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www.OpenGNSS.org




               OpenGNSS
          www.OpenGNSS.org
        proposes you this course
             free of charge
       OpenGNSS is a project cofinanced by HELILEO (www.
        HELILEO.com), TECNALIA (www. TECNALIA.es), the
      Regional Council of Aquitaine and the Basque government
www.OpenGNSS.org




         How GNSS receiver
       radio frequency works ?
www.OpenGNSS.org




                   GNSS Receiver




                                   3
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                                                    RF (Hardware)


          Reception and scanning of the I and Q signals

                      1)       Antennas
                              a.      The two types of antennas
                              b.      Their characteristics

                      2)       Preamp

                      3)       RF filtering

                      4)       Mixing
                              a.      Frequency transposition
                              b.      Local oscillator
                              c.      Summary

                      5)       IF filtering
                              a.         Filter choice
                              b.         Bandwitdth constraints
                              c.         Filtering after the frequency transposition (RF→IF)

                      6)       Scanning I and Q signals




                                                                                               4
www.OpenGNSS.org         Functional scheme of a GPS
                                  receiver




                   FPB : Filtre Passe Bande   5
www.OpenGNSS.org
                   HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS




                                6
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                         HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS




     Universal GPS Receiver : MAX2769

 •   Manufacturer : MAXIM
 •   Price : 3.79€
 •   Receiver covering the navigation
     systems by satellite GPS, GALILEO
     and GLONASS.

              Applications :

 -   Navigation embedded systems
 -   GPS software
 -   Laptops
 -   Digital cameras



                                                      7
www.OpenGNSS.org
                             HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS




   HORUS2000 card allows to extract the
   following signals :
  Signals on L1 band
       GPS L1, GALILEO E1




                                          8
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                             HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS


    MAX2769 component is programmable through the
     following registers :
        Register name   Address                         Function                         Page
                        (A3:A0)
           CONF1         0000     Configure RX and IF sections, set the pins for         17
                                  individual blocks.
           CONF2         0001     Configure AGC and output sections.                     18
           CONF3         0010     Configure the support and the test functions for       19
                                  the IF filter and the AGC.
          PLLCONF        0011     PLL , VCO and clock settings                           20
            DIV          0100     Division ratio and floor function, other…              21
            FDIV         0101     Decimal division ratio, other…                         21
           STRM          0110     Number of frames to be chained through the DSP         21
                                  interface.
            CLK          0111     Fractional clock divider values.                       21
           TEST1         1000     Reserved test mode.                                    21
           TEST2         1001     Reserved test mode.                                    21



                                                                                     9
www.OpenGNSS.org

  1. Antennas         2. Preamp            3. RF filtering        4. Mixing      5. IF filtering       6. Scanning




     Passive Atenna         Active Antenna

                                                                          Frequencies
                                   LP         LNA                        Converter (IF)
                                  Filter
                RF Cable

                                   LNA                RF Filter                                    IF Filter



                                             Signal Inphase                        ADC

                                    Signal en Quadrature




                                                                                          10
www.OpenGNSS.org

        1. Antennas          2. Preamp    3. RF Filtering      4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




a. The two types of                                                Active antenna
     antennas
     - Passives
     - Actives

•   The electromagnetic ondulations of
    the signal (in space) are changed
    into electric current (cable at the
    antenna output)                                   Central Frequency : 1575.42Mhz
                                                      Bandwidth: ±3Mhz
                                                      Mitigation : Central frequency ±100MHZ>30db
                                                      Impedance: 50Ω




                                                                                11
www.OpenGNSS.org

                                         3. RF
      1. Antennas         2. Preamp
                                       Filtering
                                                       4. Mixing    5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




            b. Their characteristics
  • Passive antenna                                      • Active antenna
  It suits for GPS application where the           It owns :
  distance between the antenna and the             - A LNA which balance the losses of
  receiver is short (2.24→91.44 cm).                   the coaxial cable.
                                                   - A filter.
    Cheap
                                                    Evoluted system
   It requires :
                                                   - More expensive
   - A Low Noise Amplifier (LNA)
                                                   - It requires an alimentation, generally
   - A filter on the GPS
                                                     supplied through the coaxial cable of
                                                     the antenna.



                                                                       12
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                             With HORUS2000 …

                                 3. RF
     1. Antennas   2. Preamp
                               Filtering
                                           4. Mixing   5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




    • SMA connector : possibility of plugging a
      RF antenna, passive or active.

    • Configuration 1 : ANTEN=1
    → Active antenna alimentation.




