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KRUMBOLTZ‘SKRUMBOLTZ‘S
LEARNING THEORYLEARNING THEORY
OF CAREEROF CAREER
COUNSELING (LTCC)COUNSELING (LTCC)
By:By:
Lola SonaikeLola Sonaike
DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH
• What is a Theory?
A theory is, in effect, a rationalized set of
assumptions or hypothesis that allows you
to explain the past and predict the future.
• There are two types of theories
Structural Theories and Developmental
Theories.
DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH
• Structural Theories focus on individual
characteristics and occupational tasks.
e.g. Trait and Factor, PEC, Holland’s
Typology Approach
• Developmental Theories focus on human
development across life-span
e.g. Super, Krumboltz , Decision Making,
Cognitive
ABOUT KRUMBOLTZABOUT KRUMBOLTZ
• Who is he?
LET’S SPY HIS RESUMELET’S SPY HIS RESUME
SO WHAT DOES HISSO WHAT DOES HIS THEORYTHEORY
SAY?SAY?
According to Krumboltz, an infinite number
of accumulated learning experiences
determine one’s current occupational
situation.
– Interests are developed based on personally
enjoyable experiences
– New beliefs are developed and changed based on
new information that causes a re-examination of all
beliefs.
– Values change as one acquires experiences and
greater insight.
KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)
(Contd)(Contd)
• The process of career development
involves four factors:
- Genetic endowment and
special abilities
- Environmental Influences
- Learning experiences
- Task Approach Skills
KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)
(Contd)(Contd)
• Genetic: This include inherited qualities that may
set limits on the individual’s career opportunities.
This may be physical, mental or special abilities
• Environmental influences: in terms of how it
affects skill development, activities and career
preferences.
• Learning Experiences:
- Instrumental learning experiences
(‘learnings’ through reactions to
consequences). That is learnings through
direct observable results of actions and
through the reactions of others.
KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)
(Contd)(Contd)
• Learning Experiences (Contd)
– Associative learning experiences
This involves negative and positive reactions to previously
“neutral” statements.
e.g. “You’re going to be a great cop with those flat feet!.”
“All bankers are rich”
“All politicians are dishonest”
Task Approach Skills Skills that have been developed over
time. That is problem-solving skills, work habit. Note that skills
are often modified as a result of desirable and undesirable
experiences.
BY THE WAYBY THE WAY
Krumboltz based his
theory on
Bandura’s Social
Learning Theory.
He also worked with:
Mitchell and Gesalt
WHAT ABOUT SOCIALWHAT ABOUT SOCIAL
LEARNING APPROACH?LEARNING APPROACH?
• A social-learning theory approach to career
decision making was first proposed by
Krumboltz, Mitchell, and Gesalt (1975), and then
several years later by Mitchell and Krumboltz
(1990). More recently, Mitchell and Krumboltz
(1996) have extended the earlier social-learning
theory approach to include Krumboltz’s learning
theory of career counseling, and they now
suggest that the entire theory be referred to as
learning theory of career counseling (LTCC)
KEY NOTES TO COUNSELORSKEY NOTES TO COUNSELORS
• The factors that influence preferences in the social-
learning model are composed of numerous cognitive
processes, interactions in the environment, and inherited
personal characteristics and traits.
• Genetic and environmental factors are also involved in
the development of preferences. For example, a
basketball coach might reinforce tall players for their
skills than short players.
• Value models, positive words, and images such as a
booklet describing an occupation in glamorous terms,
will lead to positive reactions to that occupation.
COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES
• How can a counselor determine an individual’s problematic beliefs
and generalization?
• Identifying content from which certain beliefs and generalizations
have evolved is a key ingredient for developing counseling
strategies for individuals who have career decision-making
problems.
The counselor’s role is to probe assumptions and presuppositions of
expressed beliefs and to explore alternative beliefs and courses of
action.
Assisting individuals to understand the validity of their beliefs is a
major component of the social-learning model.
COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES
(Contd)(Contd)
• Intervention strategies suggested by Mitchell and
Krumboltz include the use of job clubs. Individuals can
offer support to each other in the job search process. A
wide range of media should be made available to clients,
and local employers should offer high school students
structured work-based learning experiences.
• Career counselors should use behavioral counseling
techniques, including role playing or trying new
behaviors, desensitization when dealing with phobias,
and paradoxical intention. The latter technique suggests
that a client engage in types of behavior that have
created a problem. (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996)
WHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTSWHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTS
FOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORYFOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORY
• The learning theory of career counseling has
been developed only recently and therefore
relevant research is yet to be accomplished.
The original theory, social-learning theory of
career decision making, claimed validity from the
development of educational and occupational
preferences, the development of task approach
skills and factors that cause people to take
action, and from an extensive database on
general social-learning theory of behavior.
SOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THATSOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THAT
MAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE:MAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE:
• My Vocational Situation (Holland, Daiger, and Power 1980)
• A Questionnaire to Determine Beliefs about Career Decision Making
(Mitchell and Krumboltz, cited by Mitchell 1980
• Inventory on Anxiety in Decision Making (Mendonca 1974)
• An Attitudinal Assessment of Decision Making (Item wording by
Clarke Carney)
• Efficacy Questionnaire (Mitchell, Krumboltz, and Kinnier, Cited in
Mitchell 1980)
PLEASE SEE HANDOUT FOR MORE INVENTORIES AND FOR
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH INVENTORY
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
APPLICATIONS
- People need to expand their capabilities and interests, not base
decisions on existing characteristics only
- People need to prepare for changing work tasks, not assume that
occupations will remain stable.
- People need to be empowered to take action, not merely given a
diagnosis
- Career counselors need to play a major role in dealing with all
career problems, not just with occupational selection.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/
IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS
IMMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING
• The role of career counselors and the goals of career counseling
need to be reevaluated. Counselor need to continue to promote
client learning but perhaps in a different way. Counselors may have
to become coaches and mentors to help individuals meet the
changes in work force requirements.
• Counselors should attempt to discover unlimited experiences
among clients and offer proper learning solutions.
• Assessment results can be used to create new experiences
COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES
(Contd)(Contd)
The counselor should address the following
problems:
• Client may fail to recognize that a remediable problem exists (individuals
have a tendency to assume that most problems are a normal part of life and
cannot be altered.
• Client may fail to exert the effort needed to make a decision or solve a
problem (individuals exert little effort to explore alternatives, they take the
familiar way out.
• Client may eliminate a potentially satisfying alternative for inappropriate
reasons (individuals over generalize from false assumptions and overlook
potentially worthwhile alternatives).
• Client may choose poor alternatives for inappropriate reasons (the
individuals are unable to realistically evaluate potential careers because of
false beliefs and unrealistic expectations).
• Persons may suffer anguish and anxiety over perceived inability to achieve
goals (individual goals may be unrealistic or in conflict with other goals).
LET’S BRAINSTORMLET’S BRAINSTORM
COMPETITION TIME
COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC)COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC)
WITH FEW OTHER THEORIESWITH FEW OTHER THEORIES
COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) WITH TRAIT-AND-FACTOR THEORY
Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes
Trait-and-Factor Individuals have unique
patterns of ability or traits
that can be objectively
measured and correlated
with requirements of
occupations.
Traits primarily refer to abilities and
interests. Parson's three step-
model included stydying the
individual, surveying occupation,
and matching the individual with
The primary goal of using
assessment data was to
predict job satisfaction and
success. Contemporary
practices stress the
relationships between human
factors and work
environments. Test data is
used to observe the similarity
between client and current
workers in a career field.
Krumboltz's Learning
Theory
Approach
Each individual's unique learning
experiences over the life span
develop primary influences
that lead to career choice.
