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CITOOLKIT
Flowcharting
The Three Common Types of Flowcharts
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Definition
A graphical tool that illustrates the flow of a business process and the
relationships between its activities.
Flowcharting 2
Flowcharts are ideal tools to visually represent business processes.
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Definition
It allows to break up any process into individual activities and see how they
fit together.
Flowcharting 3
This detailed view will allow to see how a
process looks like
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Definition
For example, if you want to see the flow of a purchase order or a sales
order through the various departments within your company, flowcharts
are good options.
Flowcharting 4
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Uses
Useful for understanding and communicating the sequence
of activities and how a process works.
Flowcharting 5
1 2 4
3
It represents creative solutions to common problems.
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Uses
Often used for documenting how to do a particular job and can be found in
procedures and quality manuals.
Flowcharting 6
Flowcharts can be used by any industry and in any function.
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Uses
Used when designing new processes to support organizational transformation.
Flowcharting 7
Used to provide a detailed view of how a
process should be.
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Uses
Software developers are using them to map processes that need to be
automated.
Flowcharting 8
This helps in understanding,
communication, documentation, and
planning within software development
projects.
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Uses
Kaizen teams are using them to identify and analyze problem areas and
provide insight to . . .
Flowcharting 9
Reduce cycle times
Simplify the work
Troubleshoot problems
Improve or redesign processes
DESCOVERY CONTROL IMPROVEMENT
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Uses
Useful to reveal the areas of inefficiency and diagnosing problems for later
problem-solving efforts.
Flowcharting 10
Unnecessary activities (NVA)
Redundant activities
Excessive delays
Rework
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Benefits
Allows to look at the organization horizontally instead of vertically by
looking at how departments and functions are interacting and working
together.
Flowcharting 11
Purchasing Marketing
HR Operation Finance
Flowcharts can show how an organization produces its outputs through cross-
functional processes
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Benefits
Flowcharting 12
Provides clarity to a process that
appears disordered or complicated
02
Provides understanding of the
relationships within a process
03
Helps explaining the process to
new employees and subcontractors
05
Helps suppliers understanding
the process before parts or items
are supplied
06
Helps addressing risk factors
within a process
07
Helps investigating the performance
of a processes (e.g., cycle time)
08
Used when designing new
processes
09
Provides a common
understanding when discussing
and analyzing processes
01
Helps communicating any
changes or improvements
made on the process
04
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Flowchart Types
Flowcharting 13
ACTIVITY SWIMLANE
NVA
VA
OPPORTUNITY INDUSTRY-SPECIFIC
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Activity Flowchart
Displays the sequence of the activities that make up the process in a way
that focuses on what happens.
Flowcharting 14
Activity flowcharts are the basic forms
of flowcharts.
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Start
1
Make
4
Scrap
6
Package
3
Can be fixed?
2
Good?
NO
Yes
5
Rework
NO
Yes
Activity flowcharts
illustrates . . .
The flow of activities
The order of steps
Decision points
Rework loops
Process boundaries
Activity Flowchart
Flowcharting 15
The order of activities
What happens
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Activity Flowchart
Tips . . .
There is no precise format for a flowchart.
It should be drawn in a consistent and uniform manner.
There should be an agreement of the used shapes.
Flowcharting 16
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Activity Flowchart
Typically drawn with arrows and shapes of various kinds to represent
different types of activities.
Flowcharting 17
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Activity Flowchart
Basic Flowchart Shapes . . .
Flowcharting 18
Represents an activity or action Activity
The start and the end of the process Start / end
Represents a decision point Decision
Connects the shapes and shows process flow Flow line
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Activity Flowchart
Basic Flowchart Shapes . . .
Flowcharting 19
Activity
Denoted as a
rectangular box.
The task or action to
be performed.
The most frequently
used shape.
Flow line
Connects the shapes
and indicates the
flow of the process.
Can be labeled.
Used to indicate a
loop.
Requires a YES/NO response.
Other responses are also
valid such as: (TRUE/FALSE) &
(<=0/>0)
Labeled in the form of a
question.