                                                          13
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                            3. RF
   1. Antennas       2. Preamp            Filtering
                                                             4. Mixing         5. IF Filtering      6. Scanning




    Passive Antenna         Active Antenna

                                                                          Frequencies
                                  LP
                                          LNA                            Converter (IF)
                                 Filter

                 RF Cable

                                  LNA                RF                                          IF Filter
                                                 Filtering


                                          Signal Inphase                            ADC

                                   Signal en Quadrature




                                                                                           14
www.OpenGNSS.org

                              3. RF
  1. Antennas   2. Preamp   Filtering
                                        4. Mixing   5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




       Goal : Amplify the received signal while
            adding the less noise possible.




                                                                 15
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                    With HORUS2000 …

                              3. RF
  1. Antennas   2. Preamp   Filtering
                                        4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




  • LNA1 for passive antenna: 19dB / 0.8dB (amplification / noise)
  • LNA2 for active antenna : 13dB/1.2dB
  • LNA-gated mode : ampli input linked.
  → Automatic detection of the antenna’s type
    Configuration 1 : LNAMODE = 00.




                                                                   16
www.OpenGNSS.org

   1. Antennas         2. Preamp
                                              3. RF           4. Mixing      5. IF Filtering      6. Scanning
                                            Filtering


   Passive Antenna            Active Antenna

                                                                       Frequencies
                                    LP
                                            LNA                       Converter (IF)
                                   Filter

                 RF Cable

                                    LNA               RF                                       IF Filter
                                                  Filtering


                                            Signal Inphase                       ADC

                                     Signal en Quadrature




                                                                                        17
www.OpenGNSS.org

    1. Antennas   2. Preamp       3. RF Filtering   4. Mixing   5. IF Filtering    6. Scanning




                                                                    Filter
•    A filter allows to select a
     frequency band while mitigate
                                                                characteristics
     the others.

      • 2 main characteristics :
•    - Insertion losses or mitigation
     of the components of the
     desired frequencies.
-     Bandwitdth at -3dB.




                                                                              18
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                           With HORUS2000 …
 1. Antennas   2. Preamp   3. RF Filtering     4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering    6. Scanning




• Filtering signal L1 - GPS                        • Filtering signal E5a -
                                                            GALILEO
                                             • Central Frequency E5a
• Central Frequency
                                               Fcen=1176.45MHz
  F0=1575.42MHz
                                             • Frequency F0=1166,22MHz
• BandPass Filter
                                             • Low-Pass Filter
• Bandwidth: 2,5MHz
                                             • Bandwidth : 18MHz
• Insertion losses < 1.5dB                   • Insertion losses < 1.0dB


                                                                           19
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                           3. RF
  1. Antennas       2. Preamp            Filtering          4. Mixing    5. IF Filtering     6. Scanning




    Passive Antenna         Active Antenna

                                                                     Frequencies
                                 LP
                                          LNA                       Converter (IF)
                                Filter

                RF Cable

                                 LNA                     RF                                IF Filter
                                                     Filtering


                                          Signal Inphase                        ADC

                                  Signal en Quadrature




                                                                                      20
www.OpenGNSS.org

                               3. RF
   1. Antennas   2. Preamp
                             Filtering        4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




          A. Frequencies transposition
   • Why?
   • Received signals frequency : ≈1 billion of oscillations /s.
   • The signal is modulated with the local oscillator (LO) in order to be be shifted
     to an intermediary frequency (IF), low indeed null.
                                         LO




                 L1=1575.42Mhz                            IF (<10Mhz)

                                                                      21
www.OpenGNSS.org

                                    3. RF
   1. Antennas        2. Preamp
                                  Filtering   4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




                  b. The local oscillator
        A PLL frequency synthetizer :

                 - A quartz oscillator providing a reference frequency RF.
                 - A « ∑-∆ and N-fractionnal synthesizer » allowing to divide the
                   VCO frequency by N (                ).
                 - A Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) which, according to the
                   input voltage provides a sine signal in a frequency band (for
                   the MAX2769 VCO, it’s 1550-1580MhZ for 0.4V < VTUNE < 2.4V).




                                                                      22
www.OpenGNSS.org

                               3. RF
  1. Antennas    2. Preamp
                             Filtering     4. Mixing       5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




                b. The local oscillator




                             PLL frequencies synthetizer


                                                                        23
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                      3. RF
   1. Antennas         2. Preamp
                                    Filtering    4. Mixing       5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




                   b. The local oscillator
  What is frenquency synthesis?
                 • Generate a signal (output) whose frequency is a programmable
                   multiple of a set input frequency .