Development involves genetic
endowments and special
abilities, environmental
conditions and events,
learning experiences, and
task approach skills
Genetic endowments are inherited
qualities that may set limits on
career choice. Environmental
conditions are contextual
interactions that influence
individual choices. Instrumental
learning experiences are those
acquired throuh observation,
consequences, and reaction of
othrs. Associative learning
experiences are negative and
positive reactions to neutral
experiences. Task approach
skills are work habits, mental
sets, emotional responses and
cognitive responses
Career development is a lifelong
process occuring in stages.
Self-concepts is shaped
through life experiences.
Clients are involved in several
life roles of child, student,
leisure, citizen, worker,
spouse, homemaker, parent,
and pensioner. All life roles
affect one another. In
developments societal factors
interact with biological
psychological factors.
KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON-KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON-
ENVIRONMENT FIT THEORYENVIRONMENT FIT THEORY
COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH PERSON-ENVIRONMENT-FIT
Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes
Person
Environment-Fit
Individuals bring requirements to a
work environment, and the
work environment makes its
requirements of individuals. To
survive, individuals and work
environments must achieve
some degre of congruence.
Personality structure is a stable
charactristic made up of abilities
and values. Ability dimensions
indicate levels of work skills.
Values are considered as work
needs. Satisfactoriness refers to
clients who are more achievement
oriented. Satisfaction refers to
more self fulfilled oriented clients.
Work adjustment refers to a
worker's attempt to improve fit in a
work environment.
Client abilities (work skills) and values
(work needs) are criteria used for
selecting work environments.
Work requirements determine
reinforcers available by
occupations. Knowledge of clients
who are more achievement
(satisfactoriness) or self-fulfilled
(satisfaction) oriented enhances
career choice
Krumboltz's
Learning
Theory Approach
Each individual's unique learning
experiences over the life span
develop primary influences that
lead to career choice.
Development involves genetic
endowments and special
abilities, environmental
conditions and events, learning
experiences, and task
approach skills
Genetic endowments are inherited
qualities that may set limits on
career choice. Environmental
conditions are contextual
interactions that influence individual
choices. Instrumental learning
experiences are those acquired
throuh observation, consequences,
and reaction of othrs. Associative
learning experiences are negative
and positive reactions to neutral
experiences. Task approach skills
are work habits, mental sets,
emotional responses and cognitive
responses
Career development is a lifelong
process occuring in stages. Self-
concepts is shaped through life
experiences. Clients are involved
in several life roles of child,
student, leisure, citizen, worker,
spouse, homemaker, parent, and
pensioner. All life roles affect one
another. In developments societal
factors interact with biological
psychological factors.
KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’SKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’S
LIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACHLIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACH
COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH SUPER'S LIFE SPAN LIFE SPACE APPROACH
Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes
Super's
Lifes-Span,
Life-Space
Approach
Career Development is
multidimensional. There
are developmental tasks
throughout the life-
span.Vocational maturity is
acquired through
successfully accomplishing
developmental tasks within
a common series of life
stages. Individuals
implement their self-
concepts into careers that
will provide th most efficient
means of self-expression.
Success in one liferole
facilitates success in
another.
Stages of vocational development
are Growth, Exploratory,
Establishment, Maintenance
and Decline. Developmental
tasks are Crystalization,
specification, Implentation
Stabilization and Consolidation.
Self-concept is the driving
force that establishes a career
pattern. Attitudes and
competencies are related to
careery growth and identified
as career Maturity.
Career development is a lifelong
process occuring in stages.
Self-concepts is shaped
through life experiences.
Clients are involved in several
life roles of child, student,
leisure, citizen, worker,
spouse, homemaker, parent,
and pensioner. All life roles
affect one another. In dev
elopment societal factors
interact with biological
psychological factors.
Krumboltz's
Learning
Theory
Approach
Each individual's unique learning
experiences over the life
span develop primary
influences that lead to
career choice.
Development involves
genetic endowments and
special abilities,
environmental conditions
and events, learning
experiences, and task
approach skills
Genetic endowments are inherited
qualities that may set limits on
career choice. Environmental
conditions are contextual
interactions that influence
individual choices.