Has two outgoing paths in
most cases.
Decision Point
Defines the process
boundaries.
There should be one
start and one end.
Also used to indicate
that a branch from a
decision comes to an
end (use STOP).
Start / End
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Activity Flowchart
Other shapes can be used to describe the types of activities more
specifically.
Flowcharting 20
Keep things simple to gain people’s understanding.
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Activity Flowchart
Other shapes . . .
Flowcharting 21
Document
Database
Manual activity
Input/output
Delay
Card
File
Terminal point
Connectors
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Activity Flowchart
Connectors . . .
A single flowchart can quickly become long and complicated.
You may need to represent everything in more than one page.
Flowcharting 22
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Activity Flowchart
Connectors . . .
Flowcharts may contain connectors to link sub-processes or to represent
converging paths (in nested flowcharts).
Flowcharting 23
1
1
Same page Multiple pages
2
2
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Activity Flowchart
More information can be displayed in flowcharts including . . .
Flowcharting 24
The time it takes to perform each activity
The responsible person for each decision
The responsible person for each activity
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Activity Flowchart
More information can be displayed in flowcharts including . . .
Flowcharting 25
Measurement points and KPIs
Error proofing points
Process control and inspection points
Data collection points
Data storing and retrieving points
Scrap and rework points
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Example - Making a Cup of Tea
Flowcharting 26
Add sugar?
NO
YES
Start
Boil water Add tea Add sugar
End
Stir drink
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Example - Preparing Reports for Decision Makers
Flowcharting 27
Cycle time
Start
Collect
information
Draft the
report
Prepare the
final report
End
Submit the
report
Accepted?
% of accepted drafts
Drafting time
Decision
making
# of decisions made
No
Yes
KPIs
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A Rework
Loop
Example – Changeover (Size Conversion)
Flowcharting 28
Start
Receive
customer
requirement
Communicate
changeover
requirements
Prepare tooling
and spare parts
Implement
changeover
operations
Trial run and
measure
parameters
End
Run the line
Adjust settings
Stop the line
Specs.
met?
YES
NO
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Example – Customer Order Processing
This flowchart shows the flow of material as well as the flow of information.
Flowcharting 29
Yes
No
Start In stock?
Receive
customer
order
Check
production
schedule
Time is OK?
Generate
sales order
End
Receive payment
Produce order In stock?
Collect order
from W/H
Take order to
loading bay
Ship order
Lose order
No
Yes
Yes
No
Store in
warehouse
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Swimlane Flowchart
A flowchart that illustrates the sequence of activities required to accomplish
a cross-functional process.
Flowcharting 30
Also called deployment or cross-functional flowchart
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Swimlane Flowchart
This type of flowchart is divided into multiple lanes.
Flowcharting 31
1
2
3
Horizontal lanes
1 2 3
Vertical lanes
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Swimlane Flowchart
Used when the process involves several departments.
Flowcharting 32
Divides the chart into different lines of responsibilities
1
2
3
Department, work
group or individual
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Swimlane Flowchart
Swimlane flowcharts shows . . .
Flowcharting 33
The flow of activities
Decision points and rework loops
The order of steps
Process boundaries
Who is handling or doing the work
People or
functions
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Swimlane Flowchart
Flowcharting 34
Sales Operation Shipping HR
This type of flowchart is ideal
for showing the control of the different
departments and work groups on each
process activity
You may have only one department,
work group or person responsible for
any activity, yet have many performers
It clarifies the responsibility for
performing an activity or making a
decision
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Swimlane Flowchart
Particularly helpful for nonmanufacturing processes which mainly involve
the flow of information, knowledge, and documents between people and
departments.
Flowcharting 35
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Swimlane Flowchart
Useful in processes with many handoffs, where information and documents
are passed back and forth among departments.
Flowcharting 36
Helps highlighting the handoff areas that
are causing disagreements.
When there are a lot of handoffs within a process, this maybe a sign for having
waste due to unnecessary transporting, wasted motion or overprocessing.
