SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 23
Gestalt
in
psychology
Gestalt
SCHOOL OF THOUGHT
IN
PSYCHOLOGY
Outline
1. Introduction
2. Major thinkers & their contributions
3. Gestalt Laws
4. Merits of Gestalt Psychology
5. Criticism
6. Conclusion
Introduction to Gestalt Psychology
• Gestalt is a German word that means “shape”, “form” or “whole”.
• Gestalt School of thought focus on unified or whole rather than breaking
down thought, mental process and behavior into small elements. Gestalt
psychologist believed that you must look at the whole experience. “The
whole is greater than the sum of parts”
• One of the most important theories of perception is the Gestalt Theory.
Gestalt Theory “The Whole is different from the sum of its part”. It was
developed about 1910 by Max Wertheimer and carry on by Wolfgang
Kohler and Kurt Koffka at Frankfurt University.
Major Thinkers of Gestalt psychology
1. Max Wertheimer – Father of Gestalt psychology
2. Wolfgang Kohler
3. Kurt Lewin
Max Wertheimer (1800-1943)
• He was an Austro-Hungarian psychologist and philosopher.
• He created the Phi phenomenon which forms the basis of Gestalt psy.
• His work created a foundation of psychological theory, and his findings
are presented in his book Productive Thinking.
Phi Phenomenon: It is a perceptual illusion in which people see motion
that is produced by a succession of immobile images.
Wolfgang Kohler (1887 –1967)
• He was a German Psychologist & phenomenologist.
• Insight learning is perhaps the greatest contribution Wolfgang
Kohler made to psychology. Building off the influence of
gestalt psychology, Kohler discovered that learning can occur when
we gain insight into an entire situation, as opposed to focusing only
on an individual part.
Insight Learning
• Wolfgang kohler was the first psychologist who developed the insight
learning in which he described an experiment with apes that could
use boxes and sticks as tools to solve the problem.
• Insight learning is the abrupt realization of a problem's solution.
Insight learning is not the result of trial and error, responding to an
environmental stimulus, or the result of observing someone else
attempt the problem. It is a completely cognitive experience, which
requires the ability to visualize the problem and the solution
internally, in the mind's eye so to speak, before initialing a behavioral
response.
• The important aspect of learning was not reinforcement, but the
coordination of thinking to create new organizations. Kohler referred
to this behavior as insight or discovery learning.
Wolfgang kohler’s Experiment & Insight Learning
• In his experiment, Kohler hung a piece of fruit just out of the reach of each chimp. He
then provided the chimps with either two sticks or three boxes, then waited and
watched. Kohler noticed that after the chimps realized they could not simply reach or
jump up to retrieve the fruit, they stopped, had a seat, and thought about how they
might solve the problem. Then after a few moments, the chimps stood up and
proceeded to solve the problem.
• In first scenario, the problem was solved by placing smaller stick into longer stick to
create one long stick which could be used to knock the hanging fruit down.
• In 2nd scenario, chimps would solve the problem by stacking the boxes on top of each
other, which allowed them to climb to the top of the stack of boxes and reach the fruit.
1 2
Kurt Lewin (1890-1947)
• He was a German American psychologist.
• Kurt Lewin contributed to Gestalt psychology by expanding on gestalt
theories and applying them to human behavior. He was also one of
the first psychologists to systematically test human behavior,
influencing experimental psychology, social psychology, and
personality psychology.
Kurt Lewin Theory
An individual has an inner and outer forces that effect his perception.
• Inner forces include his own motivation, attitude & feelings
• Outer forces include attitude & behavior of teacher & classmate.
Gestalt Laws
• Law of Proximity
• Law of Similarity
• Law of Closure
• Law of Good Continuation
• Law of Good Pragnanz
• Law of Figure/Ground
Law of Proximity
• The law of proximity states that when objects appear close to one another
they tend to be perceived as a group.
• Related concepts or lessons should be taught aligned or closely to each
other. This is the reason why subtraction is taught after addition,
multiplication after subtraction then division after multiplication. Imagine
teaching addition then jumping directly to polygons.
Law of Similarity
• The law of similarity captures the idea that when we look at objects that are
similar to each other, we tend to group them together. We are prone to
notice matching shapes, colors, and forms (as opposed to looking for what
isn’t similar). Our brains quickly identify patterns faster than the separate
parts of the pattern.
• Similar lessons or contents should be grouped together to make learners
develop understanding more efficiently and effectively. This is the reason
why lessons are grouped into units: Unit I is for human body, Unit II is for
energy and motion, so on and so forth.
Law of Closure
• The law of closure captures the idea that when we see incomplete
elements in a visual, our brains tend to fill in the gaps and see it as a whole.
• If students find a math algorithm confusing because a certain question is
left unanswered or a step isn't clear, they will tend to concentrate on that
confused part of the process rather than the total process as a whole. This
is why students get "lost". Thus, make the lesson complete. Present it
clearly, simply and always be ready for students' clarifications.
Law of Good Continuation
• The mind continuous visual patterns. The eye continues in the
direction it is going. The principle of continuity predicts the
preference for continuous figures.
• Lessons should be presented in such a way that learners will see
these as connected and continuous. Now you know why we have the
"Review" part of the lesson plan. This way, students will realize that
their new lesson actually has continuity and is related to what they
already know or to the previous lesson.
Law of Good Pragnanz
• The word pragnanz is a German term meaning "good figure." The law
of Pragnanz also referred as law of good figure or law of simplicity.
• This law holds that objects in the environment are seen in a way that
makes them appear as simple as possible.
• Pragnanz states that when things are grasped as wholes, the minimal
amount of energy is exerted in thinking. In short, make your lesson
holistic, complete and most of all simple.
Law of Figure/ground
• This law shows our perceptual tendency to separate whole figures from
their background based on one or more number of possible variables, such
as contrast, color & size etc. The figure can only be identified because of its
background & background is only because of its figure.
• For a figure to be perceived, it must stand out from the background.
Emphasis should be done on important aspects of the lesson. For example,
teachers should vary the tone of their voice or write boldly or underline the
important key words of the lesson.
Merits of Gestalt Psychology
• Gestalts laid great emphasis on the role of motivation, and definite
goals and purposes in any type of learning.
• Gestalts has a notable feature that it makes the task of perception,
learning and problem solving an intelligent task rather then a
piecemeal molecular function or a mere stimulus – response
mechanical process. It has provided a scientific & progressive method
of problem solving based on the cognitive abilities of the learner.
• Gestalt Psychology has impacted the field of psychology to a huge
extent mainly in terms of perception, memory and learning.
Criticism of Gestalt Psychology
• A general criticism of Gestalt theory has been that it does not provide
an explanation of emotion and personality.
• It has little predictive power.
• Gestalt theories of perception are criticized for being descriptive
rather than explanatory in nature. For this reason, they are viewed by
some as redundant or uninformative.
Message to all viewers
“ "‫ے‬‫ہ‬‫سے‬‫طرف‬‫کی‬ ‫ہللا‬‫رے‬‫می‬‫صان‬‫ف‬‫ن‬‫اور‬‫ع‬‫ف‬‫ن‬،‫ت‬‫ل‬‫ز‬‫اور‬‫عزت‬‫ک‬‫ش‬‫ی‬‫ب‬
Nadeem Shoukat
Clinical Psychologist
THANKS
FOR
WATCHING
My
VIDEO
Subscribe Comment, Like & Share Press Bell Icon

