schedule of actions. Implementation • Proposals to test recommendations through pilot projects Testing Solutions
  • 35. • 30-31 May, Brussels, Belgium • To incentivise efficient water-related investment in EaP countries in alignment with the EU’s Global Gateway Initiative and the Economic and Investment Plan for EaP. • Expression of interest by 23 April 2024 at: https://forms.office.com/e/JzZNaP0v2T • Webpage: https://oe.cd/11-roundtable-eap 7 11th meeting of the Roundtable on Financing Water – Focus on EaP countries
  • 36. Central Asia: Water, Energy & Land-use Nexus 8
  • 37. Water, energy, land-use Nexus approach – A case study on agribusiness https://oe.cd/well-nexus-case-studies 9 • Agriculture accounts for 16% of Central Asian countries’ GDP and 25% of total employment. • Climate change impacts are occurring on top of socio-economic, demographic, and geopolitical challenges to Central Asia's food, energy, and water security. • Examples of recent investment in agribusiness companies in the region have led to the creation of new markets and jobs in local communities while pursuing environmental sustainability and food security.
  • 38. OECD and Asia Water Council partnership 10 • Since 2019, the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Korea, the OECD and the Asia Water Council has cooperated in helping to achieve the water-related Sustainable Development Goals in Asia through the five-year collaboration "National Dialogue on Water“ • Dialogues in Thailand and Indonesia have been completed and a dialogue in Mongolia is ongoing • Managing and Financing Water for Growth in Thailand • Water Financing and Disaster Risk Reduction in Indonesia • Uzbekistan was nominated as the next AWC member country for a dialogue and the GATF will support this process • Kick-off mission was held in March 2024 and financing issues such as water/energy exchange and PPP are expected to feature
  • 39. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION Matthew Griffiths Senior Programme Manager OECD Environment Directorate Finance, Investment and Global Relations Division Guy Halpern Policy Analyst OECD Environment Directorate Finance, Investment and Global Relations Division
  • 40. FINANCING BIODIVERSITY PROTECTION IN EECCA OECD Secretariat Scene-setting presentation 17 April 2024 Annual Meeting of the GREEN Action Task Force Chisinau, the Republic of Moldova Insights from a preliminary assessment of biodiversity loss drivers in Central Asia and GATF brainstorming session
  • 41. 2 Context: Outcomes from the previous GREEN Action TF meetings and additional consultations since May 2023 • Understand “for what” public finance and private-sector investment should be mobilised in EECCA* • Map key drivers for biodiversity loss across the region • Stock-take existing projects to address the drivers The economics and finance of action • Assess entry points for biodiversity action into different sectoral policies / thematic areas (e.g. climate, water, energy…) • Policy dialogue on biodiversity in collaboration with multiple ministries and non-state actors (incl. private-sector) • Assess economic and financial instruments for biodiversity • Review methodologies for valuation of biodiversity • Case studies on financial mechanisms and instruments in support of biodiversity protection Enhancing evidence base for policy discussion Governance and policy processes *EECCA: Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia
  • 42. • Following the previous consultations with the GREEN Action TF members: – Assessing key drivers for biodiversity loss and identifying examples of financing mechanisms for biodiversity protection, in cooperation with ZOÏ Environment Network – Starting with Central Asia region, with the possibility to include Eastern Europe and Caucasus region in the scope – Possibly publication of a consolidated report and/or regional workshop on biodiversity finance On-going work under the GREEN Action TF Central Asia Eastern Europe & Caucasus Publication of a consolidated report Discussions at 2023 AM, brainstorming and Bureau meeting Potentially a regional workshop on biodiversity finance 3
  • 43. Preliminary findings from an assessment of key drivers for biodiversity loss
  • 44. Relative importance of impacts on ecosystems and trends in Central Asia Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation) 5
  • 45. Progress in certain policy areas for biodiversity protection (2013-2023) Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation) 6
  • 46. Existing and emerging pressures on biodiversity continue to grow (2013-2023) Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation) 7
  • 47. Sensitive ecosystems that are exposed to human activities Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
  • 48. Ecosystems types and selected examples of biodiversity loss drivers in Central Asia Natural pasture Impacts of overgrazing and associated soil degradation Forests Overexploitation, wildfires, illegal logging, costs of reforestation Water ecosystems Industrial pollution, gravel extraction, water scarcity due to water extraction for irrigation Downstream wetlands Degradation and depletion of water resources, pollution, Alpine ecosystems Damages from mining activities and infrastructure development Wild flora and fauna Damage from illegal collection of flora, poaching, over-tourism, plastic pollution Type Selected Examples Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
  • 49. Where does finance for biodiversity protection in Central Asia come from?