Instrumental learning
experiences are those
acquired throuh observation,
consequences, and reaction of
othrs. Associative learning
experiences are negative and
positive reactions to neutral
experiences. Task approach
Career development is a lifelong
process occuring in stages.
Self-concepts is shaped
through life experiences.
Clients are involved in several
life roles of child, student,
leisure, citizen, worker,
spouse, homemaker, parent,
and pensioner. All life roles
affect one another. In
developments societal factors
interact with biological
psychological factors.
KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHNKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHN
HOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACHHOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACH
COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH HOLLAND'S TYPOLOGY APPROACH
Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes
Holland's Typology
Approach
Career choice is an expression
of, or an extension of
personality into the world of
work. Individuals search
for environments that will
let them exercise their skills
and abilities, express their
attitudes and values, and
take on agreeable
problems and roles. There
are six kinds of
occupational environments
and six matching personal
orientations.
The six types of categories for
individuals and work
environment are Realistic,
Investigative, Artistic, Social,
Enterprising and Conventional
Consistency refers to
personality, i.e. those client's
who relate strongly to one or
more of the categories.
Differentiation refers to those
who have poorly defined
personality styles. Identity
refers to the degree in which
one identifies with a work
environment. Congruency is a
good match between individual
and work environment.
Individuals are products of thir
environment. Stability of
career choice depends on
dominance of personal
orientation. Individuals who fit
a pure personality type will
express little resemblance to
other types. Clients who have
many occupational goals have
low identity. Congruence
occurs when client's
personality type matches the
corresponding work
environment.
Krumboltz's
Learning
Theory
Approach
Each individual's unique learning
experiences over the life
span develop primary
influences that lead to
career choice.
Development involves
genetic endowments and
special abilities,
environmental conditions
and events, learning
experiences, and task
approach skills
Genetic endowments are inherited
qualities that may set limits on
career choice. Environmental
conditions are contextual
interactions that influence
individual choices.
Instrumental learning
experiences are those
acquired throuh observation,
consequences, and reaction of
othrs. Associative learning
experiences are negative and
positive reactions to neutral
experiences. Task approach
Career development is a lifelong
process occuring in stages.
Self-concepts is shaped
through life experiences.
Clients are involved in several
life roles of child, student,
leisure, citizen, worker,
spouse, homemaker, parent,
and pensioner. All life roles
affect one another. In
developments societal factors
interact with biological
psychological factors.
ReferencesReferences
• Krumboltz, J. D. (1979). A Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making. In .
Mitchell, A.M.., Jones, F. B., & Krumboltz, J. D., (Eds), Social Learning and
Career Decision Making, edited by Mitchell, pp. 19-49
• Krumbotlz, J. D., (1994). The career beliefs inventory, Journal of Counseling and
Development, 72(4), 424-428
• Krumbotlz, J. D., (1996). A learning theory of career counseling. In M. L. Savickas &
W. B. Walsh (Eds.) . Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp
55-80), Palto Alto, CA: Davies-Black.
• Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1987). The effects of cognitive restructuring and
decision-making training on career indecision. Journal of Counseling and
Development, 66, 171-174
• Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1990). Social learning approach to career decision
making; Krumboltz’s theory. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.).
Career choice and development (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass
• Niles, S. G, & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2002). Career development interventions in the
21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. (Companion
website: http://www.prenhall.com/niles)
• Nystul, M.S. (1999), 5th edition. Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science
Perspective, Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pp (321–342)
THE ENDTHE END

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Coun 915 krumsboltz' learning theory of career counseling final

  • 1. KRUMBOLTZ‘SKRUMBOLTZ‘S LEARNING THEORYLEARNING THEORY OF CAREEROF CAREER COUNSELING (LTCC)COUNSELING (LTCC) By:By: Lola SonaikeLola Sonaike
  • 2. DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH • What is a Theory? A theory is, in effect, a rationalized set of assumptions or hypothesis that allows you to explain the past and predict the future. • There are two types of theories Structural Theories and Developmental Theories.