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Example – Acquiring New Equipment
Flowcharting 37
Start
Define
needs
It
Finance
Purchasing
Business Unit
Prepare
paperwork
Technical
review
Approved?
Approved?
Acquire
equipment
Configure
and install
Received?
Follow-up with
supplier
Issue
payment
Receive
and use
End
NO
YES
YES
NO
YES
NO
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Opportunity Flowchart
A flowchart that provides a way to analyze and study business processes by
highlighting the steps that add waste and complexity to the process.
Flowcharting 38
NVA
VA
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Opportunity Flowchart
Divides the chart into two sections to differentiate the activities and
decisions in the process that add value from those that don’t.
Flowcharting 39
No added-value
Added-value
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Opportunity Flowchart
Flowcharting 40
NVA
ENVA
VA
Customers are willing
to pay for them.
They physically
changes the product.
They are done right
the first time.
Include machining a
part and serving a
customer.
Not essential to
produce output.
Do not add value to
the output.
Include defects,
errors, waiting,
transport, inventory,
unnecessary
processing, etc.
Add no value and the
customer is not willing
to pay for them.
They are necessary for
the business due to the
current settings of the
process.
Include inspection and
prevention activities.
Value-added Non-value-added
Essential non-value-added
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Opportunity Flowchart
Reveals opportunities for improvement as it will increase the awareness of
what previously was accepted as normal and unavoidable waste.
Flowcharting 41
Fill
application
Process
application
Submit
application
YES
NO
Error
found?
Return to
applicant
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Opportunity Flowchart
Flowcharting 42
Added-value No added-value
When charting the
present process, the
value-added section
is often smaller in
size
If the errors could be
reduced or prevented,
there is a great chance
to simplify and
streamline the process
Time will normally
flow down the page
If there are only
value-added
activities, the process
will be simple and
straightforward
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Example - Photocopying
Flowcharting 43
Value-added Non-value-added
Prepare original
Start
Copier
in use?
Wait?
End
Glass
clean?
Leave
Place papers
YES
NO
YES
NO
Clean glass
YES
NO
Select size/number
Out of
papers?
Load papers
YES
Press Copy button
NO
Collect photocopies
Get papers
citoolkit.com
Industry Specific Flowchart
Flowcharts are widely used in software development, quality management
and auditing practices.
Flowcharting 44
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Industry Specific Flowchart
It can help in designing and documenting computer programs and used as
a mean for describing computer algorithms.
Flowcharting 45
Start X < 100
Yes
Read
X
X = X * 10
Print
X
End
No
citoolkit.com
Industry Specific Flowchart
When developing flowcharts for a particular industry, remember to use the
shapes and symbols for that industry.
Flowcharting 46
Producing a glossary to describe
the meaning of each of the shape
can be helpful
citoolkit.com
Example – Customer Order Processing
Flowcharting 47
This flowchart shows the flow of material as well as the flow of information.
Ship order
with notice
Start
Customer
Credit OK?
Yes
No
Receive
customer
order
Enter order in
computer
CODB
Contact
customer
Generate
sales order
Collect
order from
store
Generate
shipping notice
Sales
order
End
Shipping
notice
CO
File
Stop
% of credit checked within 24 hours
citoolkit.com
Document Management and Flowcharts
Companies often document their procedures and processes to comply
with their industry regulations and meet the continuous auditing
requirements.
Flowcharting 48
Every company should have a
standardized way for documenting
their procedures and processes.
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Document Management and Flowcharts
Flowcharts can be useful to summarize a procedure or a process.
Flowcharting 49
Flowcharts can play an
important role of document
management as they help
understanding procedures and
work instructions
They can highlight waste and
inefficiencies and reveal
opportunities for continuous
improvement
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Document Management and Flowcharts
Flowcharts can either be included under the relevant procedure or be
placed in the appendix at the end of the document or manual.
Flowcharting 50
A p p e n d i x
If several people are going to chart the processes, design a template to ensure that
one language is being spoken.
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Document Management and Flowcharts
One of the common approaches when documenting a procedure is to start
with the flowchart, and then describe each process activity in a tabular
format.
