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                WAS: GEOFRAME
    a system for doing hydrology by computer
R. Rigon, A. Antonello, S. Franceschi, D. Giacomelli, E. Cordano,
    S. Endrizzi, S. Simoni, M., Dall’Amico, C. Tiso, F. Zanotti


                    IS:
            GEOtop: What is next


University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008



       GEOtop




                                                                                            Figure modified after Liang et al, 1994
        Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi, 2007
                                       www.geotop.org



University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




    GEOtop Equations             Surface Runoff




      Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi,
                                          2007


AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




    GEOtop Equations
                Turbulent Sensible and Latent Heat Exchanges




      Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi,
                                          2007


AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




          GEOtop Equations             Subsurface Flow




Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi,
2007

   AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




    GEOtop Equations           Soil Temperature




      Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi,
                                          2007


AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008



                  Required Data
                                             - Digital Elevation Model (and
                                             derived geomorphic information - as
                                             lakes, river networks, hillslopes - and
                                             geomorphometric information - like
                                             contributing areas, slopes, curvatures)

                                             - Sky View Factor

                                             - Vegetation and Land Use (for
                                             interception, ET, surface roughness)

                                             - Soil Depth, Texture and
                                             Type (for hydraulic and thermal
                                             properties)

       Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi,
                                           2007

AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008



Requires Boundary Conditions




AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


REQUIRES ALSO:

BOUNDARY
CONDITIONS

METEO FORCINGS

PARAMETERS

INITIAL CONDITIONS

METHODS OF
INITIALIZATION
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


                       Forcings
                                             - Precipitation (quantity
                                             and type, spatially
                                             distributed)

                                             - Relative humidity
                                             (spatially distributed)

                                             - Wind Speed and
                                             direction (spatially
                                             distributed)

                                             - Solar Radiation
                                             (spatially distributed)




AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


                   Parameters
                                               - Soil Parameters (e.g.
                                               van Genuchten)

                                               - Surface roughness
                                               (for water celerity)

                                               - Bulk aerodynamic
                                               properties

                                               - Ice and snow
                                               properties

                                               - Atmosphere
                                               radiative properties



AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008



 Required Initial Conditions
                                        - Soil moisture (profile,
                                        in terms of matric
                                        potential, spatially
                                        distributed)

                                        - Soil temperature
                                        (profile, spatially
                                        distributed)

                                        - Surface water (if
                                        present)

                                        - Snow cover (if present)
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008

                            To Sum up
 Equations            Parameters            Data


 Mass, momentum       Equation’s
 and energy           constant. In time!    Forcings and
 conservation.        In space they are     observables
 Chemical             heteorgeneous
 transformations




 Numerics,            Calibration,          Data Assimilation.
 boundary and         derivation from       Data Models.
 initial conditions   proxies               Tools for Analysis.




AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008



                The next step

No New processes but
investigating and preparing all the
ancillary models needed to run
GEOtop
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


                          The next step
Exploiting the inherent
parallelism in river
networks
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




                           A STEP BEFORE




University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


    JGrass/uDig




               http://www.jgrass.org, http://jgrasstechtips.blogspot.com/



University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




                          MODELS




                                                              Mademoiselle Rose, ca. 1820. Eugène Delacroix.
IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




    Models we are talking about are computer applications


   Equations               Parameters                Data


    Mass, momentum and     Equation’s constant. In
    energy conservation.   time!                     Forcings and
    Chemical               In space they are         observables
    transformations        usually heterogeneous




    In the past they were built as monolithic programs


IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


 I - Once a model, design and implemented as a monolithic
software entity, has been deployed, its evolution is totally in
the hands of the original developers. While this is a
good thing for intellectual property rights and in a commercial
environment, this is absolutely a bad thing for science and
the way it is supposed to progress.




                                                                  Robbed from a CCA presentation
IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008



II - Independent revisions                  and third-party
contributions are nearly impossible and especially when
the code is not available.
Models falsification (in Popper sense) is usually impossible by
other scientists than the original authors.


III- Thus, model inter-comparison projects give usually
unsatisfying results. Once complex models do not
reproduce data it is usually very difficult to
determine which process or parameterization was
incorrectly implemented.




IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




Q: HOW CAN WE BE MORE “GALILEIAN” ?

A: YES, PRODUCING AND PROMOTING
OPEN SOURCE MODELS. THIS HOWEVER
IS NOT ENOUGH SINCE MODELS SHOULD
B E S T R U C T U R A L LY E A S Y T O
UNDERSTAND, DOCUMENT, MODIFY,
M A I N TA I N , A N D FAVO R P RO C E S S E S
ANALYSIS.
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


MODELLING, FOR WHO ?
Which end user do you have in mind ?