  • 3. DOWN TO EARTHDOWN TO EARTH • Structural Theories focus on individual characteristics and occupational tasks. e.g. Trait and Factor, PEC, Holland’s Typology Approach • Developmental Theories focus on human development across life-span e.g. Super, Krumboltz , Decision Making, Cognitive
  • 5. LET’S SPY HIS RESUMELET’S SPY HIS RESUME
  • 6. SO WHAT DOES HISSO WHAT DOES HIS THEORYTHEORY SAY?SAY? According to Krumboltz, an infinite number of accumulated learning experiences determine one’s current occupational situation. – Interests are developed based on personally enjoyable experiences – New beliefs are developed and changed based on new information that causes a re-examination of all beliefs. – Values change as one acquires experiences and greater insight.
  • 7. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) (Contd)(Contd) • The process of career development involves four factors: - Genetic endowment and special abilities - Environmental Influences - Learning experiences - Task Approach Skills
  • 8. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) (Contd)(Contd) • Genetic: This include inherited qualities that may set limits on the individual’s career opportunities. This may be physical, mental or special abilities • Environmental influences: in terms of how it affects skill development, activities and career preferences. • Learning Experiences: - Instrumental learning experiences (‘learnings’ through reactions to consequences). That is learnings through direct observable results of actions and through the reactions of others.
  • 9. KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC)KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) (Contd)(Contd) • Learning Experiences (Contd) – Associative learning experiences This involves negative and positive reactions to previously “neutral” statements. e.g. “You’re going to be a great cop with those flat feet!.” “All bankers are rich” “All politicians are dishonest” Task Approach Skills Skills that have been developed over time. That is problem-solving skills, work habit. Note that skills are often modified as a result of desirable and undesirable experiences.
  • 10. BY THE WAYBY THE WAY Krumboltz based his theory on Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. He also worked with: Mitchell and Gesalt
  • 11. WHAT ABOUT SOCIALWHAT ABOUT SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACH?LEARNING APPROACH? • A social-learning theory approach to career decision making was first proposed by Krumboltz, Mitchell, and Gesalt (1975), and then several years later by Mitchell and Krumboltz (1990). More recently, Mitchell and Krumboltz (1996) have extended the earlier social-learning theory approach to include Krumboltz’s learning theory of career counseling, and they now suggest that the entire theory be referred to as learning theory of career counseling (LTCC)
  • 12. KEY NOTES TO COUNSELORSKEY NOTES TO COUNSELORS • The factors that influence preferences in the social- learning model are composed of numerous cognitive processes, interactions in the environment, and inherited personal characteristics and traits. • Genetic and environmental factors are also involved in the development of preferences. For example, a basketball coach might reinforce tall players for their skills than short players. • Value models, positive words, and images such as a booklet describing an occupation in glamorous terms, will lead to positive reactions to that occupation.
  • 13. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES • How can a counselor determine an individual’s problematic beliefs and generalization? • Identifying content from which certain beliefs and generalizations have evolved is a key ingredient for developing counseling strategies for individuals who have career decision-making problems. The counselor’s role is to probe assumptions and presuppositions of expressed beliefs and to explore alternative beliefs and courses of action. Assisting individuals to understand the validity of their beliefs is a major component of the social-learning model.
  • 14. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES (Contd)(Contd) • Intervention strategies suggested by Mitchell and Krumboltz include the use of job clubs. Individuals can offer support to each other in the job search process. A wide range of media should be made available to clients, and local employers should offer high school students structured work-based learning experiences. • Career counselors should use behavioral counseling techniques, including role playing or trying new behaviors, desensitization when dealing with phobias, and paradoxical intention. The latter technique suggests that a client engage in types of behavior that have created a problem. (Mitchell & Krumboltz, 1996)
  • 15. WHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTSWHAT ARE THE EMPIRICAL SUPPORTS FOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORYFOR KRUMBOLTZ’S LEARNING THEORY • The learning theory of career counseling has been developed only recently and therefore relevant research is yet to be accomplished. The original theory, social-learning theory of career decision making, claimed validity from the development of educational and occupational preferences, the development of task approach skills and factors that cause people to take action, and from an extensive database on general social-learning theory of behavior.
