SlideShare a Scribd company logo
UNIVERSITY OF GONDAR
COLLEGE OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCINCES
Institute of Public Health
Department of Human Nutrition
Human Nutrition course
By: Lemlem D. (Bsc, MPH)
1
4/9/2024
VITAMINS
2
4/9/2024
Objectives
At the end of completing this chapter, the students are
expected to:
 Describe the different types of vitamins
 Describe the functions of vitamins in the body
 Enumerate the food sources of vitamins
 Describe the clinical manifestations of specific vitamin
deficiency
 List The RDAs of Vitamins and health problems related to
over/under intake of vitamins
3
4/9/2024
Vitamins
 Vitamins are organic compounds, needed in small
amounts in the diet of higher animals
 ‘Vita’- meaning life
 ‘Amin’- because it was believed that all types of vitamins
contain the chemical structure of an amine group
 Essential, non caloric organic nutrients
 Currently , there are 13 known vitamins
 Without vitamins thousands of chemical reactions do not
occur 4
4/9/2024
Classification and characteristics
of vitamins
5
4/9/2024
Con’t…
Deficiency
Apt to develop
following acute
shortages
Deficiency does not
develop following
acute shortage of the
vitamins
6
4/9/2024
7
09/04/2024
Vitamins cont…
1. Water Soluble Vitamins
A. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
 water-soluble vitamin
 The substance initially called thiamine that corrected the
problems was first isolated from rice bran in 1912 by
Casmir Funk.
 Plays a central role in energy yielding reactions
 Coenzyme : Thiamin pyrophosphate(TPP)
 Food source: The best dietary sources of thiamine are
whole-grain cereals, potato, fish, meat and Pork
8
4/9/2024
Vitamins cont…
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA):
• Since it has central role in energy yielding reaction
specially of CHO metabolism, intake depends on the
amount of calorie intake from carbohydrates i.e.
0.5mg/1000Kcal
9
4/9/2024
Function of Thiamin
• Necessary for protein and carbohydrate metabolism
• Maintains normal function of nervous system, muscles, and
heart
• Replaces deficiency caused by alcoholism, cirrhosis,
infection, breast-feeding, pregnancy and prolonged diarrhoea
• Promotes normal growth and development
• Treats beriberi (thiamine-deficiency disease)
• Keeps mucous membranes healthy
10
4/9/2024
Deficiency of Thiamin
 First observed among white rice eaters in the Far East
 Beriberi : resulted from prolonged thiamin deficiency
 Lactic acidosis : impaired conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coA
which in turn results increased serum lactate and pyruvate
 Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: Thiamin responsive condition
associated with alcoholism and patients on parentral nutrition
manifested with short term memory loss, motor problems, and
psychosis
 Mild deficiency: Loss of appetite, Fatigue, Nausea, Vomiting,
Muscle tenderness and atrophy, constipation and GI disorders 11
4/9/2024
Type of beriberi Clinical manifestation
DRY  Chronic Wasting disease, neuritis-paralysis of limbs
 Thin, wasted, weak muscle
 Feels pins and needles in feet and arms, tender calves
gradually paralysis of limb
Treatment- Paralysis does not respond to thiamine treatment.
Slowly little improvement
WET  More acute form, whole body swollen, disturbance in the
Circulatory system - Sudden death from heart Failure
 Pitting oedema in legs and may appear in face, trunks
 Breathless, irregular rapid pulses and distended veins,
condition deteriorates.
Treatment- Patient recovers dramatically after 1 or 2 hours of
injection with thiamine.
INFANTILE Is common during 2nd and 5th months of life children who are
being breast-fed mothers eating beriberi-producing diet.
12
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
Treatment
Dietary management
• Fortification of staple cereal with Vitamin B1
• Adequate amounts of alternative foods rich in thiamine
• Decrease consumption of refined sugar and Alcohol
Therapeutic management
• Tablets: Take with meals or 1 to 1-1/2 hours after meals
• Injection: Injectable forms are administered by doctor or
nurse in the form of Thiamine hydrochloride
13
4/9/2024
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
• Intense yellow in color as a result widely used as food
additive
• Easily destroyed by light, heat and acid
• pro-oxidant activity: The combination of light, oxygen
and riboflavin can lead to the formation of free
radicals
• Coenzymes forms: flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and
and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
14
4/9/2024
Vitamins cont…
FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN B2:
• Milk and other dairy products are good source of riboflavin
• Other food sources: eggs, meat, fish, Green leafy vegetables,
Brewer's yeast , Cheese , Organ meats, Chicken....