More Related Content

What's hot

History Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive PsychologyHistory Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive PsychologyAli Hasan
 
Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...
Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...
Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...Suresh Babu
 
Triarchic theory of intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligenceTriarchic theory of intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligenceSuparna Vontair
 
Structuralism School of Psychology
Structuralism  School of PsychologyStructuralism  School of Psychology
Structuralism School of Psychologypriyanka256
 
Gestalt Psychology
Gestalt PsychologyGestalt Psychology
Gestalt PsychologyPiper Uy
 
Gestalt’s principle of perception
Gestalt’s principle of perceptionGestalt’s principle of perception
Gestalt’s principle of perceptionmridu2903
 
TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCETRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCEYang Comia
 
Gestalt school of thought in psychology key points
Gestalt school of thought in psychology key pointsGestalt school of thought in psychology key points
Gestalt school of thought in psychology key pointsProfessorBellaLetstr
 
Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)
Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)
Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)Thiyagu K
 
Gestalt presentation
Gestalt presentationGestalt presentation
Gestalt presentationLily Pad
 
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)MissTiwari
 
Physiology of perception
Physiology of perceptionPhysiology of perception
Physiology of perceptionANVESH CHAUHAN
 
Humanistic Approach to Personality
Humanistic  Approach to PersonalityHumanistic  Approach to Personality
Humanistic Approach to PersonalityNeha Bhansali
 

What's hot (20)

Jung's analytical psychology
Jung's analytical psychologyJung's analytical psychology
Jung's analytical psychology
 
History Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive PsychologyHistory Of Cognitive Psychology
History Of Cognitive Psychology
 
Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...
Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...
Schools of Psychology - Structuralism, Functionalism, Behaviorism, Gestalt Ps...
 