  • 50. Sources of funding for biodiversity in Central Asia Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) based on UNDP Biodiversity Finance Initiative country pages and reports in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan 11
  • 51. How can biodiversity finance be scaled up in Central Asia (and broader EECCA region)? - Insights from GATF brainstorming (Oct 2023) -
  • 52. • Strengthen evidence base of financially viable projects for biodiversity protection, and their economic benefits (e.g. avoided losses and costs) as well as non- economic ones. • Multi-stakeholder policy dialogue based on enhanced evidence to discuss both the enabling environment for finance and investment readiness in EECCA region • Support the updating of NBSAPs* and integration of biodiversity considerations into economic and sectoral policies, regulations, and project planning processes. • Enhance national and regional understanding of the key catchments/river basins/ecosystems in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) and their priorities for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Further understand the economics of biodiversity protection and factor it into decision making * NBSAPs: National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans 13
  • 53. • Further understand existing and available economic instruments to internalise biodiversity-related externalities (e.g. taxes, fees and charges, subsidies, biodiversity credits) • Collect more examples of financial instruments/mechanisms (e.g. biodiversity restoration funds, conservation bonds, project finance model, insurance mechanisms, blended finance mechanisms) • Develop multi-level, multi-sectoral finance targeted to specific biodiversity challenges in EECCA (e.g. NbS to create the value recognition) • Develop a "portfolio" of biodiversity projects in EECCA, rather focusing too much on projects (especially those supported by grants) Identify, apply and strengthen economic and financial instruments and mechanisms 14
  • 54. • Link biodiversity priorities to political statements from heads of states and national development strategies in EECCA countries • Develop a dictionary / taxonomy / typology for government officials and financial institutions to better communicate on biodiversity issues with relevant stakeholders in EECCA (or apply/adopt existing ones suitable for EECCA). • Ensure compliance with standards, frameworks, guidance for high environmental integrity of biodiversity-related projects. • Support in enhancing capacity to develop projects on biodiversity (e.g. the Nature+ Accelerator Fund), including skills in appraisal of costs and benefits of projects for biodiversity protection Enhance efforts for capacity development and awareness raising 15
  • 55. 1. What could be priority geographical or thematic areas for promoting biodiversity finance in your country or partner countries? 2. What kind of analytical or capacity development work by the GREEN Action Task Force could be helpful for your effort to mobile finance for biodiversity? 3. What evidence will be needed to translate the increasing political interest on biodiversity protection into financing and investment? How can the Task Force support the countries in doing so? Discussion questions
  • 58. Rehabilitation of the Aral Sea region Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
  • 59. Protecting the snow leopard populations and habitats Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
  • 60. Reducing grazing pressure on forests and pastures Source: Novikov & Kato (forthcoming) Key drivers for biodiversity loss and financing conservation in Central Asia (Preliminary findings - Not for citation)
  • 61. MODERNIZING FOREST GOVERNANCE IN MOLDOVA FOR SUSTAINABLE AFFORESTATION & EU ALIGNMENT NICOLAS TREMBLAY, TASK TEAM LEADER AGRICULTURE, RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIODIVERSITY, AFD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE GREEN ACTION TASK FORCE - BIODIVERSITY FINANCE SESSION 17 APRIL 2024 CHISINAU, MOLDOVA
  • 62. MOLDOVA FORESTS OWNERSHIP STATUS OF FORESTS 85% Public (Moldsilva) 14% Communal (Municipalities) 1% Private 11% 40% FOREST COVERAGE Main threats identified:  Climate change  Energy demand  Some unsustainable practices (even-aged forests)
  • 63. AWARENESS AND POLITICAL WILL ARE THERE AFFORESTATION IS A TOP PRIORITY FOR THE PRESIDENT SANDU 1 2 3 National Forest Extension and Rehabilitation Program (NFERP)  Ambitious targets:15 000 ha/year * 10 years Adoption of a New Forest Code Alignment with EU rules & regulations (e.g. PEFC) Afforestation needs: FUNDING MODERNIZATION OF FOREST GOVERNANCE POLICIES AND INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP
  • 64. AWARENESS AND POLITICAL WILL ARE THERE 2023 Policy Dialogue with Ministry of Environment supported by Technical Experts (Société forestière, CDC, France) 19 action tracks over 5-6 years  Reform Program “Strengthening and Modernization of the Forestry Sector in Moldova” 2024 2025 Implementation of PBL Matrix covering the first tranche of the Reform Program Contractual document guiding loan disbursement based on 6 pillars with 28 SMART milestones to be achieved for the period 2024-2025 Technical assistance program to support reform implementation 2026 2028 Follow-up financing: Investment or Policy-Based Loan (TBD) Project to be developed late 2025 following progress review of reform implementation Continued… Technical assistance program