Flowcharting 51
SN Activity How often? Feedback log
1 Prepare interview panel HR officer
2 Notify applicant of schedule HR officer
3
Appointment agreed?
1. If yes, go to step 5
2. If no, stop
Interviewee
4 Prepare interview questions HR officer Interview questions
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Steps for Constructing a Flowchart
Flowcharting 52
With your team, describe the process and your objectives
• Determine the type of flowchart, the level of detail, and the appropriate scope
and boundaries.
• If the decision is to create a swimlane flowchart, work with your team to agree on
what departments should be included.
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Steps for Constructing a Flowchart
Flowcharting 53
Brainstorm and identify all major process activities, decisions and the sequence of completion
• Brainstorm activities and decisions and write these on sticky notes or on a
flipchart.
1 2 4
3
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Steps for Constructing a Flowchart
Flowcharting 54
Draft the flowchart using the standard set of shapes and label each step appropriately
• Be consistent in the direction of flow (time may flow from top to bottom and from
left to right).
XXX XXX XX
XX
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Steps for Constructing a Flowchart
Flowcharting 55
Prepare the final flowchart, check for missing activities or decisions, and add further details as necessary
• Test the flowchart to make sure that it represents the process accurately and
completely.
Start End
XXX XXX XX
XX
Cycle time = xxxx minutes
VA ENVA VA
NVA
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Steps for Constructing a Flowchart
Flowcharting 56
Publish and distribute the completed final version of the flowchart to all concerned
• Update the procedures and other documentation as necessary.
• Identify the areas that hinder the process or add little or no value for further
process improvement.
• Plan and implement actions to reduce inefficiencies and waste.
Start End
XXX XXX XX
XX
Cycle time = xxxx minutes
VA ENVA VA
NVA
citoolkit.com
Tips
Although you can draw flowcharts by hand,
it’s often more convenient to use any of the
drawing applications to create visually
appealing flowcharts.
A good practice is to draft the flowchart on
a paper before designing it with software.
Flowcharting 57
citoolkit.com
Software Applications and Online Services
The process of drawing a flowchart can be an overwhelming task. This is
where applications and online services can offer the flexibility that a piece
of paper can’t.
There are many software applications and online services that allow the
creation of flowcharts.
Flowcharting 58
Microsoft Visio
citoolkit.com
Further Information
Flowcharting 59
It’s always recommended to walk the
process before you draw your
process map to get an overview of the
process and identify the boundaries
The exercise of mapping your
company processes can clarify
your and your team’s
understanding of the work
citoolkit.com
Further Information - Tips
Flowcharting 60
Clarify process
boundaries
Use brief
description to
describe each
activity
Number your
process steps
Whenever possible
start with verbs
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Further Information
Potential Pitfalls
Flowcharting 61
Hidden bias or agenda
Lost in the details
Not verifying the facts
Not focusing on customers’ needs
Mapping without a clear purpose
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Further Information
Ask . . .
Flowcharting 62
How do you assess the performance of this activity?
Where does the material or service come from?
Who makes this decision?
Where does the service or material of this activity go?
What happens if the activity is under performing?
What happens if the decision is yes / no?
citoolkit.com
Further Information
Supportive Questions . . .
Flowcharting 63
Are things done in the right
sequence?
Are there times when waiting
is involved?
Are all activities necessary?
Could these rework loops be
eliminated?
How can waiting be reduced?
Are there rework loops where
activities are repeated?
Are there any quick wins
possible?
Can any paperwork be
eliminated?
Does information arrive on
time?
citoolkit.com
Further Information
Common Process Problems . . .
Flowcharting 64
Long cycle times
Too many inspections
Errors and rework
Excessive delays
Duplication
Complex procedures
Non-value adding
steps
Bottlenecks
Missing steps
Dead ends Costly steps
Departure from
procedure
citoolkit.com
Further Information
What do we think of a process is not necessary what it actually is . . .
Flowcharting 65
What you think it is? What it actually is?
Hidden factors
What you would
like it to be?