Triarchic theory of intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligenceTriarchic theory of intelligence
Triarchic theory of intelligence
 
Structuralism
StructuralismStructuralism
Structuralism
 
Structuralism School of Psychology
Structuralism  School of PsychologyStructuralism  School of Psychology
Structuralism School of Psychology
 
Gestalt Psychology
Gestalt PsychologyGestalt Psychology
Gestalt Psychology
 
Gestalt’s principle of perception
Gestalt’s principle of perceptionGestalt’s principle of perception
Gestalt’s principle of perception
 
Social cognition
Social cognition Social cognition
Social cognition
 
TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCETRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
TRIARCHIC THEORY OF INTELLIGENCE
 
thurstone theory of intelligence
thurstone theory of intelligencethurstone theory of intelligence
thurstone theory of intelligence
 
Gestalt school of thought in psychology key points
Gestalt school of thought in psychology key pointsGestalt school of thought in psychology key points
Gestalt school of thought in psychology key points
 
Attention
AttentionAttention
Attention
 
Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)
Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)
Hans Eysenck Personality Theory (Type cum Trait Approach)
 
Gestalt presentation
Gestalt presentationGestalt presentation
Gestalt presentation
 
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
PGI MEMORY SCALE.(PSYCHOLOGY)
 
Physiology of perception
Physiology of perceptionPhysiology of perception
Physiology of perception
 
IB Psychology Cognitive
IB Psychology CognitiveIB Psychology Cognitive
IB Psychology Cognitive
 
Guilford
GuilfordGuilford
Guilford
 
Humanistic Approach to Personality
Humanistic  Approach to PersonalityHumanistic  Approach to Personality
Humanistic Approach to Personality
 

Similar to Gestalt school of thought in psychology

Gestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptxGestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptxsadiajabeen12
 
Cognitive perspective report
Cognitive perspective reportCognitive perspective report
Cognitive perspective reportAivy Ylanan
 
Cognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt School
Cognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt SchoolCognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt School
Cognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt SchoolSuresh Babu
 
Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...
Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...
Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...KarenPO8
 
Chapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptx
Chapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptxChapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptx
Chapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptxresearch gate
 
CHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptx
CHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptxCHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptx
CHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptxludgiruiz2
 
Gestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptxGestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptxGulnazFatima6
 
IB Learning Perspective Review
IB Learning Perspective ReviewIB Learning Perspective Review
IB Learning Perspective ReviewKristopherRod
 
Gestalt psychology slideshare
Gestalt psychology slideshareGestalt psychology slideshare
Gestalt psychology slidesharejrbt2014
 
Piagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theoryPiagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theoryAmna Abid
 
Gestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEY
Gestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEYGestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEY
Gestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEYMurat Turk
 
Learning by insight
Learning by insightLearning by insight
Learning by insightArun Joseph
 
Theory, rule, law and concept
Theory, rule, law and concept Theory, rule, law and concept
Theory, rule, law and concept Shameena5
 

Similar to Gestalt school of thought in psychology (20)

Gestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptxGestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptx
 
Gestalt principles
Gestalt principlesGestalt principles
Gestalt principles
 
Cognitive perspective report
Cognitive perspective reportCognitive perspective report
Cognitive perspective report
 
Cognitive processes
Cognitive processesCognitive processes
Cognitive processes
 
Cognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt School
Cognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt SchoolCognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt School
Cognitive theory Insight learning –Gestalt School
 
Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...
Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...
Gestalt-Psychology and different laws including its history with the followin...
 
Chapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptx
Chapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptxChapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptx
Chapter 1 - Intro to Psychology.pptx
 
CHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptx
CHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptxCHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptx
CHAPTER 4 (RUIZ, LUDGI G.).pptx
 
Gestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptxGestalt psychology.pptx
Gestalt psychology.pptx
 
05 thinking
05  thinking05  thinking
05 thinking
 
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY.pptx
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY.pptxGESTALT PSYCHOLOGY.pptx
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY.pptx
 
IB Learning Perspective Review
IB Learning Perspective ReviewIB Learning Perspective Review
IB Learning Perspective Review
 
Gestalt psychology slideshare
Gestalt psychology slideshareGestalt psychology slideshare
Gestalt psychology slideshare
 
Piagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theoryPiagets Cognitive learning theory
Piagets Cognitive learning theory
 
Final
FinalFinal
Final
 
Gestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEY
Gestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEYGestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEY
Gestalt LEARNING THEORY SULTAN THE MONKEY
 
Learning by insight
Learning by insightLearning by insight
Learning by insight
 
Theory, rule, law and concept
Theory, rule, law and concept Theory, rule, law and concept
Theory, rule, law and concept
 
Core 3 unit iv insight learning
Core 3 unit iv insight learningCore 3 unit iv insight learning
Core 3 unit iv insight learning
 
Core 3 unit iv insight learning
Core 3 unit iv insight learningCore 3 unit iv insight learning
Core 3 unit iv insight learning
 

More from NadeemShoukat3

Behaviorism school of thought in psychology
Behaviorism school of thought in psychologyBehaviorism school of thought in psychology
Behaviorism school of thought in psychologyNadeemShoukat3
 
School of thought in psychology
School of thought in psychologySchool of thought in psychology
School of thought in psychologyNadeemShoukat3
 
Psychosexual stages of development
Psychosexual stages of developmentPsychosexual stages of development
Psychosexual stages of developmentNadeemShoukat3
 
Easy way to collect data for research
Easy way to collect data for researchEasy way to collect data for research
Easy way to collect data for researchNadeemShoukat3
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to researchNadeemShoukat3
 
Qualitative vs quantitative
Qualitative vs quantitativeQualitative vs quantitative
Qualitative vs quantitativeNadeemShoukat3
 
Qualities of good researcher
Qualities of good researcherQualities of good researcher
Qualities of good researcherNadeemShoukat3
 
Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7
Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7
Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7NadeemShoukat3
 
Frequency distribution 6
Frequency distribution 6Frequency distribution 6
Frequency distribution 6NadeemShoukat3
 
Emotional & behavioral disorder 3
Emotional & behavioral disorder 3Emotional & behavioral disorder 3
Emotional & behavioral disorder 3NadeemShoukat3
 

More from NadeemShoukat3 (20)

Behaviorism school of thought in psychology
Behaviorism school of thought in psychologyBehaviorism school of thought in psychology
Behaviorism school of thought in psychology
 
School of thought in psychology
School of thought in psychologySchool of thought in psychology
School of thought in psychology
 
Psychosexual stages of development
Psychosexual stages of developmentPsychosexual stages of development
Psychosexual stages of development
 
Quantitative research
Quantitative researchQuantitative research
Quantitative research
 
Variabels
VariabelsVariabels
Variabels
 
How to choose sample
How to choose sampleHow to choose sample
How to choose sample
 
Easy way to collect data for research
Easy way to collect data for researchEasy way to collect data for research
Easy way to collect data for research
 
Qualitative research
Qualitative researchQualitative research
Qualitative research
 
Introduction to research
Introduction to researchIntroduction to research
Introduction to research
 
Qualitative vs quantitative
Qualitative vs quantitativeQualitative vs quantitative
Qualitative vs quantitative
 
Qualities of good researcher
Qualities of good researcherQualities of good researcher
Qualities of good researcher
 
Thesis 11
Thesis   11Thesis   11
Thesis 11
 
Memory 10
Memory 10Memory 10
Memory 10
 
Synopsis 9
Synopsis 9Synopsis 9
Synopsis 9
 
Cranial nerves 8
Cranial nerves   8Cranial nerves   8
Cranial nerves 8
 
Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7
Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7
Quickest & easiest way to choose your research topic 7
 
Frequency distribution 6
Frequency distribution 6Frequency distribution 6
Frequency distribution 6
 
Ability testing 5
Ability testing 5Ability testing 5
Ability testing 5
 
Depressive Disorder 4
Depressive Disorder  4Depressive Disorder  4
Depressive Disorder 4
 
Emotional & behavioral disorder 3
Emotional & behavioral disorder 3Emotional & behavioral disorder 3
Emotional & behavioral disorder 3
 

Recently uploaded

Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...EADTU
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi RajagopalEADTU
 
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111GangaMaiya1
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfJerry Chew
 
