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Commercial Bank : Meaning,
Functions, Types and Role
Meaning of Commercial Bank
 A commercial bank is a financial
institution which performs the
functions of accepting deposits from
the general public and giving loans for
investment with the aim of earning
profit.
 In fact, commercial banks, as their
name suggests, profit-seeking
institutions, i.e., they do banking
business to earn profit.
Continue
 They generally finance trade and
commerce with short-term loans. They
charge high rate of interest from the
borrowers but pay much less rate of
Interest to their depositors with the
result that the difference between the
two rates of interest becomes the
main source of profit of the banks.
 Such as, Bank of Kigali (BK), G. T.
Bank, I&M Bank and so on.
Functions of Commercial Banks
1. Primary functions
 Accepting Deposits:
The primary function for which the
commercial banks were established is to
accept deposits from the general public,
who possess surplus funds and are
willing to deposit them so as to earn
interest on it.
There are various products offered by
the bank to the customers for the deposit
of their money, which includes savings
account, current account, fixed deposit
and recurring deposit.
Types of Deposits Accounts
(i) Saving Deposit Account
 These are deposits whose main
objective is to save. Savings account is
most suitable for individual households.
They combine the features of both
current account and fixed deposits.
 They are payable on demand and also
withdraw able by cheque. But bank gives
this facility with some restrictions, e.g., a
bank may allow four or five cheques in a
month. Interest paid on savings account
deposits in lesser than that of fixed
deposit.
(ii) Current Deposit Account
 Such deposits are payable on demand
and are, therefore, called demand
deposits.
 These can be withdrawn by the
depositors any number of times
depending upon the balance in the
account.
 The bank does not pay any Interest on
these deposits but provides cheque
facilities.
 These accounts are generally
maintained by businessmen and
Industrialists who receive and make
business payments of large amounts
(iii) Fixed Deposit Account (Time
Deposit)
 Fixed deposits have a fixed period of
maturity and are referred to as time
deposits. These are deposits for a
fixed term, i.e., period of time ranging
from a few days to a few years. These
are neither payable on demand nor
they enjoy cheque facilities.
 They can be withdrawn only after the
maturity of the specified fixed period.
They carry higher rate of interest.
(iv) Recurring Deposit
 Recurring Deposit is a special kind of
Term Deposit offered by banks, which
help people with regular incomes to
deposit a fixed amount every month
into their Recurring Deposit
account and earn interest at the rate
applicable to Fixed Deposits.
Difference between demand deposits
and time (term) deposits:
 (i) Deposits which can be withdrawn on
demand by depositors are called
demand deposits, e.g., current account
deposits are called demand deposits
because they are payable on demand
but saving account deposits do not
qualify because of certain conditions on
withdrawal. No interest is paid on them.
 Term deposits, also called time deposits,
are deposits which are payable only after
the expiry of the specified period.
Continue
 (ii) Demand deposits do not carry
interest whereas time deposits carry a
fixed rate of interest.
 (iii) Demand deposits are highly liquid
whereas time deposits are less liquid,
 (iv) Demand deposits are chequable
deposits whereas time deposits are
not.
2. Advancing Loans
 Next important function performed by the
commercial bank is lending money to the
individuals and companies.
 This is, in fact, the main source of
income of the bank. A bank keeps a
certain portion of the deposits with itself
as reserve and gives (lends) the balance
to the borrowers.
 The banks make loans to the customers
in the form of term loans, cash credit,
overdraft, Discounting of bills of
exchange, short loans and so on.
Forms of Loans
(i) Short-term Loans:
 Short-term loans are given against
some security as personal loans to
finance working capital or as priority
sector advances. The entire amount is
repaid either in one installment or in a
number of installments over the period
of loan.
(ii) Cash Credit:
 An eligible borrower is first sanctioned
a credit limit and within that limit he is
allowed to withdraw a certain amount
on a given security.
 The withdrawing power depends upon
the borrower’s current assets, the
stock statement of which is submitted
by him to the bank as the basis of
security.
 Interest is charged by the bank on the
drawn or utilized portion of credit
(loan).
(iii) Overdraft
 An overdraft is an advance given by allowing
a customer keeping current account to
overdraw his current account up to an agreed
limit. It is a facility to a depositor for
overdrawing the amount than the balance
amount in his account.