© Copyright Citoolkit.com. All Rights Reserved.
CITOOLKIT
Made with by
The Continuous Improvement Toolkit
www.citoolkit.com

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Flowcharting: The Three Common Types of Flowcharts

  • 2. citoolkit.com Definition A graphical tool that illustrates the flow of a business process and the relationships between its activities. Flowcharting 2 Flowcharts are ideal tools to visually represent business processes.
  • 3. citoolkit.com Definition It allows to break up any process into individual activities and see how they fit together. Flowcharting 3 This detailed view will allow to see how a process looks like
  • 4. citoolkit.com Definition For example, if you want to see the flow of a purchase order or a sales order through the various departments within your company, flowcharts are good options. Flowcharting 4
  • 5. citoolkit.com Uses Useful for understanding and communicating the sequence of activities and how a process works. Flowcharting 5 1 2 4 3 It represents creative solutions to common problems.
  • 6. citoolkit.com Uses Often used for documenting how to do a particular job and can be found in procedures and quality manuals. Flowcharting 6 Flowcharts can be used by any industry and in any function.
  • 7. citoolkit.com Uses Used when designing new processes to support organizational transformation. Flowcharting 7 Used to provide a detailed view of how a process should be.
  • 8. citoolkit.com Uses Software developers are using them to map processes that need to be automated. Flowcharting 8 This helps in understanding, communication, documentation, and planning within software development projects.
  • 9. citoolkit.com Uses Kaizen teams are using them to identify and analyze problem areas and provide insight to . . . Flowcharting 9 Reduce cycle times Simplify the work Troubleshoot problems Improve or redesign processes DESCOVERY CONTROL IMPROVEMENT
  • 10. citoolkit.com Uses Useful to reveal the areas of inefficiency and diagnosing problems for later problem-solving efforts. Flowcharting 10 Unnecessary activities (NVA) Redundant activities Excessive delays Rework
  • 11. citoolkit.com Benefits Allows to look at the organization horizontally instead of vertically by looking at how departments and functions are interacting and working together. Flowcharting 11 Purchasing Marketing HR Operation Finance Flowcharts can show how an organization produces its outputs through cross- functional processes
  • 12. citoolkit.com Benefits Flowcharting 12 Provides clarity to a process that appears disordered or complicated 02 Provides understanding of the relationships within a process 03 Helps explaining the process to new employees and subcontractors 05 Helps suppliers understanding the process before parts or items are supplied 06 Helps addressing risk factors within a process 07 Helps investigating the performance of a processes (e.g., cycle time) 08 Used when designing new processes 09 Provides a common understanding when discussing and analyzing processes 01 Helps communicating any changes or improvements made on the process 04
  • 13. citoolkit.com Flowchart Types Flowcharting 13 ACTIVITY SWIMLANE NVA VA OPPORTUNITY INDUSTRY-SPECIFIC
  • 14. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Displays the sequence of the activities that make up the process in a way that focuses on what happens. Flowcharting 14 Activity flowcharts are the basic forms of flowcharts.
  • 15. citoolkit.com Start 1 Make 4 Scrap 6 Package 3 Can be fixed? 2 Good? NO Yes 5 Rework NO Yes Activity flowcharts illustrates . . . The flow of activities The order of steps Decision points Rework loops Process boundaries Activity Flowchart Flowcharting 15 The order of activities What happens
  • 16. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Tips . . . There is no precise format for a flowchart. It should be drawn in a consistent and uniform manner. There should be an agreement of the used shapes. Flowcharting 16
  • 17. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Typically drawn with arrows and shapes of various kinds to represent different types of activities. Flowcharting 17
  • 18. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Basic Flowchart Shapes . . . Flowcharting 18 Represents an activity or action Activity The start and the end of the process Start / end Represents a decision point Decision Connects the shapes and shows process flow Flow line
  • 19. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Basic Flowchart Shapes . . . Flowcharting 19 Activity Denoted as a rectangular box. The task or action to be performed. The most frequently used shape. Flow line Connects the shapes and indicates the flow of the process. Can be labeled. Used to indicate a loop. Requires a YES/NO response. Other responses are also valid such as: (TRUE/FALSE) & (<=0/>0) Labeled in the form of a question. Has two outgoing paths in most cases. Decision Point Defines the process boundaries. There should be one start and one end. Also used to indicate that a branch from a decision comes to an end (use STOP). Start / End
  • 20. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Other shapes can be used to describe the types of activities more specifically. Flowcharting 20 Keep things simple to gain people’s understanding.