Play hard learn harder: The Serious Business of Play
Play hard learn harder:  The Serious Business of PlayPlay hard learn harder:  The Serious Business of Play
Play hard learn harder: The Serious Business of PlayPooky Knightsmith
 
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxCeline George
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - EnglishGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - Englishneillewis46
 
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024Elizabeth Walsh
 
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptxHMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptxEsquimalt MFRC
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMELOISARIVERA8
 
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17
How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17
How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17Celine George
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfcupulin
 
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learningdusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learningMarc Dusseiller Dusjagr
 
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17Celine George
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsSandeep D Chaudhary
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSAnaAcapella
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfPondicherry University
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
Details on CBSE Compartment Exam.pptx1111
 
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdfRich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
Rich Dad Poor Dad ( PDFDrive.com )--.pdf
 
Play hard learn harder: The Serious Business of Play
Play hard learn harder:  The Serious Business of PlayPlay hard learn harder:  The Serious Business of Play
Play hard learn harder: The Serious Business of Play
 
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptxHow to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
How to Manage Website in Odoo 17 Studio App.pptx
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - EnglishGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English
 
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
 
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptxHMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA!                    .
VAMOS CUIDAR DO NOSSO PLANETA! .
 
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
80 ĐỀ THI THỬ TUYỂN SINH TIẾNG ANH VÀO 10 SỞ GD – ĐT THÀNH PHỐ HỒ CHÍ MINH NĂ...
 
How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17
How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17
How to Manage Call for Tendor in Odoo 17
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdfContoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
Contoh Aksi Nyata Refleksi Diri ( NUR ).pdf
 
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learningdusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
 