 In other words, depositors of current account
make arrangement with the banks that in
case a cheque has been drawn by them
which are not covered by the deposit, then
the bank should grant overdraft and honour
the cheque.
 The security for overdraft is generally
financial assets like shares, debentures, life
insurance policies of the account holder, etc.
(iv) Discounting of Bills of
Exchange
 A bill of exchange represents a promise
to pay a fixed amount of money at a
specific point of time in future. It can also
be encashed earlier through discounting
process of a commercial bank.
 Alternatively, a bill of exchange is a
document acknowledging an amount of
money owed in consideration of goods
received. It is a paper asset signed by
the debtor and the creditor for a fixed
amount payable on a fixed date. It works
like this.
Difference between Overdraft facility
and Loan:
 (i) Overdraft is made without security in
current account but loans are given
against security.
 (ii) In the case of loan, the borrower has
to pay interest on full amount sanctioned
but in the case of overdraft, the borrower
is given the facility of borrowing only as
much as he requires.
 (iii) Whereas the borrower of loan pays
Interest on amount outstanding against
him but customer of overdraft pays
interest on the daily balance.
Continue
 Suppose, A buys goods from B, he may
not pay B immediately but instead give B
a bill of exchange stating the amount of
money owed and the time when A will
settle the debt.
 Suppose, B wants the money
immediately, he will present the bill of
exchange (Hundi) to the bank for
discounting. The bank will deduct the
commission and pay to B the present
value of the bill.
 When the bill matures after specified
Secondary functions
Agency Services: There are some
facilities provided by the commercial
banks in which they act as an agent of
the customers. Such services are:
 Collection and payment of rent, interest
and dividend.
 Collection and payment of cheques and
bills.
 Buying and selling securities.
 Payment of insurance premium and
subscriptions.
General Utility Services :
 Commercial banks provide general
utility services to the customers and
charges a fee for the same. It covers
services like:
I. Safekeeping of valuables,
documents etc, in locker or vault.
II. ATM card, credit card and debit card
facility.
III. Issue of demand draft, pay order and
traveller’s cheque.
Continue
iv. Internet and mobile banking
v. Sale of application forms of
competitive exams.
vi. Purchase and sale of foreign
exchange (currency).
vii. Locker facility. The customers can
keep their ornaments and important
documents in lockers for safe
custody.
Transfer of funds:
 Banks assist in the transfer of funds
from one person to another or from
one place to another through its credit
instruments.
Credit creation
 The commercial banks are authorized to
create credit, by granting more loans
than the amounts deposited by the
customers.
 Credit Creation is a situation in which
banks make more loans to consumers
and businesses, with the result that the
amount of money in circulation(being
passed from one person to another)
increases. In other words it refers to the
unique power of the banks to multiply
loans and advances, and hence
deposits.
Total deposits of a bank is of
two types:
 (i) Primary deposits (initial cash deposits by
the public) and
 (ii) Secondary deposits (deposits that arise
due to loans given by the banks which are
assumed to be re-deposited in the bank.)
 Money creation by commercial banks is
determined by two factors namely :
 (i) Primary deposits i.e. initial cash deposits
and
 (ii) Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), i.e., minimum
ratio of deposits which is legally compulsory
for the commercial banks to keep as cash in
liquid form.
Continue
 Broadly when a bank receives cash deposits
from the public, it keeps a fraction of deposits
as cash reserve (CR) and uses the remaining
amount for giving loans.
 In the process of lending money, banks are
able to create credit through secondary
deposits many times more than initial
deposits (primary deposits).
 Credit creation is a process whereby
commercial banks are able to increase or
multiply their deposits several times over a
given initial deposit. Credit is created in the
process of lending.
Process of money (credit) creation:
 Suppose a man, say X, deposits Rs 2,000
with a bank and the CRR is 10%, which
means the bank keeps only the minimum
required Rs 200 as cash reserve (CRR).
 The bank can use the remaining amount Rs
1800 (= 2000 – 200) for giving loan to
someone. (Mind, loan is never given in cash
but it is redeposited in the bank as demand
deposit in favour of borrower.)
 The bank lends Rs 1800 to, say, Y who is
actually not given loan but only demand
deposit account is opened in his name and
the amount is credited to his account.