  • 65. STRUCTURE OF THE PBL MATRIX Reform Pillar Description 1 Adoption of the new Forest Code Modernization – and alignment with EU standards and regulations – of key legislation governing forestry activities in Moldova 2 Institutional Reform Restructuring of forest-related Departments and public institutions overseen by the Ministry of Environment 3 Promotion of biodiversity, carbon capture and adaptation to climate change Development of key plans and programmes to promote environmentally sound forestry practices aligned with EU standards and regulations 4 Promotion of sustainable forest- based economic development Support the creation of an enabling environment for the growth of economic activities in the forest value chain 5 Implementation of the National Afforestation Programme Define the conditions for the operational implementation of the afforestation plan 6 Enhancement of national capacity in forest management Academic collaboration with European institutions. Develop professionals' and students’ capacity to address changing conditions (e.g. climate change, EU standards).
  • 66. PBL GOVERNANCE & TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
  • 67. FORESEEABLE CHALLENGES Funding of the Ministry of Environment to initiate the reform process Institutional Resistance to the reform process Inter-ministerial coordination (e.g. ministries of Agriculture & Education) 2 1 4 3 Coordination with multiple partners with interest in the forestry sector (national & international)
  • 69. HIGHLIGHTS FROM A RECENT GREEN FINANCE CONFERENCE AND SIPA’S WORK ON CAPITAL MARKET DEVELOPMENT Agenda Item 3 The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024 Nelly Petkova and Douglas Herrick, OECD
  • 70. • Background: – Held on 19 and 20 September 2023 in Brussels and organised jointly with the European Commission, and financed by the EC and Germany – Final regional event as part of the work on green investments and finance in the EaP region under the EU4Environment Programme • Main objectives: take stock of recent policy and regulatory initiatives and financial vehicles, identify key challenges and ways forward to speed up the green transition as well as highlight new topics • Participants: About 130 participants (60 in person and 70 online), representing governments, international organisations, IFIs, private sector actors, NGOs • Conference website: https://www.eu4environment.org/events/financing-the-green- and-net-zero-transition-in-the-eu-eastern-partnership-countries-and-central-asia/ Background, objectives and participants
  • 71. Session 2: Green finance in EECCA: Magnitude of needs Session 3: Greening capital markets Session 4: Improving market conditions and de- risking investments Session 5: Public revenue for green finance Session 6: Using domestic public finance to leverage private resources Session 7: Greening domes and international finance Main discussion issues
  • 72. • The green and net-zero transition financing gap remains large in EECCA countries: while estimates show that on average up to about 20% of GDP will need to be invested between 2023-2050, the current green public and private expenditure is low • Governments need to create demand for scaled green investments and mobilise all possible sources, particularly commercial capital from financial and capital markets: green bonds are gaining traction (Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Ukraine, Uzbekistan) • To grow the green bond market and make it predictable and stable green finance frameworks need to be put in place and harmonised with international standards: current green finance frameworks and regulations are still in their infancy but promising examples are already appearing (e.g. Georgia, Kazakhstan), more demonstration issuances, particularly by sovereigns, are needed • There is a wealth of programmes and instruments, offered by international partners, that EECCA countries can use to stimulate and de-risk green and net-zero investments: these include, among others, grants, guarantees, currency hedging instruments, support for green bonds to develop green capital markets. One of the main challenges in applying these instruments is matching demand with supply and subsequent uptake by the countries Discussion highlights 1
  • 73. • Reforming environmental taxes in line with the OECD and EU standards can help make them more efficient and increase available revenue to support green investments: – Moldova and Ukraine have already started such reforms and other countries could follow. – While carbon pricing is not yet seen as a key instrument in the climate change policy area, some governments have started considering it. It is important that countries start pricing carbon emissions even at low rates and putting the infrastructure in place as it usually takes time to get the scheme right and operational. This is also important in the context of the forthcoming European Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) which will go into full effect in 2026. • A number of countries have managed to mobilise additional public finance and have set up well-governed public funds: – Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine have aimed to align them with maturing market conditions or have reformed existing institutions in line with good international practices. However, governments need to do more to design public investment programmes and develop robust project pipelines that ensure that scarce public resources are used cost-effectively and efficiently. – Further improvement of the capacity of governments and transfer of targeted know-how to manage green public investments, including through dedicated public Environmental Funds, is essential • Partnerships are vital for promoting green finance and speeding up the green transition: the OECD, the European Union and its members jointly with other international partners, continue working together to make such partnerships deliver Discussion highlights 2