  • 21. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Other shapes . . . Flowcharting 21 Document Database Manual activity Input/output Delay Card File Terminal point Connectors
  • 22. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Connectors . . . A single flowchart can quickly become long and complicated. You may need to represent everything in more than one page. Flowcharting 22
  • 23. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart Connectors . . . Flowcharts may contain connectors to link sub-processes or to represent converging paths (in nested flowcharts). Flowcharting 23 1 1 Same page Multiple pages 2 2
  • 24. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart More information can be displayed in flowcharts including . . . Flowcharting 24 The time it takes to perform each activity The responsible person for each decision The responsible person for each activity
  • 25. citoolkit.com Activity Flowchart More information can be displayed in flowcharts including . . . Flowcharting 25 Measurement points and KPIs Error proofing points Process control and inspection points Data collection points Data storing and retrieving points Scrap and rework points
  • 26. citoolkit.com Example - Making a Cup of Tea Flowcharting 26 Add sugar? NO YES Start Boil water Add tea Add sugar End Stir drink
  • 27. citoolkit.com Example - Preparing Reports for Decision Makers Flowcharting 27 Cycle time Start Collect information Draft the report Prepare the final report End Submit the report Accepted? % of accepted drafts Drafting time Decision making # of decisions made No Yes KPIs
  • 28. citoolkit.com A Rework Loop Example – Changeover (Size Conversion) Flowcharting 28 Start Receive customer requirement Communicate changeover requirements Prepare tooling and spare parts Implement changeover operations Trial run and measure parameters End Run the line Adjust settings Stop the line Specs. met? YES NO
  • 29. citoolkit.com Example – Customer Order Processing This flowchart shows the flow of material as well as the flow of information. Flowcharting 29 Yes No Start In stock? Receive customer order Check production schedule Time is OK? Generate sales order End Receive payment Produce order In stock? Collect order from W/H Take order to loading bay Ship order Lose order No Yes Yes No Store in warehouse
  • 30. citoolkit.com Swimlane Flowchart A flowchart that illustrates the sequence of activities required to accomplish a cross-functional process. Flowcharting 30 Also called deployment or cross-functional flowchart
  • 31. citoolkit.com Swimlane Flowchart This type of flowchart is divided into multiple lanes. Flowcharting 31 1 2 3 Horizontal lanes 1 2 3 Vertical lanes
  • 32. citoolkit.com Swimlane Flowchart Used when the process involves several departments. Flowcharting 32 Divides the chart into different lines of responsibilities 1 2 3 Department, work group or individual
  • 33. citoolkit.com Swimlane Flowchart Swimlane flowcharts shows . . . Flowcharting 33 The flow of activities Decision points and rework loops The order of steps Process boundaries Who is handling or doing the work People or functions
  • 34. citoolkit.com Swimlane Flowchart Flowcharting 34 Sales Operation Shipping HR This type of flowchart is ideal for showing the control of the different departments and work groups on each process activity You may have only one department, work group or person responsible for any activity, yet have many performers It clarifies the responsibility for performing an activity or making a decision
  • 35. citoolkit.com Swimlane Flowchart Particularly helpful for nonmanufacturing processes which mainly involve the flow of information, knowledge, and documents between people and departments. Flowcharting 35
  • 36. citoolkit.com Swimlane Flowchart Useful in processes with many handoffs, where information and documents are passed back and forth among departments. Flowcharting 36 Helps highlighting the handoff areas that are causing disagreements. When there are a lot of handoffs within a process, this maybe a sign for having waste due to unnecessary transporting, wasted motion or overprocessing.