Continue
 This is the first round of credit creation in the
form of secondary deposit (Rs 1800), which
equals 90% of primary (initial) deposit.
 Again 10% of Y’s deposit (i.e., Rs 180) is kept
by the bank as cash reserve (CRR) and the
balance Rs 1620 (=1800 – 180) is advanced
to, say, Z.
 The bank gets new demand deposit of Rs
1620. This is second round of credit creation
which is 90% of first round of increase of Rs
1800.
 The third round of credit creation will be 90%
of second round of 1620.
 This is not the end of story.
Continue
 The process of credit creation goes on
continuously till derivative deposit (secondary
deposit) becomes zero.
 In the end, volume of total credit created in
this way becomes multiple of initial (primary)
deposit.
 The quantitative outcome is called money
multiplier.
 If the bank succeeds in creating total credit
of, says Rs 18000, it means bank has
created 9 times of primary (initial) deposit of
Rs 2000.
 This is what is meant by credit creation.
Continue
 In short, money (or credit) creation by
commercial banks is determined by :
 (i) amount of initial (primary) deposits
and
 (ii) CRR. The multiple is called credit
creation or money multiplier.
Total Credit creation:
= Initial deposits x 1/CRR.
= CRR = 10/100 = 0.1
= 2000*1/0.1 = 20000 Rs.
Example : Credit Creation
Money Multiplier:
 It means the multiple by which total
deposit increases due to initial
(primary) deposit.
 Money multiplier (or credit multiplier) is
the inverse of Cash Reserve Ratio
(CRR).
 If CRR is 10%, i.e., 10/100or 0.1, then
money multiplier = 1/0.1 = 10 times
Continue
 Smaller the CRR, larger would be the
size of money multiplier credited to his
account.
Conclusion
 Higher the cash reserve ratio, lower
the credit creation.
 Lower the cash reserve ratio, higher
the credit creation.
Example
Suppose that bank Initial Deposit is
500 million Rwf. CRR is 20%.
Calculate credit creation done by
bank.
Formula : Deposit multiplier (dm) = 1/r
 r = Cash Reserve Ratio
 If cash reserve ratio is 20%,
 1/0.20 = 5 times
 5*100 = 500 million RWF
Continue
Actual credit creation
 Total credit creation – initial deposit
 500 – 100 = 400 million RWF
 If cash reserve ratio is 10%,
 1/0.10 = 10 times
 10*100 = 1000 million RWF
 Actual credit creation
 Total credit creation – initial deposit
 1000 – 100 = 900 million RWF
Determinants of credit creation
 Since credit creation occurs through the
lending process then factors that
influence demand and supply of loans
influence credit creation. They include :
 Any changes in the cash ratio, if cash
reserve increases, credit creation reduce
and vice versa.
 Demand for loans, higher demand allows
more credit creation. Low demand
means low credit creation.
Continue
 Availability of credit worth borrowers. If
there are only few credit worth
borrowers, credit creation would also be
limited and vice-versa.
 Extent of the use of banks by the public.
If only a few people deposit money in the
banks, loanable funds would be limited
and vice versa.
 The nature of the monetary policy, if
expansionary, more credit would be
created, if restrictive, less would be
created.
Types of Commercial
Banks:
1. Public Bank
 Refer to a type of commercial banks
that are nationalized by the
government of a country.
 In public sector banks, the major stake
is held by the government.
 Public sector banks operate under the
guidelines of Central bank.
2. Private Bank
 Refer to a kind of commercial banks in
which major part of share capital is
held by private businesses and
individuals. These banks are
registered as companies with limited
liability.
3. Foreign Bank
 Foreign Banks are international bank
which are setup or registered in
foreign countries and are obligated to
follow regulations of both its home and
host country.
 For Example, KFC, G.T. Bank,
ADBank, Canera Bank and so on.
Significance of Commercial Banks:
 (i) They promote savings and
accelerate the rate of capital
formation.
 (ii) They are source of finance and
credit for trade and industry.
 (iii) They promote balanced regional
development by opening branches in
backward areas.
 (iv) Bank credit enables entrepreneurs
to innovate and invest which
accelerates the process of economic
Continue
 (v) They help in promoting large-scale
production and growth of priority sectors
such as agriculture, small-scale industry,
retail trade and export.