  • 74. SIPA’s work on capital market development and opportunities for green bond issuances in Uzbekistan Financing Uzbekistan’s Green Transition: Capital Market Development and Opportunities for Green Bond Issuance was published on the 7 December 2023 Read the report
  • 75. Green bonds have gone from a niche instrument to a substantial market – Issuances of thematic bonds have accelerated sharply in recent years, including in emerging markets – Emerging market issuances still make up only a small fraction of the total market – Transition economies in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) began issuing green bonds in 2019
  • 76. 8 Emergence of green bonds in EECCA 29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 DTEK Renewables EUR 325 mn 5 years, 8.5% ->RE projects Georgia Global Utilities USD 250 mn 2 years, 7.75% ->refinance assets Ameriabank I EUR 42 mn 5 years, 3.05% ->RE + other DAMU Fund USD 0.5 mn 3 years ->solar ADB USD 32 mn 2 years, 10.1% ->solar Georgian Railways JSC USD 500 mn 7 years, 4% ->refinance debt, rail infra Ukrenergo EUR 325 mn 5 years, 8.5% ->sust.-linked portion Ministry of Finance USD 635 mn / USD 235 mn 3/10 years 3.9%/14% -> “SDG bond” Ameriabank II USD 8 mn; AMD 3 bn 27 months 3.5% (USD); 9.5% (AMD) ->RE + other L L L SQB USD 100 million 5 years % n.d. ->RE + other
  • 77. • Uzbekistan faces a sizeable financing gap between current spending and estimated needs to achieve the SDGs and domestic development goals • Uzbekistan needs to diversify its financing sources. – Public budgets, historically the main source of financing through the country’s state-led economic model, are under strain – International development finance available now, but loans at concessional rates will become less accessible as per capita GDP growth continues at pace 9 Why green bonds? 29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting
  • 78. • In Uzbekistan, like many other post-Soviet republics, SOEs and state-owned banks dominate the economy: – just 5 state-owned banks manage 61% of all assets in the banking sector • Uzbekistan’s capital markets are shallow and underdeveloped • Market infrastructure is insufficient for a well-functioning market. – Uzbekistan’s securities market is divided across two platforms – most corporate transactions occur via informal broker-dealer networks. 10 Barriers to green bonds in Uzbekistan 29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting
  • 79. • Capacity constraints and a lack of qualified financial professionals have hampered Uzbekistan’s financial system’s development • Given the novelty of debt instruments in Uzbekistan, peer learning from experienced financial actors is essential • Under SIPA, a peer-learning exercise between SQB (one of Uzbekistan’s largest banks) and Ameriabank (an Armenian peer bank and regional leader in green bonds) was organised 11 Opportunity: Peer learning 29 September 2023 1st WPFIEG meeting
  • 80. RENEWABLE HYDROGEN DEVELOPMENT IN MONGOLIA Insights from the report The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting Chisinau, the Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024
  • 81. Introduction to the report Context and objectives Approach  Context: • Private-led nascent hydrogen sector in Mongolia • Government aims to include renewable hydrogen into policy plans • Opportunities: competitive RE, export, decarb  Objectives: • Investigate the potential in Mongolia for green hydrogen development • Analysis of water-renewable hydrogen linkages • Set of policy recommendations and roadmap to H2 strategy  Methodology: • Over 30 interviews and consultations • 6 case studies of renewable hydrogen projects in Mongolia and in Central Asia • Extensive review of the relevant policy, scientific and technical literature  The report looks at four areas for H2 development: 1. Aligning the innovation and industrial policy framework 2. Investment framework for clean energy and low-carbon technologies 3. Access to and sustainable use of water 4. Next steps: strategy governance and planning
  • 82. STI policies for renewable hydrogen development Main findings and recommendations • Hydrogen innovation is concentrated within large firms and across a small number of economies  technology transfer central in emerging economies such as Mongolia • Demand-side policies needed: off-take is critical, domestic demand important for sector early development and LT low carbon growth • Mongolia’s STI policy framework not aligned with low-carbon objectives: limited resources available so priority-setting is key • Set of measures for low-carbon innovation (dedicated agency, R&D tax credit, financial tools) • Technology transfer unit creation, options for academic-industry placements, international co- operation mechanisms • Expand concessional finance instruments and mobilise development finance • Stimulate demand: consider effective carbon pricing policies, public procurements, bilateral trade agreements, public-backed de-risking instruments for off-take contracts and awareness raising Main findings Recommendations