                                                              Baboon, Papius Anubis
SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


                   • Prime users: take or prepare decisions at a
                   political level

                   • Technical users: prepare projects or maps
Users/Actors



                   for the primary users




                                                                          Modified from Rizzoli et al., 2005
                   • Other end-users: national agencies,
                   representative groups, etc. They may take or
                   prepare decisions at national or regional level, or
                   represent stakeholder groups.

                   • Model and application developers/
                   modellers: build models and targeted
                   applications


   SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008

            • Coders: implement models, applications and
            tools.

            • Linkers: link existing models and applications.




                                                                   Modified from Rizzoli et al., 2005
            • Runners: execute existing models, but they
            create and define scenarios.

            • Players: play simulations and experiments
Roles




            comparing scenarios and making analyses.

            • Viewers: view the players’ results, have a low
            level of interaction with the framework.

            • Providers: provide inputs and data to all other
            user roles.
 SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




        Roles   Hard   Soft              Linkers   Runners Player   Viewers   Providers
                Coders Coders
Users

Prime

Other End
Users

Technical


Researchers




    Modified from Rizzoli et al., ,2005

SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008



Thus there exists a “zoo” of users, each one with different abilities.

Bundling data, algorithms and the graphical user interface of a
model in an application with the old techniques makes the
models very hard to re-use out of its original context.




 AN ECOLOGY OF MODELS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


 NEW (well relatively) MODELING PARADIGMS
Object-oriented software development. O-O
programming is nothing new, but it has proven to be a successful
key to the design and implementation of modelling frameworks.




                                                                   Modified from Rizzoli et al., 2005
Models and data can be seen as objects and therefore they can
exploit properties such as encapsulation, polymorphism, data
abstraction and inheritance.
Component-oriented software development. Objects
(models and data) should be packaged in components, exposing for
re-use only their most important functions. Libraries of
components can then be re-used and efficiently integrated across
modelling frameworks.Yet, a certain degree of dependency of the
model component from the framework can actually hinder reuse.


 MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008




MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


  BENEFITS
   Discrete units of software which are re-usable
   even outside the framework, both for model components
   and for tools components.
  Seamless and transparent access to data, which
  are made independent of the database layer.

  A number of tools (simulation, calibration, etc.) that the
  modeller will be free to use (including a visual modelling
  environment).

 A model repository to store your model (and
 simulations) and to share it with others.


MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


 BENEFITS FOR SCIENTISTS

 Tools for studying feedbacks among different processes.

 Encapsulation of single processes or submodels

 New educational tools and a “storage” of hydrological
 knowledge using appropriate onthologies



 MUCH MORE in the field of possibilities


MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING
INFRASTRUCTURE ?
Economic modelling frameworks^. GAMS (general
algebraic modelling system, http://www.gams.com) and GTAP
(global trade analysis program, http://
www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu ) are some of the most used
modelling systems in the agro-economic domain. They can also
account for social variables, such as unemployment.



^from Rizzoli et al., (Modeling Framework (SeamFrame)
Requirements 2005

 MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING
INFRASTRUCTURE ?
Environmental modelling frameworks. If we limit to the
agricultural domain, the list is quite limited. There is no ‘real’
framework according to the definition, but APSIM, STICS
and CropSyst provide some of the functionalities. In this area
SEAMFRAME is an emerging technology. When we consider
the water management sector, we find many examples,
such as TIME (the invisible modelling environment), IMT,
OpenMI, and OMS, and, to a certain respect, JUPITER-API.

^ extended from Rizzoli et al., (Modeling Framework
(SeamFrame) Requirements 2005

MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING
INFRASTRUCTURE ?

Other modelling software environments of notable
interest are SME, MMS, ICMS, Tarsier, Modcom,
Simile, but they are integrated modelling environments, not
frameworks. This means that they can be used to perform
assessments, analyses, decision support, but they do not provide
programming structures such as classes, components, objects,
design patterns to be used to create end-user applications.


^from Rizzoli et al., Modeling Framework (SeamFrame)
Requirements, 2005

MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING
INFRASTRUCTURE ?