 (vi) They create credit in the sense that
they are able to give more loans and
advances than the cash position of the
depositor’s permits.
 (vii)They help commerce and industry to
expand their field of operation.
 (viii) Thus, they make optimum utilization
of resources possible.
Commercial bank

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Commercial bank

  • 1. Commercial Bank : Meaning, Functions, Types and Role
  • 2. Meaning of Commercial Bank  A commercial bank is a financial institution which performs the functions of accepting deposits from the general public and giving loans for investment with the aim of earning profit.  In fact, commercial banks, as their name suggests, profit-seeking institutions, i.e., they do banking business to earn profit.
  • 3. Continue  They generally finance trade and commerce with short-term loans. They charge high rate of interest from the borrowers but pay much less rate of Interest to their depositors with the result that the difference between the two rates of interest becomes the main source of profit of the banks.  Such as, Bank of Kigali (BK), G. T. Bank, I&M Bank and so on.
  • 5. 1. Primary functions  Accepting Deposits: The primary function for which the commercial banks were established is to accept deposits from the general public, who possess surplus funds and are willing to deposit them so as to earn interest on it. There are various products offered by the bank to the customers for the deposit of their money, which includes savings account, current account, fixed deposit and recurring deposit.
  • 6. Types of Deposits Accounts
  • 7. (i) Saving Deposit Account  These are deposits whose main objective is to save. Savings account is most suitable for individual households. They combine the features of both current account and fixed deposits.  They are payable on demand and also withdraw able by cheque. But bank gives this facility with some restrictions, e.g., a bank may allow four or five cheques in a month. Interest paid on savings account deposits in lesser than that of fixed deposit.
  • 8. (ii) Current Deposit Account  Such deposits are payable on demand and are, therefore, called demand deposits.  These can be withdrawn by the depositors any number of times depending upon the balance in the account.  The bank does not pay any Interest on these deposits but provides cheque facilities.  These accounts are generally maintained by businessmen and Industrialists who receive and make business payments of large amounts
  • 9. (iii) Fixed Deposit Account (Time Deposit)  Fixed deposits have a fixed period of maturity and are referred to as time deposits. These are deposits for a fixed term, i.e., period of time ranging from a few days to a few years. These are neither payable on demand nor they enjoy cheque facilities.  They can be withdrawn only after the maturity of the specified fixed period. They carry higher rate of interest.
  • 10. (iv) Recurring Deposit  Recurring Deposit is a special kind of Term Deposit offered by banks, which help people with regular incomes to deposit a fixed amount every month into their Recurring Deposit account and earn interest at the rate applicable to Fixed Deposits.
  • 11. Difference between demand deposits and time (term) deposits:  (i) Deposits which can be withdrawn on demand by depositors are called demand deposits, e.g., current account deposits are called demand deposits because they are payable on demand but saving account deposits do not qualify because of certain conditions on withdrawal. No interest is paid on them.  Term deposits, also called time deposits, are deposits which are payable only after the expiry of the specified period.
  • 12. Continue  (ii) Demand deposits do not carry interest whereas time deposits carry a fixed rate of interest.  (iii) Demand deposits are highly liquid whereas time deposits are less liquid,  (iv) Demand deposits are chequable deposits whereas time deposits are not.
  • 13. 2. Advancing Loans  Next important function performed by the commercial bank is lending money to the individuals and companies.  This is, in fact, the main source of income of the bank. A bank keeps a certain portion of the deposits with itself as reserve and gives (lends) the balance to the borrowers.  The banks make loans to the customers in the form of term loans, cash credit, overdraft, Discounting of bills of exchange, short loans and so on.
  • 15. (i) Short-term Loans:  Short-term loans are given against some security as personal loans to finance working capital or as priority sector advances. The entire amount is repaid either in one installment or in a number of installments over the period of loan.
  • 16. (ii) Cash Credit:  An eligible borrower is first sanctioned a credit limit and within that limit he is allowed to withdraw a certain amount on a given security.  The withdrawing power depends upon the borrower’s current assets, the stock statement of which is submitted by him to the bank as the basis of security.  Interest is charged by the bank on the drawn or utilized portion of credit (loan).