  • 37. citoolkit.com Example – Acquiring New Equipment Flowcharting 37 Start Define needs It Finance Purchasing Business Unit Prepare paperwork Technical review Approved? Approved? Acquire equipment Configure and install Received? Follow-up with supplier Issue payment Receive and use End NO YES YES NO YES NO
  • 38. citoolkit.com Opportunity Flowchart A flowchart that provides a way to analyze and study business processes by highlighting the steps that add waste and complexity to the process. Flowcharting 38 NVA VA
  • 39. citoolkit.com Opportunity Flowchart Divides the chart into two sections to differentiate the activities and decisions in the process that add value from those that don’t. Flowcharting 39 No added-value Added-value
  • 40. citoolkit.com Opportunity Flowchart Flowcharting 40 NVA ENVA VA Customers are willing to pay for them. They physically changes the product. They are done right the first time. Include machining a part and serving a customer. Not essential to produce output. Do not add value to the output. Include defects, errors, waiting, transport, inventory, unnecessary processing, etc. Add no value and the customer is not willing to pay for them. They are necessary for the business due to the current settings of the process. Include inspection and prevention activities. Value-added Non-value-added Essential non-value-added
  • 41. citoolkit.com Opportunity Flowchart Reveals opportunities for improvement as it will increase the awareness of what previously was accepted as normal and unavoidable waste. Flowcharting 41 Fill application Process application Submit application YES NO Error found? Return to applicant
  • 42. citoolkit.com Opportunity Flowchart Flowcharting 42 Added-value No added-value When charting the present process, the value-added section is often smaller in size If the errors could be reduced or prevented, there is a great chance to simplify and streamline the process Time will normally flow down the page If there are only value-added activities, the process will be simple and straightforward
  • 43. citoolkit.com Example - Photocopying Flowcharting 43 Value-added Non-value-added Prepare original Start Copier in use? Wait? End Glass clean? Leave Place papers YES NO YES NO Clean glass YES NO Select size/number Out of papers? Load papers YES Press Copy button NO Collect photocopies Get papers
  • 44. citoolkit.com Industry Specific Flowchart Flowcharts are widely used in software development, quality management and auditing practices. Flowcharting 44
  • 45. citoolkit.com Industry Specific Flowchart It can help in designing and documenting computer programs and used as a mean for describing computer algorithms. Flowcharting 45 Start X < 100 Yes Read X X = X * 10 Print X End No
  • 46. citoolkit.com Industry Specific Flowchart When developing flowcharts for a particular industry, remember to use the shapes and symbols for that industry. Flowcharting 46 Producing a glossary to describe the meaning of each of the shape can be helpful
  • 47. citoolkit.com Example – Customer Order Processing Flowcharting 47 This flowchart shows the flow of material as well as the flow of information. Ship order with notice Start Customer Credit OK? Yes No Receive customer order Enter order in computer CODB Contact customer Generate sales order Collect order from store Generate shipping notice Sales order End Shipping notice CO File Stop % of credit checked within 24 hours
  • 48. citoolkit.com Document Management and Flowcharts Companies often document their procedures and processes to comply with their industry regulations and meet the continuous auditing requirements. Flowcharting 48 Every company should have a standardized way for documenting their procedures and processes.
  • 49. citoolkit.com Document Management and Flowcharts Flowcharts can be useful to summarize a procedure or a process. Flowcharting 49 Flowcharts can play an important role of document management as they help understanding procedures and work instructions They can highlight waste and inefficiencies and reveal opportunities for continuous improvement
  • 50. citoolkit.com Document Management and Flowcharts Flowcharts can either be included under the relevant procedure or be placed in the appendix at the end of the document or manual. Flowcharting 50 A p p e n d i x If several people are going to chart the processes, design a template to ensure that one language is being spoken.