  • 16. SOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THATSOME PSYCHOMETRIC INSTRUMENTS THAT MAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE:MAY BE USED FOR THIS APPROACH ARE: • My Vocational Situation (Holland, Daiger, and Power 1980) • A Questionnaire to Determine Beliefs about Career Decision Making (Mitchell and Krumboltz, cited by Mitchell 1980 • Inventory on Anxiety in Decision Making (Mendonca 1974) • An Attitudinal Assessment of Decision Making (Item wording by Clarke Carney) • Efficacy Questionnaire (Mitchell, Krumboltz, and Kinnier, Cited in Mitchell 1980) PLEASE SEE HANDOUT FOR MORE INVENTORIES AND FOR BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH INVENTORY
  • 17. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/ IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS APPLICATIONS - People need to expand their capabilities and interests, not base decisions on existing characteristics only - People need to prepare for changing work tasks, not assume that occupations will remain stable. - People need to be empowered to take action, not merely given a diagnosis - Career counselors need to play a major role in dealing with all career problems, not just with occupational selection.
  • 18. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS/ IMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORSIMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELORS IMMPLICATIONS FOR COUNSELING • The role of career counselors and the goals of career counseling need to be reevaluated. Counselor need to continue to promote client learning but perhaps in a different way. Counselors may have to become coaches and mentors to help individuals meet the changes in work force requirements. • Counselors should attempt to discover unlimited experiences among clients and offer proper learning solutions. • Assessment results can be used to create new experiences
  • 19. COUNSELING STRATEGIESCOUNSELING STRATEGIES (Contd)(Contd) The counselor should address the following problems: • Client may fail to recognize that a remediable problem exists (individuals have a tendency to assume that most problems are a normal part of life and cannot be altered. • Client may fail to exert the effort needed to make a decision or solve a problem (individuals exert little effort to explore alternatives, they take the familiar way out. • Client may eliminate a potentially satisfying alternative for inappropriate reasons (individuals over generalize from false assumptions and overlook potentially worthwhile alternatives). • Client may choose poor alternatives for inappropriate reasons (the individuals are unable to realistically evaluate potential careers because of false beliefs and unrealistic expectations). • Persons may suffer anguish and anxiety over perceived inability to achieve goals (individual goals may be unrealistic or in conflict with other goals).
  • 21. COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC)COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) WITH FEW OTHER THEORIESWITH FEW OTHER THEORIES COMPARISON OF KRUMBOLTZ’S (LTCC) WITH TRAIT-AND-FACTOR THEORY Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Trait-and-Factor Individuals have unique patterns of ability or traits that can be objectively measured and correlated with requirements of occupations. Traits primarily refer to abilities and interests. Parson's three step- model included stydying the individual, surveying occupation, and matching the individual with The primary goal of using assessment data was to predict job satisfaction and success. Contemporary practices stress the relationships between human factors and work environments. Test data is used to observe the similarity between client and current workers in a career field. Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach skills are work habits, mental sets, emotional responses and cognitive responses Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  • 22. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON-KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND PERSON- ENVIRONMENT FIT THEORYENVIRONMENT FIT THEORY COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH PERSON-ENVIRONMENT-FIT Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Person Environment-Fit Individuals bring requirements to a work environment, and the work environment makes its requirements of individuals. To survive, individuals and work environments must achieve some degre of congruence. Personality structure is a stable charactristic made up of abilities and values. Ability dimensions indicate levels of work skills. Values are considered as work needs. Satisfactoriness refers to clients who are more achievement oriented. Satisfaction refers to more self fulfilled oriented clients. Work adjustment refers to a worker's attempt to improve fit in a work environment. Client abilities (work skills) and values (work needs) are criteria used for selecting work environments. Work requirements determine reinforcers available by occupations. Knowledge of clients who are more achievement (satisfactoriness) or self-fulfilled (satisfaction) oriented enhances career choice Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach skills are work habits, mental sets, emotional responses and cognitive responses Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self- concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  • 23. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’SKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND SUPER’S LIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACHLIFE-SPAN, LIFE-SPACE APPROACH COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH SUPER'S LIFE SPAN LIFE SPACE APPROACH Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Super's Lifes-Span, Life-Space Approach Career Development is multidimensional. There are developmental tasks throughout the life- span.Vocational maturity is acquired through successfully accomplishing developmental tasks within a common series of life stages. Individuals implement their self- concepts into careers that will provide th most efficient means of self-expression. Success in one liferole facilitates success in another. Stages of vocational development are Growth, Exploratory, Establishment, Maintenance and Decline. Developmental tasks are Crystalization, specification, Implentation Stabilization and Consolidation. Self-concept is the driving force that establishes a career pattern. Attitudes and competencies are related to careery growth and identified as career Maturity. Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In dev elopment societal factors interact with biological psychological factors. Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  • 24. KRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHNKRUMBOLTZ’ (LTCC) AND JOHN HOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACHHOLLAND’S TYPOLOGY APPROACH COMPARIZON OF KRUMBOLTZ' (LTCC) WITH HOLLAND'S TYPOLOGY APPROACH Theories Basic Assumptions Key Terms Outcomes Holland's Typology Approach Career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of work. Individuals search for environments that will let them exercise their skills and abilities, express their attitudes and values, and take on agreeable problems and roles. There are six kinds of occupational environments and six matching personal orientations. The six types of categories for individuals and work environment are Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising and Conventional Consistency refers to personality, i.e. those client's who relate strongly to one or more of the categories. Differentiation refers to those who have poorly defined personality styles. Identity refers to the degree in which one identifies with a work environment. Congruency is a good match between individual and work environment. Individuals are products of thir environment. Stability of career choice depends on dominance of personal orientation. Individuals who fit a pure personality type will express little resemblance to other types. Clients who have many occupational goals have low identity. Congruence occurs when client's personality type matches the corresponding work environment. Krumboltz's Learning Theory Approach Each individual's unique learning experiences over the life span develop primary influences that lead to career choice. Development involves genetic endowments and special abilities, environmental conditions and events, learning experiences, and task approach skills Genetic endowments are inherited qualities that may set limits on career choice. Environmental conditions are contextual interactions that influence individual choices. Instrumental learning experiences are those acquired throuh observation, consequences, and reaction of othrs. Associative learning experiences are negative and positive reactions to neutral experiences. Task approach Career development is a lifelong process occuring in stages. Self-concepts is shaped through life experiences. Clients are involved in several life roles of child, student, leisure, citizen, worker, spouse, homemaker, parent, and pensioner. All life roles affect one another. In developments societal factors interact with biological psychological factors.
  • 25. ReferencesReferences • Krumboltz, J. D. (1979). A Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making. In . Mitchell, A.M.., Jones, F. B., & Krumboltz, J. D., (Eds), Social Learning and Career Decision Making, edited by Mitchell, pp. 19-49 • Krumbotlz, J. D., (1994). The career beliefs inventory, Journal of Counseling and Development, 72(4), 424-428 • Krumbotlz, J. D., (1996). A learning theory of career counseling. In M. L. Savickas & W. B. Walsh (Eds.) . Handbook of career counseling theory and practice (pp 55-80), Palto Alto, CA: Davies-Black. • Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1987). The effects of cognitive restructuring and decision-making training on career indecision. Journal of Counseling and Development, 66, 171-174 • Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1990). Social learning approach to career decision making; Krumboltz’s theory. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.). Career choice and development (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass • Niles, S. G, & Harris-Bowlsbey, J. (2002). Career development interventions in the 21st century. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. (Companion website: http://www.prenhall.com/niles) • Nystul, M.S. (1999), 5th edition. Introduction to Counseling: An Art and Science Perspective, Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Pp (321–342)