  • 83. STI policies for renewable hydrogen development Technology transfer for renewable hydrogen Example of Japan’s Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM) • Japanese mechanism to facilitate diffusion of leading decarbonisation technologies, products, services, infrastructure, etc. • Allows offsetting of Japan’s GHG emission reductions in line with NDC commitments • Mongolia is a partner country of the JCM, existing JCM projects in the country; Renewable hydrogen projects in Mongolia soliciting JCM • Allows a 30% grant (up to a ceiling) to cover the purchase of equipment from Japanese technology providers where this enables local emissions reduction Enabling transfer of knowledge, technology and capacities between STI system and industry International co-operation Domestic mechanisms • Technology transfer units within higher education and public research (e.g., Mongolian Academy of Sciences);  Giving HEIs tech transfer mandate • Industry-research partnerships (e.g., between large multinationals in mining and local STI) • Public funding to target country-specific H2 challenges • Awareness raising in industry of renewable H2 applications
  • 84. Investment policies for renewable hydrogen development Main findings and recommendations • Mongolia has a relatively open statutory framework for investment • Some investment incentives for low carbon technologies, but not strategically applied • Key issues for investors are to do with trust and confidence in public sector/SOEs, notably due to legal disputes in RE sector • Planned expansion mainly in coal sector and no signal on effective carbon pricing • No specific de-risking instrument in place for renewable hydrogen • Very little infrastructure, both soft and hard (permitting, licensing, standards), needed for a possible development at scale Main findings Recommendations • Integrate low-carbon investment mission into the new Mongolian investment and trade agency • Formulate clear energy strategy and clarify long- term objectives: coal expansion vs RE • Accelerate reforms for RE development (regulated electricity prices, FiTs) and solve ongoing disputes to reestablish trust • Consider import duty and tax relief for low- carbon technologies • Assess hard infrastructure needs for renewable hydrogen development and mainstream into national infrastructure development plans • Monitor international hydrogen regulations and standards development and plan alignment
  • 85. Minimal regulatory barriers to FDI in RE, but low levels of actual investment since 2015. Despite NDC commitments to decarbonise power sector, majority of planned power capacity expansion to be fueled by coal. Investment policies for renewable hydrogen development There has been limited RE investment, capacity expansion primarily to come from coal
  • 86. Access to water for renewable hydrogen Main findings and recommendations • At the nascent stage, renewable hydrogen’s impact on water sector should be very limited, but will become problematic in scale-up phase • Spatial mismatch between RE potential and water availability • Seawater desalination not possible, hence water efficiency and innovation and treated wastewater use are the only known viable options • Water policy framework generally aligned with requirements for H2 sector development, but more capabilities and resources needed, as well as incentives for water efficiency and savings (fees) • Water infrastructure lacking, co-location and shared infrastructure should be prioritized Main findings Recommendations • Anticipate, monitor and develop metrics and standards for H2 water needs • Embed water innovation in STI and investment framework for H2 (e.g. incentives, approvals etc.) • Consider cross-sectoral co-operation with a focus on wastewater use • Enhance water policy framework:  Cross-sectoral co-ordination and institutional capabilities (RBOs)  Multi-stakeholder dialogue incl. through EIAs  Water data and management (groundwater)  Water tariff system revision  Mainstream needs and risks into future water infrastructure plans
  • 87. Access to water for renewable hydrogen: key findings (3/7) High risks of competing new usage and barrier to investment 606,200 338,600 92,540 86,380 31,209 29,018 580 44 0 200,000 400,000 600,000 800,000 Total - 2022 Agriculture - 2022 Total mining - 2022 Household consumption - 2022 Mining in South Gobi - 2030e Renewable H2 - 1 MT Local renewable H2 project Phase III Local renewable H2 project Phase I Water demand of a potential renewable hydrogen sector versus other user sectors in Mongolia • Lack of / uncertainties regarding access to water / what water resources are available hindering investment projects • Competing use with the mining sector • Tensions with other local water users (herders) • Lack of support / tensions around the development of a renewable hydrogen sector A Risks
