According to Sigmund Freud, personality is mostly established by the ageof five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development andcontinue to influence behavior later in life.Freuds theory of psychosexual development is one of the best known, butalso one of the most controversial. Freud believed that personalitydevelops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas.This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving forcebehind behavior. 1. Oral Stage 2. Anal Stage 3. Phallic Stage 4. Latency Stage 5. Genital Stage
If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result isa healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at theappropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focuson an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, theindividual will remain "stuck" in this stage. For example, a personwho is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others andmay seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating.Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like SigmundFreud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series ofstages. Unlike Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theorydescribes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan.
“Hope is both theearliest and the mostindispensable virtueinherent in the state ofbeing alive. If life is tobe sustained hope mustremain, even whereconfidence is wounded,trust impaired.“
Erik Homberger1902 - Born on June 15, 1902 at Frankfrut, Germany - His mother, Karla Abrahamsen, is Jewish.1911 - He was legally adopted by his step-father, Dr. Theodore Homberger.1919 - He begins to travel throughout Europe.1927 - He becomes a teacher at Hietzing School inVienna.
Peter Blos- his fellow artist; suggested Erik toapply for a teaching position Hietzing Schoolrun by Dorothy Burlingham.1928 - He studied child psychology with AnnaFreud. - He was psychoanalyzed by Anna Freudherself.1930 - He met a Canadian dance teacher, MarriesJoan Serson.
1933 - At this point in time, they were already married (Erik and Joan). Theyhave three children, one of them became a sociologist. - When Nazis coming into power, they left Vienna, to Copenhagen, thento Boston.1950s - He begins teaching at Harvard Medical School and practiced childpsychoanalysis privately. - He officially changed his name to Erik Erikson when he became anAmerican citizen. - He wrote Childhood and Society.
- During Senator Joseph McCarthy’s reign, he left Berkeley when professors were asked to sign a “loyalty oaths”.1958 - He published Young Man Luther.1963 - He published Youth: Change and Challenge.1964 - He published Insight and Responsibility.1968 - He published Identity: Youth and Crisis.1970 - He retired from teaching. - He wrote and did some research wrote his wife.1994 - He died on May 12, 1994 at Harwich, MA.
Influences: Sigmund Freud Anna FreudPsychologists: Henry Murray Kurt LewinAnthropologists: Gregory Bateson Margaret Mead Ruth Benedict
The Ego• Body ego (experiences with our body, a way of seeing thephysical self as different for other people)• Ego Ideal (the image we have of ourselves in comparisonwith an established ideal; it is responsible for our beingsatisfied or not satisfied not only with our physical self butalso with our entire personal identity)• Ego Identity (the image we have of ourselves in the varietyof social roles we play)
Epigenetic Theory Epigenetic theory is an emergent theory of development that includes both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct influencethat environmental forces have, over time, on the expression of those genes. The theory focuses on the dynamic interaction between these two influences during development.
Epigenetic PrincipleWe develop through an unfolding of our personalityin predetermined stages, and that our environmentand surrounding culture influence how we progressthrough these stages. This biological unfolding inrelation to our socio-cultural settings is done instages of psychosocial development, where"progress through each stage is in part determinedby our success, or lack of success, in all theprevious stages.”
Childrens and AdultsErikson had some things to say about theinteraction of generations, which he calledmutuality. Freud had made it abundantly clearthat a child’s parents influence his or herdevelopment. It is even appropriate to add athird generation to the picture.
The first stage of Eriksons theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the childs caregivers. Ifa child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately age two to three years. According to Erikson, children at this stage are focused on developing a greater sense of self-control. Gaining a sense of personal control over the world is important at this stage of development. Toilet training plays a major role; learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences and clothing selection. Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.
During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interactions.Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative.
The stage occurs during childhood between the ages of six and eleven. School and social interaction play an important role during this time of a child’s life. Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to be successful. According to Erikson, this stage is vital in the development of self- confidence. During school and other social activities, children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as reading, writing, drawing and solving problems. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Duringadolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of self.Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will feel insecure and confused about themselves and the future.
Thisstage takes place during young adulthood between the ages of approximately 19 and 40. During this period of time, the major conflict centres on forming intimate, loving relationships with other people. Studieshave demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression. Eriksonbelieved it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family.Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
This stage occurs during late adulthood from age 65 through the end of life. During this period of time, people reflect back on the life they have lived and come away with either a sense of fulfilment from a life well lived or a sense of regret and despair over a life misspent. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death. Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death. Those who are unsuccessful during this phase will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.