Tablets:
• A constituent of many multivitamin/mineral preparations
• Available as simple riboflavin or activated riboflavin
(riboflavin-5-phosphate)
• Should be taken with or immediately after food to decrease
stomach irritation 15
4/9/2024
Function of Riboflavin
• Acts as co-enzymes
• Aids in release of energy from food
• Necessary for the regeneration of glutathione
• Preserves integrity of nervous system, skin, eyes
• Aids for metabolism of iron
• Activates dietary vitamin-6
16
4/9/2024
Deficiency of riboflavin
• Cracks and sores in corners of mouth
• Inflammation of tongue and lips
• Eyes overly sensitive to light and easily tired
• Itching and scaling of skin around nose, mouth, scrotum,
forehead, ears, scalp
• Trembling, Dizziness, Insomnia, Slow learning, Itching,
burning and reddening of eyes
17
4/9/2024
18
4/9/2024
Niacin (Vitamin B3)
 Niacin was discovered as a nutrient during studies of the
deficiency disease pellagra.
• “Niacin” is used as a generic descriptor for both vitamers:
nicotinic acid and nicotinamide (niacin amide)
 synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid,
Tryptophan
 Acts as coenzyme: NAD(Nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide) and NADP
19
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
Food sources of vitamin B3
• It is found in meat, liver, fish, poultry, Peanut, peas, beans,
and whole grains. However Milk, eggs, and cheese are poor
source; however, they are good source of Tryptophan
Tablet
• Available in the form of tablet or capsule and Injectable
forms as constituent of many multivitamin/mineral
preparations
20
4/9/2024
Function of vitamin B3
• As component of co-enzymes
• Aids in release of energy from foods (Carbohydrates, lipids
and proteins)
• Involved in the synthesis of sex and adrenal hormones
• Plays an important role in DNA repair mechanism
• Reduces cholesterol, triglycerides and raises HDL cholesterol
in the blood
• Helps to threat pellagra and arthritis and prevents
premenstrual headache
21
4/9/2024
Deficiency of niacin(vitamin B3)
• Common in the community where maize is staple food
• Pellagra is characterized by a photosensitive dermatitis, affecting
all parts of the skin that are exposed to sunlight such as the knees,
elbows, wrists, and ankles
• Advanced pellagra is also accompanied by dementia and there
may be diarrhea if Untreated, it would result death
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA):
• 6mg/1000kcal for adult
• Excess intake (>500mg/d) can cause toxicity then to liver damage
22
4/9/2024
23
4/9/2024
VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine)
• Generic descriptor of six vitamers
• All converted to the metabolically active form, pyridoxal
phosphate(PLP)
• Pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine are all absorbed
rapidly by passive diffusion
• Unlike other water soluble vitamins, B6 stored in the
muscle
• 80% of the body’s total vitamin B6 is found in the muscle as
pyridoxal phosphate, mostly associated with glycogen
phosphorylase 24
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
 Food sources of vitamin B6 :
 avocado, banana, carrot, lentils, Rice, Soybean , Sunflower seeds
 Tablet:
 Available in the form of tablet as constituent of multivitamin tablet
 Active forms: Pyridoxine hydrochloride and pyridoxal-5-
phosphate
 Anti-TB drugs i.e. Isoniazide (INH) binds and inactivates the
vitamin, and increases renal excretion
 As a result the vitamin should be supplemented while prescribing
INH 25
4/9/2024
Function of vitamin B6
• Acts as co-enzyme for metabolic functions affecting protein,
carbohydrates and fat utilization
• Coenzyme in the first step in the synthesis of heme
• Promotes conversion of tryptophan to niacin or serotonin
• Involved in the production of several body proteins and
neurot transmitters like serotonin, dopamine, melatonin and
norepinephrine
26
4/9/2024
Deficiency of vitamin B6
 Symptoms of vitamin B-6 deficiency are non specific
 Hormone-dependent cancer of the breast, uterus, and prostate
 Mental confusion, Irritability, Nervousness , Insomnia, Poor
coordination walking, Hyperactivity, Anaemia ,Skin lesions ,
Discoloration of tongue , Muscle twitching , Kidney stones,
Depression, Convulsions, Glucose intolerance, Impaired nerve
function , Cracked lips
27
4/9/2024
Deficiency of vitamin B6 cont…
 A hypo chromic, microcytic anaemia may also result from a
vitamin B6 deficiency due to impaired heme synthesis
 Impairs niacin synthesis from tryptophan, and inhibits
metabolism of homocysteine. In turn results in hyper-
homocysteinemia, a risk factor for heart disease
28
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
 RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA)
 Protein intake largely affects vitamin B6
requirement as a result the reference intakes are
based on 15–16 μg/g dietary protein
 The therapeutic dose is between 50-100mg
29
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
Interaction with other substances
 Alcohol: distracts and enhances excretion of B-6 in the
body (acetaldehyde)
 Tobacco-decreases Vitamin B-6 absorption
 Estrogens or oral contraceptives: increase requirements of
pyridoxine
 Phenytoin: Large doses of B-6 accelerate break-down of
Phenytoin
Therefore individuals/clients taking these drugs require
regular vitamin B-6 supplementation 30
4/9/2024
Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)
 One of water soluble vitamin which is also known as folacin or
Folate, important for cell division
 As a supplement, folic acid is almost completely available
(especially if consumed on an empty stomach): 85% bioavailable.