  • 88. Next steps towards a renewable hydrogen strategy for Mongolia • Establish a steering platform for the development and implementation of Mongolia’s renewable hydrogen strategy as well as working groups for addressing critical issues • Define a timeline for strategy formulation, but also for monitoring, reviewing and maintaining the strategy • Define a shared vision for a renewable hydrogen industry development in Mongolia with short and longer-term targets and objectives  Aligned on NDC commitments and LTS  Articulated with a domestic industry decarbonisation strategy (e.g. mining sector)  Identifying how the production of renewable hydrogen and other low-carbon technologies could create new opportunities for Mongolian industry in global value chains
  • 89. Examples of strategies’ targets Indicator Canada Chile Morocco Namibia Oman Production targets (2030) 4 Mt 25 GW of electrolysis capacity export: 10.3 TWhrs industry: 3.1 TWhrs 1-2 Mt 1-1.25 Mt Production targets (2050) 20 Mt N/A export: 114.7 TWhrs industry: 20.7 TWhrs 10-12 Mt 7.5 - 8.5 Mt Clean hydrogen products low carbon H2 green H2, green ammonia, e- methanol, e-gasoline, green steel green H2, green ammonia, green methanol e-kerosene, green ammonia, green H2, hot-briquetted iron, methanol green H2, green ammonia Sectors of application oil and natural gas industry, transport, heating, export power, mining, export fertilizers, transport, power, export. export, power refinery, export Expected LCOE (2030) 5-12 CAD/kg 0.95-1.05 USD/kg N/A 1.2-1.3 USD/kg 1.6 USD/kg Estimated investment (2050) N/A USD 330B USD 77B USD 190B USD 140B
  • 90. Peline Atamer Senior Policy Analyst and Head of SIPA – Central Asia Peline.Atamer@OECD.org
  • 91. UKRAINIANS AND CLIMATE POLICIES Day 2 The 2024 GREEN Action Task Force Annual Meeting Chisinau, the Republic of Moldova, 16-17 April 2024 Background document Neuweg, I. (2023), "Ukrainians and climate policies: What are Ukrainians’ preferences for using carbon revenues?", OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 229, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/00c8ec08-en
  • 92. Ukraine’s National Strategies (GHG and other) • Reduce GHG emissions by 65% by 2030, compared to 1990 (including LULUCF) • National Economic Strategy until 2030, approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine of March 3, 2021 # 179: – Reach carbon neutrality by 2060 • DRAFT NATIONAL ENERGY AND CLIMATE PLAN OF UKRAINE 2025-2030 – environmental tax reforms (including CO2 emissions tax) are still being developed Source:https://www4.unfccc.int/sites/ndcstaging/PublishedDocuments/ Ukraine%20First/Ukraine%20NDC_July%2031.pdf
  • 93. A complex environmentally-related tax landscape, with increasing revenues from the CO2 tax 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.7% 1.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.0% 0.2% 0.4% 0.6% 0.8% 1.0% 1.2% 1.4% 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 UAH million Environmental tax on CO₂ Environmental tax on fuel Environmental tax on vehicles Environmental tax on other emissions Environmental tax on effluents Environmental tax on waste Environmental tax on radioactive waste Charge for pollution Share in total state budget revenue (right axis) Source: Neuweg, I., et al. (2023), "Review of environmental taxation and environmental expenditure in Ukraine", OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 231, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/921319bc-en
  • 94. Survey of the public acceptability of climate change mitigation policies Overall goal: construct country-specific advice on policies to deal with the transition to a low-carbon economy Mechanism: understand people’s perceptions about climate change and preferences over available climate policies Methodology: large-scale surveys with three different and randomized information treatment groups about the impacts of climate change and related policies in OECD countries and selected non-members. • >1,500 respondents in Ukraine, representative of the population
  • 95. Main research questions Drivers of policy support: reveal how social attitudes, values, and perceptions drive support or opposition for climate policies Effects of targeted information: understand how perceptions may change after receiving new information on the effects of policies/climate change (in a video format) and how it translates into beliefs and support Cross-country comparisons: analyze how social preferences on climate change mitigation policies differ between countries
  • 96. Information treatments ~1,500 respondents Control group Policy video treatment Climate impact video treatment Climate impact + policy video treatment Random assignment 29.4% 23.5% No video information provided Local impacts of climate change 1. Ban on combustion-car engines 2. Carbon tax w/ cash transfers 3. Green infrastructure program Treatment consists in watching 2-5min. videos either informing the participant about the effects of the three main climate policies, or underlying the effects of climate change in their country
  • 97. Key findings Perceptions of main climate policies in Ukraine and other countries in the survey
  • 98. Key findings Governments can use the revenues from carbon taxes in different ways. Would you support or oppose introducing a carbon tax that would raise gasoline prices by 3hrn/L, if the government used this revenue to finance...