Atmospheric Sciences: Earth Sciences Modeling Framework
(ESMF) (including Earth System Curator)


High Performance Computing: Common Component
Architecture (CCA)




MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


                         Besides
    input                   MODELLI                output
  HARD DATA
 MEteorologia
 Climatologia
                           MODELLI
                           NUMERICI              SCENARI
 GEOLOGIA/
 ANALISI DEL
 TERRENO                   SISTEMI               PROIEZIONI
   SOFT DATA               ESPERTI
 GIUDIZIO
 DELL’ESPERto              METODI              PREVISIONI
                           STATISTICI
 OSSERVAZIONE
 DI CAMPO

MODELLING BY COMPONENTS REPRISE
CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008


                          Models as components
Monitored                                                                     Evapotranspiration
data

Weather                          Surfaces

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Cuahsi Boulder150708 Remixed Ge Otop Caffe

  • 1. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 WAS: GEOFRAME a system for doing hydrology by computer R. Rigon, A. Antonello, S. Franceschi, D. Giacomelli, E. Cordano, S. Endrizzi, S. Simoni, M., Dall’Amico, C. Tiso, F. Zanotti IS: GEOtop: What is next University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
  • 2. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 GEOtop Figure modified after Liang et al, 1994 Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi, 2007 www.geotop.org University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
  • 3. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 GEOtop Equations Surface Runoff Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi, 2007 AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 4. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 GEOtop Equations Turbulent Sensible and Latent Heat Exchanges Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi, 2007 AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 5. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 GEOtop Equations Subsurface Flow Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi, 2007 AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 6. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 GEOtop Equations Soil Temperature Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi, 2007 AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 7. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Required Data - Digital Elevation Model (and derived geomorphic information - as lakes, river networks, hillslopes - and geomorphometric information - like contributing areas, slopes, curvatures) - Sky View Factor - Vegetation and Land Use (for interception, ET, surface roughness) - Soil Depth, Texture and Type (for hydraulic and thermal properties) Rigon et al., JHM, 2006, Bertoldi et al., JHM, 2006, Simoni, 2007, Endrizzi, 2007 AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 8. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Requires Boundary Conditions AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 9. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 REQUIRES ALSO: BOUNDARY CONDITIONS METEO FORCINGS PARAMETERS INITIAL CONDITIONS METHODS OF INITIALIZATION
  • 10. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Forcings - Precipitation (quantity and type, spatially distributed) - Relative humidity (spatially distributed) - Wind Speed and direction (spatially distributed) - Solar Radiation (spatially distributed) AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 11. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Parameters - Soil Parameters (e.g. van Genuchten) - Surface roughness (for water celerity) - Bulk aerodynamic properties - Ice and snow properties - Atmosphere radiative properties AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 12. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Required Initial Conditions - Soil moisture (profile, in terms of matric potential, spatially distributed) - Soil temperature (profile, spatially distributed) - Surface water (if present) - Snow cover (if present)
  • 13. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 To Sum up Equations Parameters Data Mass, momentum Equation’s and energy constant. In time! Forcings and conservation. In space they are observables Chemical heteorgeneous transformations Numerics, Calibration, Data Assimilation. boundary and derivation from Data Models. initial conditions proxies Tools for Analysis. AWARE OF HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES
  • 14. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 The next step No New processes but investigating and preparing all the ancillary models needed to run GEOtop
  • 15. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 The next step Exploiting the inherent parallelism in river networks
  • 16. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 A STEP BEFORE University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
  • 17. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 JGrass/uDig http://www.jgrass.org, http://jgrasstechtips.blogspot.com/ University of Trento (IT) - HYDROLOGIS
  • 18. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 MODELS Mademoiselle Rose, ca. 1820. Eugène Delacroix. IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
  • 19. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Models we are talking about are computer applications Equations Parameters Data Mass, momentum and Equation’s constant. In energy conservation. time! Forcings and Chemical In space they are observables transformations usually heterogeneous In the past they were built as monolithic programs IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
  • 20. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 I - Once a model, design and implemented as a monolithic software entity, has been deployed, its evolution is totally in the hands of the original developers. While this is a good thing for intellectual property rights and in a commercial environment, this is absolutely a bad thing for science and the way it is supposed to progress. Robbed from a CCA presentation IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
  • 21. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 II - Independent revisions and third-party contributions are nearly impossible and especially when the code is not available. Models falsification (in Popper sense) is usually impossible by other scientists than the original authors. III- Thus, model inter-comparison projects give usually unsatisfying results. Once complex models do not reproduce data it is usually very difficult to determine which process or parameterization was incorrectly implemented. IS MODELING SCIENCE ?