                 • Feedback system (negative feedback) in order to control the
                   frequency : the PLL

                 • Obtaining an output signal with a very good spectral pureness.




                                                                           24
www.OpenGNSS.org

                               3. RF
  1. Antennas   2. Preamp
                             Filtering         4. Mixing   5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




                            c. Summary




                                         PLL frequency
                                          synthetizer


                                                                        25
www.OpenGNSS.org

                              3. RF
  1. Antennas   2. Preamp
                            Filtering   4. Mixing   5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




                                                     GPS Receipt




                                                               26
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                                   With HORUS2000 …
                                             3. RF
     1. Antennas      2. Preamp
                                           Filtering   4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning




 •    PLL Division ratio integer :
      Reference divider: RDIV=10Décimal.

 •    Frequency divider VCO :
      fVCO/fCOMP=1 571.52Mhz/1Mhz=1 571.52

 •    PLL Division Ratio integer :
      Floor divider : NDIV=1571Décimal

 •    PLL Division Ratio :
      Decimal divider : FDIV=0.52Décimal



                                                                                27
www.OpenGNSS.org

  1. Antennas       2. Preamp
                                              3. RF
                                                               4. Mixing
                                                                                   5. IF          6. Scanning
                                            Filtering                           Filtering



     Passive Antenna            Active Antenna

                                                                            Frequencies
                                    LP
                                              LNA                          Converter (IF)
                                   Filter

                RF Cable

                                    LNA                     RF                                   IF Filter
                                                        Filtering


                                             Signal Inphase                         ADC

                                     Signal en Quadrature




                                                                                            28
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                     3. RF
    1. Antennas    2. Preamp
                                   Filtering
                                               4. Mixing      5. IF Filtering       6. Scanning




                               a. Filter choice
     • Low-pass if IF=0Hz                                    • Bandpass if IF≠0Hz
  The information being redundant,                         If IF is low (but≠0 ), we filter the
  this part of the signal is sufficient to                 « symmetric » information of the
  decrypt the information.                                 signal.




                  IF=0Hz                                            IF≠0Hz


                                                                            29
www.OpenGNSS.org

                                  3. RF
   1. Antennas     2. Preamp
                                Filtering
                                            4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering      6. Scanning




                 b. Constraints on the bandwidth

  o The largest the band is :
         More we get information about the signal.
         After regeneration, the filtered signal will be close to the input
          signal.
        - The signal is more sensible to noise and interferences.




                                                                        30
www.OpenGNSS.org

                                 3. RF
   1. Antennas     2. Preamp
                               Filtering
                                           4. Mixing         5. IF Filtering       6. Scanning




                 b. Constraints on the bandwidth

                                                       A Filter:
                                                                   - 60% of the signal
                                                                   - 0 interference
                                                       B Filter:
                                                                   - 100% of the signal
                                                                   - 2 interferences
      Useful signal
      Bandwidth
      Interferences



                                                                           31
www.OpenGNSS.org

                                     3. RF
   1. Antennas        2. Preamp
                                   Filtering
                                               4. Mixing   5. IF Filtering       6. Scanning




            c. Filtering after the frequency transposition
       1.        Where does the frequency « substraction » come from during
                 mixing?




                                                                  IF Filter(Low Frequency)




                                                                         32
www.OpenGNSS.org

                                           3. RF
   1. Antennas            2. Preamp
                                         Filtering
                                                      4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering      6. Scanning




           c. Filtering after the frequency transposition

                 2.   Quality and cost of the device :
                      -       Difficult to product narrow band filters in HF (1.5GhZ)
                      -       Quality factor: Q = fcentral/BW
                              A filter able to select the main lobe of a GPS spectrum, whose
                              bandwidth would be 2x1.023=2.046Mhz, would have a quality
                              factor Q=1575.42/2.046≈770.
                              Typically, Q=50 for a filter sold in commerce.


