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PRESENTED BY
1. Fahad Murad1. Fahad Murad
B.ED ……..1.5
UNIVERSITY OF
PESHAWAR
 Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt,
Germany, in 1902.
 The first published his eight theory of
human development in his 1950 book,
Childhood and Society.Childhood and Society.
 Erik Erikson was a 20th century
psychologist who developed the theory
of psychosocial development and the
concept of an identity crisis.
 He introduce psychosocial theory of
personality development has eight stages
starting from infancy to old age .
Erikson’s Theory Background
 Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order
through eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to
adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial
crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality
development.
 One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the
development of ego identity.development of ego identity.
 According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new
experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with
others .
 In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of
competence also motivated behaviors and actions.
Cont……
• Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in
an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of
mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. If
the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of
inadequacy.
• In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as
a turning point in development. In Erikson’s view, these conflicts are
centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop
that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high,
but so is the potential for failure.
• Erikson emphasized that the environment played a major role in
self-awareness, adjustment, human development, and identity.
Cont…
 Each of Erikson's stages of psychosocial
development focus on a central conflict. In
Erikson's theory of development, children don't
automatically complete each stage on a
predetermined schedule. Instead, people facepredetermined schedule. Instead, people face
generalized challenges throughout life, and the
ways in which they answer these challenges
determine whether they develop further or
stagnate at a particular stage of development.
Erikson’s eight stages and associated challenges
include
Erikson 8 stages theory
Erikson 8 stages theory
STAGE 1 INFANCY
TRUST VS. MISTRUST (BIRTH TO 18 MONTHS)
 Babies must learn to trust there
mother care and affection.
 If the infant receives care which is
reliable and consistent then a sensereliable and consistent then a sense
of trust is available and in harsh and
inconsistent care, mistrust is
developed.
 Success in this stage will lead to a
virtue of hope.
Explanation of Stage 1
 If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will
feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are
inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting
contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they
care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear
and a belief that the world is inconsistent and
unpredictable.
Stage 2 (Early Childhood)
Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (2 to 3 years)
 The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial
development takes place during early childhood and is focused
on children developing a greater sense of personal control.
 Children need to develop a sense of personal control over
physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads tophysical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to
feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and
doubt.
 If the children are encouraged in this stage, they become
confident and secure in they ability.
 If they are discouraged, they lack self-esteem and feel a sense
of shame
Explanation of Stage 2
 Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a
vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning
was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believe
that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a
feeling of control and a sense of independence.feeling of control and a sense of independence.
 Other important events include gaining more control over
food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.
 Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure
and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense
of inadequacy and self-doubt
Stage 3 (Early Childhood)
Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5 years)
 During the pre-school years, children
begin to assert their power and control
over the world through directing play
and other social interaction.and other social interaction.
 Children who are successful at this stage
feel capable and able to lead others.
Those who fail to acquire these skills are
left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and
lack of initiative.
Explanation of Stage 3
 Child begins to explore his social and physical worlds discovering what
he can accomplish.
 Erikson refers to this as a time for developing a sense of initiative or a
positive attitude of personal accomplishment. At this time, the childpositive attitude of personal accomplishment. At this time, the child
gradually becomes aware of the various social roles presented by his
environment.
 In Erikson’s view, the basic influence during this period is the child’s
families who can help him learn to be responsible for his behavior and
actions.
 Children are aged 5 to 12 years in this stage
and are learning to read, write, do sums etc.
 The child’s peer group creates a significant
source of the child’s self esteem.source of the child’s self esteem.
 Learn to follow the rules imposed by schools or
home.
Explanation of Stage 4
 The child's world broadens technical skills are learned and feelings of competence,
enlarged. Children enter new world of the neighborhood and the school. In
Erikson‟s view, when children come to believe that they cannot achieve according
to their school, family, or peers, their sense of mastery will give way to personal
inferiority. Thus, they become incapable of facing the transitory adolescent yearsinferiority. Thus, they become incapable of facing the transitory adolescent years
which lie directly ahead. Parents must encourage, teachers must care, peers must
accept.
 Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a
feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no
encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be
successful.
STAGE 5 ADOLESCENCE
IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION (12 TO 18 years)
• During adolescence, children are exploring their independence
and developing a sense of self.and developing a sense of self.
• Teens needs to develop a sense of self and personal identity.
Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while
failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
STAGE 6 Young Adulthood
Intimacy vs. Isolation (19 to 40 years)
 Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other
people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in
loneliness and isolation.
 This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are
exploring personal relationships.
 Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed
relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step
will develop relationships that are committed and secure.
STAGE 7 Middle Adulthood
Generatively vs. Stagnation (40 to 65 years)
 During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on
our career and family.
 Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they
are contributing to the world by being active in their home and
community.community.
 Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and
uninvolved in the world.
 This phase occurs during old age and is focused
on reflecting back on life.
 Those who are unsuccessful during this phase
will feel that their life has been wasted and will
experience many regrets. The individual will be
left with feelings of bitterness and despair.
 Older adults need to look back on life and feel a
sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to
feelings of wisdom, while failure results in
regret, bitterness, and despair.
FAHAD MURAD

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Erikson 8 stages theory

  • 1. PRESENTED BY 1. Fahad Murad1. Fahad Murad B.ED ……..1.5 UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR
  • 2.  Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1902.  The first published his eight theory of human development in his 1950 book, Childhood and Society.Childhood and Society.  Erik Erikson was a 20th century psychologist who developed the theory of psychosocial development and the concept of an identity crisis.  He introduce psychosocial theory of personality development has eight stages starting from infancy to old age .
  • 3. Erikson’s Theory Background  Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order through eight stages of psychosocial development, from infancy to adulthood. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.  One of the main elements of Erikson’s psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity.development of ego identity.  According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experience and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others .  In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence also motivated behaviors and actions.
  • 4. Cont…… • Each stage in Erikson’s theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which he sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy. • In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson’s view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure. • Erikson emphasized that the environment played a major role in self-awareness, adjustment, human development, and identity.
  • 5. Cont…  Each of Erikson's stages of psychosocial development focus on a central conflict. In Erikson's theory of development, children don't automatically complete each stage on a predetermined schedule. Instead, people facepredetermined schedule. Instead, people face generalized challenges throughout life, and the ways in which they answer these challenges determine whether they develop further or stagnate at a particular stage of development. Erikson’s eight stages and associated challenges include
  • 8. STAGE 1 INFANCY TRUST VS. MISTRUST (BIRTH TO 18 MONTHS)  Babies must learn to trust there mother care and affection.  If the infant receives care which is reliable and consistent then a sensereliable and consistent then a sense of trust is available and in harsh and inconsistent care, mistrust is developed.  Success in this stage will lead to a virtue of hope.
  • 9. Explanation of Stage 1  If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
  • 10. Stage 2 (Early Childhood) Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt (2 to 3 years)  The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.  Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads tophysical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.  If the children are encouraged in this stage, they become confident and secure in they ability.  If they are discouraged, they lack self-esteem and feel a sense of shame
  • 11. Explanation of Stage 2  Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believe that learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.feeling of control and a sense of independence.  Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.  Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt
  • 12. Stage 3 (Early Childhood) Initiative vs. Guilt (3 to 5 years)  During the pre-school years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction.and other social interaction.  Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt and lack of initiative.
  • 13. Explanation of Stage 3  Child begins to explore his social and physical worlds discovering what he can accomplish.  Erikson refers to this as a time for developing a sense of initiative or a positive attitude of personal accomplishment. At this time, the childpositive attitude of personal accomplishment. At this time, the child gradually becomes aware of the various social roles presented by his environment.  In Erikson’s view, the basic influence during this period is the child’s families who can help him learn to be responsible for his behavior and actions.
  • 14.  Children are aged 5 to 12 years in this stage and are learning to read, write, do sums etc.  The child’s peer group creates a significant source of the child’s self esteem.source of the child’s self esteem.  Learn to follow the rules imposed by schools or home.
  • 15. Explanation of Stage 4  The child's world broadens technical skills are learned and feelings of competence, enlarged. Children enter new world of the neighborhood and the school. In Erikson‟s view, when children come to believe that they cannot achieve according to their school, family, or peers, their sense of mastery will give way to personal inferiority. Thus, they become incapable of facing the transitory adolescent yearsinferiority. Thus, they become incapable of facing the transitory adolescent years which lie directly ahead. Parents must encourage, teachers must care, peers must accept.  Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful.
  • 16. STAGE 5 ADOLESCENCE IDENTITY VS. ROLE CONFUSION (12 TO 18 years) • During adolescence, children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self.and developing a sense of self. • Teens needs to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
  • 17. STAGE 6 Young Adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation (19 to 40 years)  Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.  This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships.  Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will develop relationships that are committed and secure.
  • 18. STAGE 7 Middle Adulthood Generatively vs. Stagnation (40 to 65 years)  During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family.  Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community.community.  Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
  • 19.  This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life.  Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.  Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.