  • 22. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Q: HOW CAN WE BE MORE “GALILEIAN” ? A: YES, PRODUCING AND PROMOTING OPEN SOURCE MODELS. THIS HOWEVER IS NOT ENOUGH SINCE MODELS SHOULD B E S T R U C T U R A L LY E A S Y T O UNDERSTAND, DOCUMENT, MODIFY, M A I N TA I N , A N D FAVO R P RO C E S S E S ANALYSIS.
  • 23. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 MODELLING, FOR WHO ? Which end user do you have in mind ? Baboon, Papius Anubis SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
  • 24. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 • Prime users: take or prepare decisions at a political level • Technical users: prepare projects or maps Users/Actors for the primary users Modified from Rizzoli et al., 2005 • Other end-users: national agencies, representative groups, etc. They may take or prepare decisions at national or regional level, or represent stakeholder groups. • Model and application developers/ modellers: build models and targeted applications SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
  • 25. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 • Coders: implement models, applications and tools. • Linkers: link existing models and applications. Modified from Rizzoli et al., 2005 • Runners: execute existing models, but they create and define scenarios. • Players: play simulations and experiments Roles comparing scenarios and making analyses. • Viewers: view the players’ results, have a low level of interaction with the framework. • Providers: provide inputs and data to all other user roles. SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
  • 26. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Roles Hard Soft Linkers Runners Player Viewers Providers Coders Coders Users Prime Other End Users Technical Researchers Modified from Rizzoli et al., ,2005 SCIENTIST ARE NOT THE ONLY MODELS USERS
  • 27. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Thus there exists a “zoo” of users, each one with different abilities. Bundling data, algorithms and the graphical user interface of a model in an application with the old techniques makes the models very hard to re-use out of its original context. AN ECOLOGY OF MODELS
  • 28. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 NEW (well relatively) MODELING PARADIGMS Object-oriented software development. O-O programming is nothing new, but it has proven to be a successful key to the design and implementation of modelling frameworks. Modified from Rizzoli et al., 2005 Models and data can be seen as objects and therefore they can exploit properties such as encapsulation, polymorphism, data abstraction and inheritance. Component-oriented software development. Objects (models and data) should be packaged in components, exposing for re-use only their most important functions. Libraries of components can then be re-used and efficiently integrated across modelling frameworks.Yet, a certain degree of dependency of the model component from the framework can actually hinder reuse. MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 29. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 30. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 BENEFITS Discrete units of software which are re-usable even outside the framework, both for model components and for tools components. Seamless and transparent access to data, which are made independent of the database layer. A number of tools (simulation, calibration, etc.) that the modeller will be free to use (including a visual modelling environment). A model repository to store your model (and simulations) and to share it with others. MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 31. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 BENEFITS FOR SCIENTISTS Tools for studying feedbacks among different processes. Encapsulation of single processes or submodels New educational tools and a “storage” of hydrological knowledge using appropriate onthologies MUCH MORE in the field of possibilities MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 32. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING INFRASTRUCTURE ? Economic modelling frameworks^. GAMS (general algebraic modelling system, http://www.gams.com) and GTAP (global trade analysis program, http:// www.gtap.agecon.purdue.edu ) are some of the most used modelling systems in the agro-economic domain. They can also account for social variables, such as unemployment. ^from Rizzoli et al., (Modeling Framework (SeamFrame) Requirements 2005 MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 33. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING INFRASTRUCTURE ? Environmental modelling frameworks. If we limit to the agricultural domain, the list is quite limited. There is no ‘real’ framework according to the definition, but APSIM, STICS and CropSyst provide some of the functionalities. In this area SEAMFRAME is an emerging technology. When we consider the water management sector, we find many examples, such as TIME (the invisible modelling environment), IMT, OpenMI, and OMS, and, to a certain respect, JUPITER-API. ^ extended from Rizzoli et al., (Modeling Framework (SeamFrame) Requirements 2005 MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 34. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING INFRASTRUCTURE ? Other modelling software environments of notable interest are SME, MMS, ICMS, Tarsier, Modcom, Simile, but they are integrated modelling environments, not frameworks. This means that they can be used to perform assessments, analyses, decision support, but they do not provide programming structures such as classes, components, objects, design patterns to be used to create end-user applications. ^from Rizzoli et al., Modeling Framework (SeamFrame) Requirements, 2005 MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 35. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 THERE EXIST SUCH MODELING INFRASTRUCTURE ? Atmospheric Sciences: Earth Sciences Modeling Framework (ESMF) (including Earth System Curator) High Performance Computing: Common Component Architecture (CCA) MODELLING BY COMPONENTS
  • 36. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Besides input MODELLI output HARD DATA MEteorologia Climatologia MODELLI NUMERICI SCENARI GEOLOGIA/ ANALISI DEL TERRENO SISTEMI PROIEZIONI SOFT DATA ESPERTI GIUDIZIO DELL’ESPERto METODI PREVISIONI STATISTICI OSSERVAZIONE DI CAMPO MODELLING BY COMPONENTS REPRISE
  • 37. CUAHSI BIANNUAL MEETING - BOULDER (CO) - JULY 14-16 2008 Models as components Monitored Evapotranspiration data Weather Surfaces