                 3.   It allows to limit the noise within the bandwidtch.



                                                                                  33
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                                    With HORUS2000 …
                                              3. RF
  1. Antennas                2. Preamp
                                            Filtering
                                                        4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering        6. Scanning
       Bandpass Filter
       Butterworth
       •




                         • Configuration 1 :
                         -     FCEN=001101↔ fCENTER=4.092Mhz
                         -     FBW=10 ↔ Bandwidth of 4.2Mhz (±2.1Mhz)
                         -     F3OR5=1 (3rd order)      ll  F3OR5=0 (5th order)




                                                                                        34
www.OpenGNSS.org

                                           3. RF
  1. Antennas       2. Preamp            Filtering
                                                         4. Mixing        5. IF Filtering   6. Scanning



    Passive Antenna         Active Antenna

                                                                      Frequencies
                                 LP
                                          LNA                        Converter (IF)
                                Filter

                RF Cable

                                 LNA                 RF                                     IF Filter
                                                 Filtering


                                         Signal Inphase
                                                                                 ADC
                                  Signal en Quadrature




                                                                                       35
www.OpenGNSS.org

      1.                    3. RF
   Antennas
              2. Preamp
                          Filtering
                                        4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering        6. Scanning


                                      Scanning consists in two parallel activities :

                                             Sampling
                                             Quantification
                                      The quality of the digital signal depends on
                                      2 factors :
                                             Sampling frequency or ratio
                                             Resolution : number of bits used for
                                              coding




                                                                        36
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                              With HORUS2000 …
     1.                            3. RF
  Antennas
                 2. Preamp
                                 Filtering
                                                4. Mixing     5. IF Filtering        6. Sampling




   •    3 Displaying formats exist :                • The ADC clock is a multiple (smaller) of
         - Sign/amplitude                             the input reference clock.
         - Two’s complement
         - Unsigned binary

   •    Output on 2 bits:
         - 2 bits for I output : I1 and I0
         - 2 bits for Q output : Q1 and Q0

   •    Output on 3 bits :
             - I only : I1, I0, Q1 (cf. example).




                                                                                37
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                      With HORUS2000 …
     1.                       3. RF
  Antennas
             2. Preamp
                            Filtering
                                         4. Mixing      5. IF Filtering        6. Scanning




                                                                                      011

                                                                                      010

                                                                                      001

                                                                                      000

                                                                                      100

                                                                                      101

                                                                                      110

                                                                                      111

                  Quantification by superior value and not centered


                                                                          38
www.OpenGNSS.org
                                                                 Avec HORUS2000 …
   1. Les          2.               3. Filtrage
  antennes   Préamplification           RF
                                                  4. Le mixage    5. Filtrage IF        6. Numérisation




                                                          MSB    0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
                                                           2ND   0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1




                                                           LSB   1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1




                                Output I 3bits Format Sign/Amplitude


                                                                                   39
www.OpenGNSS.org                                     Conclusion




       Thank you and let us meet on www.OpenGNSS.org
         to participate in the development OpenSource
                        of a GNSS receiver




                                                40

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How GNSS receiver radio frequency works ?