  • 99. Further reading Neuweg, I. (2023), "Ukrainians and climate policies: What are Ukrainians’ preferences for using carbon revenues?", OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 229, OECD Publishing, Paris, https://doi.org/10.1787/00c8ec08-en.
  • 100. APPLYING THE OECD GREEN GROWTH INDICATOR FRAMEWORK TO UZBEKISTAN
  • 101. • The OECD Green Growth Indicator framework was applied to Uzbekistan • Data was collected for 23 GG Indicators from 1990- 2022: – Carbon, energy, material, water productivity and forest coverage have been increasing over the past thirty years; – However, total GHG emissions, energy-intensity, water stress levels and air pollution remain significant concerns. • The results were presented at the Ministry of Economy and Finance in Tashkent in October 2023 • The GG report can be found here: https://www.oecd.org/environment/outreach/Green- growth-indicators-Uzbekistan-report.pdf 11 Measuring Green Growth in Uzbekistan
  • 102. ENVIRONMENT AT A GLANCE IN THE EU'S EASTERN PARTNER (EaP) COUNTRIES Presentation to the GREEN Action Taskforce 17 April 2024 Guy Halpern, Policy Analyst
  • 103. A focus on the green transition 2 • Socio-economic context – GDP growth – Population • Natural asset base – Land use – Freshwater resources – Waste generation and treatment • Environmental resource productivity – CO2 productivity – Energy mix and consumption – Material productivity and footprint • Environmental quality of life – Exposure to environmental hazards – Exposure to climate-related hazards – Access to drinking water and sewage treatment • Economic opportunities and policy responses – Technology and innovation – Taxes and transfers – Protected areas
  • 105. Climate change adaptation and mitigation: the need for data in decision-making Note: Based on data available as of 202XX 4 Population exposure to river flooding Population exposed (%), latest year available 20 years 100 years 50 years 10 years OECD Armenia Azerbaijan Moldova Ukraine Georgia 0 20 40 60 Annual surface temperature change in degrees Celsius European Union (27 countries) OECD Georgia Ukraine Azerbaijan Armenia Moldova -2 0 2 4
  • 106. Natural asset base in EaP countries Note: Based on data available as of 202XX 5 Land use As a percentage of land area (and in square kilometres when hovering) Other areas Arable land and permanent crops Forest Permanent meadows and pastures Moldova Armenia Georgia Azerbaijan Ukraine OECD - Total 0 25 50 75 100 Freshwater abstractions Gross abstractions per capita, cubic metre per capita Ukraine Moldova Georgia OECD - Total Armenia Azerbaijan 0 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500
  • 107. Energy and CO2 productivity Note: Based on data available as of 202XX 6 Energy productivity GDP per unit of TES, USD per tonne of oil equivalent 0 5k 10k 15k Production-based CO2 productivity GDP per unit of energy-related CO2 emissions in 2021, US dollars per unit of CO2 0 2 4 6 8
  • 108. The need to modernise infrastructure and transport Note: Based on data available as of 202XX 7 Mean population exposure to PM2.5 fine particules Micrgrams per cubic metre 0 10 20 30 40 Mortality for selected pollutants Per one million inhabitant Mortality from exposure to lead Mortality from exposure to ambient ozone Mortality from exposure to ambient PM2.5 Mortality from exposure to residential radon Exposure to environmental risks Environmental dimension of quality of life 0 500 1000 1500