  • 17. (iii) Overdraft  An overdraft is an advance given by allowing a customer keeping current account to overdraw his current account up to an agreed limit. It is a facility to a depositor for overdrawing the amount than the balance amount in his account.  In other words, depositors of current account make arrangement with the banks that in case a cheque has been drawn by them which are not covered by the deposit, then the bank should grant overdraft and honour the cheque.  The security for overdraft is generally financial assets like shares, debentures, life insurance policies of the account holder, etc.
  • 18. (iv) Discounting of Bills of Exchange  A bill of exchange represents a promise to pay a fixed amount of money at a specific point of time in future. It can also be encashed earlier through discounting process of a commercial bank.  Alternatively, a bill of exchange is a document acknowledging an amount of money owed in consideration of goods received. It is a paper asset signed by the debtor and the creditor for a fixed amount payable on a fixed date. It works like this.
  • 19. Difference between Overdraft facility and Loan:  (i) Overdraft is made without security in current account but loans are given against security.  (ii) In the case of loan, the borrower has to pay interest on full amount sanctioned but in the case of overdraft, the borrower is given the facility of borrowing only as much as he requires.  (iii) Whereas the borrower of loan pays Interest on amount outstanding against him but customer of overdraft pays interest on the daily balance.
  • 20. Continue  Suppose, A buys goods from B, he may not pay B immediately but instead give B a bill of exchange stating the amount of money owed and the time when A will settle the debt.  Suppose, B wants the money immediately, he will present the bill of exchange (Hundi) to the bank for discounting. The bank will deduct the commission and pay to B the present value of the bill.  When the bill matures after specified
  • 21. Secondary functions Agency Services: There are some facilities provided by the commercial banks in which they act as an agent of the customers. Such services are:  Collection and payment of rent, interest and dividend.  Collection and payment of cheques and bills.  Buying and selling securities.  Payment of insurance premium and subscriptions.
  • 22. General Utility Services :  Commercial banks provide general utility services to the customers and charges a fee for the same. It covers services like: I. Safekeeping of valuables, documents etc, in locker or vault. II. ATM card, credit card and debit card facility. III. Issue of demand draft, pay order and traveller’s cheque.
  • 23. Continue iv. Internet and mobile banking v. Sale of application forms of competitive exams. vi. Purchase and sale of foreign exchange (currency). vii. Locker facility. The customers can keep their ornaments and important documents in lockers for safe custody.
  • 24. Transfer of funds:  Banks assist in the transfer of funds from one person to another or from one place to another through its credit instruments.
  • 25. Credit creation  The commercial banks are authorized to create credit, by granting more loans than the amounts deposited by the customers.  Credit Creation is a situation in which banks make more loans to consumers and businesses, with the result that the amount of money in circulation(being passed from one person to another) increases. In other words it refers to the unique power of the banks to multiply loans and advances, and hence deposits.
  • 26. Total deposits of a bank is of two types:  (i) Primary deposits (initial cash deposits by the public) and  (ii) Secondary deposits (deposits that arise due to loans given by the banks which are assumed to be re-deposited in the bank.)  Money creation by commercial banks is determined by two factors namely :  (i) Primary deposits i.e. initial cash deposits and  (ii) Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR), i.e., minimum ratio of deposits which is legally compulsory for the commercial banks to keep as cash in liquid form.
  • 27. Continue  Broadly when a bank receives cash deposits from the public, it keeps a fraction of deposits as cash reserve (CR) and uses the remaining amount for giving loans.  In the process of lending money, banks are able to create credit through secondary deposits many times more than initial deposits (primary deposits).  Credit creation is a process whereby commercial banks are able to increase or multiply their deposits several times over a given initial deposit. Credit is created in the process of lending.
  • 28. Process of money (credit) creation:  Suppose a man, say X, deposits Rs 2,000 with a bank and the CRR is 10%, which means the bank keeps only the minimum required Rs 200 as cash reserve (CRR).  The bank can use the remaining amount Rs 1800 (= 2000 – 200) for giving loan to someone. (Mind, loan is never given in cash but it is redeposited in the bank as demand deposit in favour of borrower.)  The bank lends Rs 1800 to, say, Y who is actually not given loan but only demand deposit account is opened in his name and the amount is credited to his account.