  • 1. www.OpenGNSS.org OpenGNSS www.OpenGNSS.org proposes you this course free of charge OpenGNSS is a project cofinanced by HELILEO (www. HELILEO.com), TECNALIA (www. TECNALIA.es), the Regional Council of Aquitaine and the Basque government
  • 2. www.OpenGNSS.org How GNSS receiver radio frequency works ?
  • 3. www.OpenGNSS.org GNSS Receiver 3
  • 4. www.OpenGNSS.org RF (Hardware) Reception and scanning of the I and Q signals 1) Antennas a. The two types of antennas b. Their characteristics 2) Preamp 3) RF filtering 4) Mixing a. Frequency transposition b. Local oscillator c. Summary 5) IF filtering a. Filter choice b. Bandwitdth constraints c. Filtering after the frequency transposition (RF→IF) 6) Scanning I and Q signals 4
  • 5. www.OpenGNSS.org Functional scheme of a GPS receiver FPB : Filtre Passe Bande 5
  • 6. www.OpenGNSS.org HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS 6
  • 7. www.OpenGNSS.org HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS Universal GPS Receiver : MAX2769 • Manufacturer : MAXIM • Price : 3.79€ • Receiver covering the navigation systems by satellite GPS, GALILEO and GLONASS. Applications : - Navigation embedded systems - GPS software - Laptops - Digital cameras 7
  • 8. www.OpenGNSS.org HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS HORUS2000 card allows to extract the following signals : Signals on L1 band GPS L1, GALILEO E1 8
  • 9. www.OpenGNSS.org HORUS2000 card OpenGNSS MAX2769 component is programmable through the following registers : Register name Address Function Page (A3:A0) CONF1 0000 Configure RX and IF sections, set the pins for 17 individual blocks. CONF2 0001 Configure AGC and output sections. 18 CONF3 0010 Configure the support and the test functions for 19 the IF filter and the AGC. PLLCONF 0011 PLL , VCO and clock settings 20 DIV 0100 Division ratio and floor function, other… 21 FDIV 0101 Decimal division ratio, other… 21 STRM 0110 Number of frames to be chained through the DSP 21 interface. CLK 0111 Fractional clock divider values. 21 TEST1 1000 Reserved test mode. 21 TEST2 1001 Reserved test mode. 21 9
  • 10. www.OpenGNSS.org 1. Antennas 2. Preamp 3. RF filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF filtering 6. Scanning Passive Atenna Active Antenna Frequencies LP LNA Converter (IF) Filter RF Cable LNA RF Filter IF Filter Signal Inphase ADC Signal en Quadrature 10
  • 11. www.OpenGNSS.org 1. Antennas 2. Preamp 3. RF Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning a. The two types of Active antenna antennas - Passives - Actives • The electromagnetic ondulations of the signal (in space) are changed into electric current (cable at the antenna output) Central Frequency : 1575.42Mhz Bandwidth: ±3Mhz Mitigation : Central frequency ±100MHZ>30db Impedance: 50Ω 11
  • 12. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning b. Their characteristics • Passive antenna • Active antenna It suits for GPS application where the It owns : distance between the antenna and the - A LNA which balance the losses of receiver is short (2.24→91.44 cm). the coaxial cable. - A filter.  Cheap  Evoluted system It requires : - More expensive - A Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) - It requires an alimentation, generally - A filter on the GPS supplied through the coaxial cable of the antenna. 12
  • 13. www.OpenGNSS.org With HORUS2000 … 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning • SMA connector : possibility of plugging a RF antenna, passive or active. • Configuration 1 : ANTEN=1 → Active antenna alimentation. 13
  • 14. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Passive Antenna Active Antenna Frequencies LP LNA Converter (IF) Filter RF Cable LNA RF IF Filter Filtering Signal Inphase ADC Signal en Quadrature 14
  • 15. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Goal : Amplify the received signal while adding the less noise possible. 15
  • 16. www.OpenGNSS.org With HORUS2000 … 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning • LNA1 for passive antenna: 19dB / 0.8dB (amplification / noise) • LNA2 for active antenna : 13dB/1.2dB • LNA-gated mode : ampli input linked. → Automatic detection of the antenna’s type Configuration 1 : LNAMODE = 00. 16
  • 17. www.OpenGNSS.org 1. Antennas 2. Preamp 3. RF 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Filtering Passive Antenna Active Antenna Frequencies LP LNA Converter (IF) Filter RF Cable LNA RF IF Filter Filtering Signal Inphase ADC Signal en Quadrature 17
  • 18. www.OpenGNSS.org 1. Antennas 2. Preamp 3. RF Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Filter • A filter allows to select a frequency band while mitigate characteristics the others. • 2 main characteristics : • - Insertion losses or mitigation of the components of the desired frequencies. - Bandwitdth at -3dB. 18
  • 19. www.OpenGNSS.org With HORUS2000 … 1. Antennas 2. Preamp 3. RF Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning • Filtering signal L1 - GPS • Filtering signal E5a - GALILEO • Central Frequency E5a • Central Frequency Fcen=1176.45MHz F0=1575.42MHz • Frequency F0=1166,22MHz • BandPass Filter • Low-Pass Filter • Bandwidth: 2,5MHz • Bandwidth : 18MHz • Insertion losses < 1.5dB • Insertion losses < 1.0dB 19
  • 20. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Passive Antenna Active Antenna Frequencies LP LNA Converter (IF) Filter RF Cable LNA RF IF Filter Filtering Signal Inphase ADC Signal en Quadrature 20