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
 

Gestalt school of thought in psychology

  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 5. Outline 1. Introduction 2. Major thinkers & their contributions 3. Gestalt Laws 4. Merits of Gestalt Psychology 5. Criticism 6. Conclusion
  • 6. Introduction to Gestalt Psychology • Gestalt is a German word that means “shape”, “form” or “whole”. • Gestalt School of thought focus on unified or whole rather than breaking down thought, mental process and behavior into small elements. Gestalt psychologist believed that you must look at the whole experience. “The whole is greater than the sum of parts” • One of the most important theories of perception is the Gestalt Theory. Gestalt Theory “The Whole is different from the sum of its part”. It was developed about 1910 by Max Wertheimer and carry on by Wolfgang Kohler and Kurt Koffka at Frankfurt University.
  • 7. Major Thinkers of Gestalt psychology 1. Max Wertheimer – Father of Gestalt psychology 2. Wolfgang Kohler 3. Kurt Lewin
  • 8. Max Wertheimer (1800-1943) • He was an Austro-Hungarian psychologist and philosopher. • He created the Phi phenomenon which forms the basis of Gestalt psy. • His work created a foundation of psychological theory, and his findings are presented in his book Productive Thinking. Phi Phenomenon: It is a perceptual illusion in which people see motion that is produced by a succession of immobile images.
  • 9. Wolfgang Kohler (1887 –1967) • He was a German Psychologist & phenomenologist. • Insight learning is perhaps the greatest contribution Wolfgang Kohler made to psychology. Building off the influence of gestalt psychology, Kohler discovered that learning can occur when we gain insight into an entire situation, as opposed to focusing only on an individual part.
  • 10. Insight Learning • Wolfgang kohler was the first psychologist who developed the insight learning in which he described an experiment with apes that could use boxes and sticks as tools to solve the problem. • Insight learning is the abrupt realization of a problem's solution. Insight learning is not the result of trial and error, responding to an environmental stimulus, or the result of observing someone else attempt the problem. It is a completely cognitive experience, which requires the ability to visualize the problem and the solution internally, in the mind's eye so to speak, before initialing a behavioral response. • The important aspect of learning was not reinforcement, but the coordination of thinking to create new organizations. Kohler referred to this behavior as insight or discovery learning.
  • 11. Wolfgang kohler’s Experiment & Insight Learning • In his experiment, Kohler hung a piece of fruit just out of the reach of each chimp. He then provided the chimps with either two sticks or three boxes, then waited and watched. Kohler noticed that after the chimps realized they could not simply reach or jump up to retrieve the fruit, they stopped, had a seat, and thought about how they might solve the problem. Then after a few moments, the chimps stood up and proceeded to solve the problem. • In first scenario, the problem was solved by placing smaller stick into longer stick to create one long stick which could be used to knock the hanging fruit down. • In 2nd scenario, chimps would solve the problem by stacking the boxes on top of each other, which allowed them to climb to the top of the stack of boxes and reach the fruit. 1 2
  • 12. Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) • He was a German American psychologist. • Kurt Lewin contributed to Gestalt psychology by expanding on gestalt theories and applying them to human behavior. He was also one of the first psychologists to systematically test human behavior, influencing experimental psychology, social psychology, and personality psychology. Kurt Lewin Theory An individual has an inner and outer forces that effect his perception. • Inner forces include his own motivation, attitude & feelings • Outer forces include attitude & behavior of teacher & classmate.
  • 13. Gestalt Laws • Law of Proximity • Law of Similarity • Law of Closure • Law of Good Continuation • Law of Good Pragnanz • Law of Figure/Ground
  • 14. Law of Proximity • The law of proximity states that when objects appear close to one another they tend to be perceived as a group. • Related concepts or lessons should be taught aligned or closely to each other. This is the reason why subtraction is taught after addition, multiplication after subtraction then division after multiplication. Imagine teaching addition then jumping directly to polygons.
  • 15. Law of Similarity • The law of similarity captures the idea that when we look at objects that are similar to each other, we tend to group them together. We are prone to notice matching shapes, colors, and forms (as opposed to looking for what isn’t similar). Our brains quickly identify patterns faster than the separate parts of the pattern. • Similar lessons or contents should be grouped together to make learners develop understanding more efficiently and effectively. This is the reason why lessons are grouped into units: Unit I is for human body, Unit II is for energy and motion, so on and so forth.
  • 16. Law of Closure • The law of closure captures the idea that when we see incomplete elements in a visual, our brains tend to fill in the gaps and see it as a whole. • If students find a math algorithm confusing because a certain question is left unanswered or a step isn't clear, they will tend to concentrate on that confused part of the process rather than the total process as a whole. This is why students get "lost". Thus, make the lesson complete. Present it clearly, simply and always be ready for students' clarifications.
  • 17. Law of Good Continuation • The mind continuous visual patterns. The eye continues in the direction it is going. The principle of continuity predicts the preference for continuous figures. • Lessons should be presented in such a way that learners will see these as connected and continuous. Now you know why we have the "Review" part of the lesson plan. This way, students will realize that their new lesson actually has continuity and is related to what they already know or to the previous lesson.
  • 18. Law of Good Pragnanz • The word pragnanz is a German term meaning "good figure." The law of Pragnanz also referred as law of good figure or law of simplicity. • This law holds that objects in the environment are seen in a way that makes them appear as simple as possible. • Pragnanz states that when things are grasped as wholes, the minimal amount of energy is exerted in thinking. In short, make your lesson holistic, complete and most of all simple.
  • 19. Law of Figure/ground • This law shows our perceptual tendency to separate whole figures from their background based on one or more number of possible variables, such as contrast, color & size etc. The figure can only be identified because of its background & background is only because of its figure. • For a figure to be perceived, it must stand out from the background. Emphasis should be done on important aspects of the lesson. For example, teachers should vary the tone of their voice or write boldly or underline the important key words of the lesson.
  • 20. Merits of Gestalt Psychology • Gestalts laid great emphasis on the role of motivation, and definite goals and purposes in any type of learning. • Gestalts has a notable feature that it makes the task of perception, learning and problem solving an intelligent task rather then a piecemeal molecular function or a mere stimulus – response mechanical process. It has provided a scientific & progressive method of problem solving based on the cognitive abilities of the learner. • Gestalt Psychology has impacted the field of psychology to a huge extent mainly in terms of perception, memory and learning.
  • 21. Criticism of Gestalt Psychology • A general criticism of Gestalt theory has been that it does not provide an explanation of emotion and personality. • It has little predictive power. • Gestalt theories of perception are criticized for being descriptive rather than explanatory in nature. For this reason, they are viewed by some as redundant or uninformative.
  • 22. Message to all viewers “ "‫ے‬‫ہ‬‫سے‬‫طرف‬‫کی‬ ‫ہللا‬‫رے‬‫می‬‫صان‬‫ف‬‫ن‬‫اور‬‫ع‬‫ف‬‫ن‬،‫ت‬‫ل‬‫ز‬‫اور‬‫عزت‬‫ک‬‫ش‬‫ی‬‫ب‬ Nadeem Shoukat Clinical Psychologist