  • 29. Continue  This is the first round of credit creation in the form of secondary deposit (Rs 1800), which equals 90% of primary (initial) deposit.  Again 10% of Y’s deposit (i.e., Rs 180) is kept by the bank as cash reserve (CRR) and the balance Rs 1620 (=1800 – 180) is advanced to, say, Z.  The bank gets new demand deposit of Rs 1620. This is second round of credit creation which is 90% of first round of increase of Rs 1800.  The third round of credit creation will be 90% of second round of 1620.  This is not the end of story.
  • 30. Continue  The process of credit creation goes on continuously till derivative deposit (secondary deposit) becomes zero.  In the end, volume of total credit created in this way becomes multiple of initial (primary) deposit.  The quantitative outcome is called money multiplier.  If the bank succeeds in creating total credit of, says Rs 18000, it means bank has created 9 times of primary (initial) deposit of Rs 2000.  This is what is meant by credit creation.
  • 31. Continue  In short, money (or credit) creation by commercial banks is determined by :  (i) amount of initial (primary) deposits and  (ii) CRR. The multiple is called credit creation or money multiplier. Total Credit creation: = Initial deposits x 1/CRR. = CRR = 10/100 = 0.1 = 2000*1/0.1 = 20000 Rs.
  • 32. Example : Credit Creation
  • 33. Money Multiplier:  It means the multiple by which total deposit increases due to initial (primary) deposit.  Money multiplier (or credit multiplier) is the inverse of Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR).  If CRR is 10%, i.e., 10/100or 0.1, then money multiplier = 1/0.1 = 10 times
  • 34. Continue  Smaller the CRR, larger would be the size of money multiplier credited to his account. Conclusion  Higher the cash reserve ratio, lower the credit creation.  Lower the cash reserve ratio, higher the credit creation.
  • 35. Example Suppose that bank Initial Deposit is 500 million Rwf. CRR is 20%. Calculate credit creation done by bank. Formula : Deposit multiplier (dm) = 1/r  r = Cash Reserve Ratio  If cash reserve ratio is 20%,  1/0.20 = 5 times  5*100 = 500 million RWF
  • 36. Continue Actual credit creation  Total credit creation – initial deposit  500 – 100 = 400 million RWF  If cash reserve ratio is 10%,  1/0.10 = 10 times  10*100 = 1000 million RWF  Actual credit creation  Total credit creation – initial deposit  1000 – 100 = 900 million RWF
  • 37. Determinants of credit creation  Since credit creation occurs through the lending process then factors that influence demand and supply of loans influence credit creation. They include :  Any changes in the cash ratio, if cash reserve increases, credit creation reduce and vice versa.  Demand for loans, higher demand allows more credit creation. Low demand means low credit creation.
  • 38. Continue  Availability of credit worth borrowers. If there are only few credit worth borrowers, credit creation would also be limited and vice-versa.  Extent of the use of banks by the public. If only a few people deposit money in the banks, loanable funds would be limited and vice versa.  The nature of the monetary policy, if expansionary, more credit would be created, if restrictive, less would be created.
  • 40. 1. Public Bank  Refer to a type of commercial banks that are nationalized by the government of a country.  In public sector banks, the major stake is held by the government.  Public sector banks operate under the guidelines of Central bank.
  • 41. 2. Private Bank  Refer to a kind of commercial banks in which major part of share capital is held by private businesses and individuals. These banks are registered as companies with limited liability.
  • 42. 3. Foreign Bank  Foreign Banks are international bank which are setup or registered in foreign countries and are obligated to follow regulations of both its home and host country.  For Example, KFC, G.T. Bank, ADBank, Canera Bank and so on.
  • 43. Significance of Commercial Banks:  (i) They promote savings and accelerate the rate of capital formation.  (ii) They are source of finance and credit for trade and industry.  (iii) They promote balanced regional development by opening branches in backward areas.  (iv) Bank credit enables entrepreneurs to innovate and invest which accelerates the process of economic
  • 44. Continue  (v) They help in promoting large-scale production and growth of priority sectors such as agriculture, small-scale industry, retail trade and export.  (vi) They create credit in the sense that they are able to give more loans and advances than the cash position of the depositor’s permits.  (vii)They help commerce and industry to expand their field of operation.  (viii) Thus, they make optimum utilization of resources possible.