  • 51. citoolkit.com Document Management and Flowcharts One of the common approaches when documenting a procedure is to start with the flowchart, and then describe each process activity in a tabular format. Flowcharting 51 SN Activity How often? Feedback log 1 Prepare interview panel HR officer 2 Notify applicant of schedule HR officer 3 Appointment agreed? 1. If yes, go to step 5 2. If no, stop Interviewee 4 Prepare interview questions HR officer Interview questions
  • 52. citoolkit.com Steps for Constructing a Flowchart Flowcharting 52 With your team, describe the process and your objectives • Determine the type of flowchart, the level of detail, and the appropriate scope and boundaries. • If the decision is to create a swimlane flowchart, work with your team to agree on what departments should be included.
  • 53. citoolkit.com Steps for Constructing a Flowchart Flowcharting 53 Brainstorm and identify all major process activities, decisions and the sequence of completion • Brainstorm activities and decisions and write these on sticky notes or on a flipchart. 1 2 4 3
  • 54. citoolkit.com Steps for Constructing a Flowchart Flowcharting 54 Draft the flowchart using the standard set of shapes and label each step appropriately • Be consistent in the direction of flow (time may flow from top to bottom and from left to right). XXX XXX XX XX
  • 55. citoolkit.com Steps for Constructing a Flowchart Flowcharting 55 Prepare the final flowchart, check for missing activities or decisions, and add further details as necessary • Test the flowchart to make sure that it represents the process accurately and completely. Start End XXX XXX XX XX Cycle time = xxxx minutes VA ENVA VA NVA
  • 56. citoolkit.com Steps for Constructing a Flowchart Flowcharting 56 Publish and distribute the completed final version of the flowchart to all concerned • Update the procedures and other documentation as necessary. • Identify the areas that hinder the process or add little or no value for further process improvement. • Plan and implement actions to reduce inefficiencies and waste. Start End XXX XXX XX XX Cycle time = xxxx minutes VA ENVA VA NVA
  • 57. citoolkit.com Tips Although you can draw flowcharts by hand, it’s often more convenient to use any of the drawing applications to create visually appealing flowcharts. A good practice is to draft the flowchart on a paper before designing it with software. Flowcharting 57
  • 58. citoolkit.com Software Applications and Online Services The process of drawing a flowchart can be an overwhelming task. This is where applications and online services can offer the flexibility that a piece of paper can’t. There are many software applications and online services that allow the creation of flowcharts. Flowcharting 58 Microsoft Visio
  • 59. citoolkit.com Further Information Flowcharting 59 It’s always recommended to walk the process before you draw your process map to get an overview of the process and identify the boundaries The exercise of mapping your company processes can clarify your and your team’s understanding of the work
  • 60. citoolkit.com Further Information - Tips Flowcharting 60 Clarify process boundaries Use brief description to describe each activity Number your process steps Whenever possible start with verbs
  • 61. citoolkit.com Further Information Potential Pitfalls Flowcharting 61 Hidden bias or agenda Lost in the details Not verifying the facts Not focusing on customers’ needs Mapping without a clear purpose
  • 62. citoolkit.com Further Information Ask . . . Flowcharting 62 How do you assess the performance of this activity? Where does the material or service come from? Who makes this decision? Where does the service or material of this activity go? What happens if the activity is under performing? What happens if the decision is yes / no?
  • 63. citoolkit.com Further Information Supportive Questions . . . Flowcharting 63 Are things done in the right sequence? Are there times when waiting is involved? Are all activities necessary? Could these rework loops be eliminated? How can waiting be reduced? Are there rework loops where activities are repeated? Are there any quick wins possible? Can any paperwork be eliminated? Does information arrive on time?
  • 64. citoolkit.com Further Information Common Process Problems . . . Flowcharting 64 Long cycle times Too many inspections Errors and rework Excessive delays Duplication Complex procedures Non-value adding steps Bottlenecks Missing steps Dead ends Costly steps Departure from procedure
  • 65. citoolkit.com Further Information What do we think of a process is not necessary what it actually is . . . Flowcharting 65 What you think it is? What it actually is? Hidden factors What you would like it to be?
  • 66. © Copyright Citoolkit.com. All Rights Reserved. CITOOLKIT Made with by The Continuous Improvement Toolkit www.citoolkit.com