  • 21. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning A. Frequencies transposition • Why? • Received signals frequency : ≈1 billion of oscillations /s. • The signal is modulated with the local oscillator (LO) in order to be be shifted to an intermediary frequency (IF), low indeed null. LO L1=1575.42Mhz IF (<10Mhz) 21
  • 22. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning b. The local oscillator  A PLL frequency synthetizer : - A quartz oscillator providing a reference frequency RF. - A « ∑-∆ and N-fractionnal synthesizer » allowing to divide the VCO frequency by N ( ). - A Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) which, according to the input voltage provides a sine signal in a frequency band (for the MAX2769 VCO, it’s 1550-1580MhZ for 0.4V < VTUNE < 2.4V). 22
  • 23. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning b. The local oscillator PLL frequencies synthetizer 23
  • 24. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning b. The local oscillator What is frenquency synthesis? • Generate a signal (output) whose frequency is a programmable multiple of a set input frequency . • Feedback system (negative feedback) in order to control the frequency : the PLL • Obtaining an output signal with a very good spectral pureness. 24
  • 25. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning c. Summary PLL frequency synthetizer 25
  • 26. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning GPS Receipt 26
  • 27. www.OpenGNSS.org With HORUS2000 … 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning • PLL Division ratio integer : Reference divider: RDIV=10Décimal. • Frequency divider VCO : fVCO/fCOMP=1 571.52Mhz/1Mhz=1 571.52 • PLL Division Ratio integer : Floor divider : NDIV=1571Décimal • PLL Division Ratio : Decimal divider : FDIV=0.52Décimal 27
  • 28. www.OpenGNSS.org 1. Antennas 2. Preamp 3. RF 4. Mixing 5. IF 6. Scanning Filtering Filtering Passive Antenna Active Antenna Frequencies LP LNA Converter (IF) Filter RF Cable LNA RF IF Filter Filtering Signal Inphase ADC Signal en Quadrature 28
  • 29. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning a. Filter choice • Low-pass if IF=0Hz • Bandpass if IF≠0Hz The information being redundant, If IF is low (but≠0 ), we filter the this part of the signal is sufficient to « symmetric » information of the decrypt the information. signal. IF=0Hz IF≠0Hz 29
  • 30. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning b. Constraints on the bandwidth o The largest the band is :  More we get information about the signal.  After regeneration, the filtered signal will be close to the input signal. - The signal is more sensible to noise and interferences. 30
  • 31. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning b. Constraints on the bandwidth A Filter: - 60% of the signal - 0 interference B Filter: - 100% of the signal - 2 interferences Useful signal Bandwidth Interferences 31
  • 32. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning c. Filtering after the frequency transposition 1. Where does the frequency « substraction » come from during mixing? IF Filter(Low Frequency) 32
  • 33. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning c. Filtering after the frequency transposition 2. Quality and cost of the device : - Difficult to product narrow band filters in HF (1.5GhZ) - Quality factor: Q = fcentral/BW A filter able to select the main lobe of a GPS spectrum, whose bandwidth would be 2x1.023=2.046Mhz, would have a quality factor Q=1575.42/2.046≈770. Typically, Q=50 for a filter sold in commerce. 3. It allows to limit the noise within the bandwidtch. 33
  • 34. www.OpenGNSS.org With HORUS2000 … 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Bandpass Filter Butterworth • • Configuration 1 : - FCEN=001101↔ fCENTER=4.092Mhz - FBW=10 ↔ Bandwidth of 4.2Mhz (±2.1Mhz) - F3OR5=1 (3rd order) ll F3OR5=0 (5th order) 34
  • 35. www.OpenGNSS.org 3. RF 1. Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Passive Antenna Active Antenna Frequencies LP LNA Converter (IF) Filter RF Cable LNA RF IF Filter Filtering Signal Inphase ADC Signal en Quadrature 35
  • 36. www.OpenGNSS.org 1. 3. RF Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning Scanning consists in two parallel activities :  Sampling  Quantification The quality of the digital signal depends on 2 factors :  Sampling frequency or ratio  Resolution : number of bits used for coding 36
  • 37. www.OpenGNSS.org With HORUS2000 … 1. 3. RF Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Sampling • 3 Displaying formats exist : • The ADC clock is a multiple (smaller) of - Sign/amplitude the input reference clock. - Two’s complement - Unsigned binary • Output on 2 bits: - 2 bits for I output : I1 and I0 - 2 bits for Q output : Q1 and Q0 • Output on 3 bits : - I only : I1, I0, Q1 (cf. example). 37
  • 38. www.OpenGNSS.org With HORUS2000 … 1. 3. RF Antennas 2. Preamp Filtering 4. Mixing 5. IF Filtering 6. Scanning 011 010 001 000 100 101 110 111 Quantification by superior value and not centered 38
  • 39. www.OpenGNSS.org Avec HORUS2000 … 1. Les 2. 3. Filtrage antennes Préamplification RF 4. Le mixage 5. Filtrage IF 6. Numérisation MSB 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 2ND 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 LSB 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 Output I 3bits Format Sign/Amplitude 39
  • 40. www.OpenGNSS.org Conclusion Thank you and let us meet on www.OpenGNSS.org to participate in the development OpenSource of a GNSS receiver 40