 Memory and abstract thinking appear to be influenced by folate.
Cognitive dysfunction and dementia have been shown to
correlate with plasma homocysteine concentrations, which in
turn are influenced in part by folate status.
31
4/9/2024
Function of folacin
1. It is critical to cellular division since it is necessary in DNA
synthesis:
2. Protein synthesis: conversion of homocysteine to methionine
3. Regulate embryonic and Foetal development of nerve cells:
4. Promotes normal red blood cell formation
32
4/9/2024
Folic acid cont…
 FOOD SOURCES: generally fruits and vegetables are good
sources, Beans , Barley Brewer's yeast , Calves' liver, Fruits ,
Green, leafy vegetables, Lentils Peas , Rice , Soybeans , Split peas ,
Sprouts , Wheat ,Wheat germ , Orange juice , Oranges
 Available as:
Tablets: in combination with iron and other multi-vitamins
 Should be taken with meals or 1 to 1-1/2 hours after meals
33
4/9/2024
Deficiency of folic acid
1. Megaloblastic anaemia
During Folate deficiency there is release of immature
precursors of RBC and red blood cells are large and
uneven in size, have a shorter life span or are likely to
have cell membranes rupture
2. Neural tube defect in the foetus
34
4/9/2024
Folic acid cont…
Recommended dietary allowance
 Pregnant women need to be supplemented with folic
acid at least 1 month before and 3 months after the
onset of pregnancy 400microgram of folic acid
 Pregnant women who has previous experience of
giving birth of child with spina bifida 4gm of folic acid
35
4/9/2024
Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)
 Cobalt containing vitamin which is found only in animal foods.
 Absorption of vitamin-B12 is made possible by binding with the
intrinsic factor at the intestinal lumen
 Intrinsic factor: are is a small glycoprotein secreted by the parietal
cells of the gastric mucosa
 Vitamin B12 is absorbed from the distal third of the ileum
36
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
FOOD SOURCES
 Vitamin B-12 is found from foods of animal origin : Milk, milk
products , Liver , Beef, Beef liver, Eggs , Kidney....
 Available: in the form of tablet and Injectable forms
 Tablets used as dietary supplements
 Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, this vitamin is stored in the
body tissues, approximately 50% in the liver, so a deficiency can
take years to appear
37
4/9/2024
38
4/9/2024
Function of Cobalamin
1. Treats pernicious anaemia
2. Promotes formation of blood-cell
3. Plays an important role in protein synthesis
4. In combination with folic acid, it is necessary for the synthesis of
DNA and for maintaining the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve
cells and facilitates the signals along the neurotransmitters
39
4/9/2024
DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN B-12
1. Pernicious anaemia : commonly because of failure of the
absorption of vitamin B12, rather than dietary deficiency
 Problem with absorption may be due to failure of intrinsic
factor secretion, as a result of autoimmune disease
2. Impaired brain and nervous system function: demylination of
nerve fibbers in Central Nervous System
40
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
 Risk groups: vegetarians, people undergoes surgical removal
of the stomach (parietal cells) or terminal ileum
 People with parasitic infections such as tapeworms may
develop a vitamin B12 deficiency because the parasite uses the
vitamin
 Problems causing decreased HCL secretion and IF production
Recommended dietary allowance
 Vegetarians are advised to obtain at least 100 mcg of B-12
each day
41
4/9/2024
4/9/2024 42
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
 Forms: Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid have
vitamin activity
 There is no specific storage organ for ascorbate; apart
from leukocytes (which account for only 10% of total
blood ascorbate)
43
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
Food Sources
 Citrus Fruits and Green Leafy vegetables are common
Sources Vitamin C like Oranges, Papayas , Potatoes ,
Tomatoes , Cabbage , Grapefruit , Green peppers , Lemons ...
 Also available in the form of tablet (as constituent of other
multi-vitamins) and Injectable forms
44
4/9/2024
45
4/9/2024
Function of Ascorbic Acid
1. Chief antioxidant
2. Helps to form collagen in connective tissue
3. Plays an important role in blood clotting system
4. Increases iron absorption from intestines
46
4/9/2024
Deficiency of vitamin C
1. Scurvy: muscle weakness, swollen gums, loss of teeth,
tiredness, depression, bleeding under skin, bleeding
gums, Swollen or painful joints, Nose bleeds, Changes
in personality and psychomotor performance
2. Anaemia and frequent infections
3. Delayed healing of wound and reopening of surgical wounds
47
4/9/2024
48
4/9/2024
Vitamin cont…
RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA):
 Adjusted depending on age, sex and other physiological
factors
• RDA is 90mg/day for adult men and 75 mg/day for adult
women
• Smokers require more as smoking causes oxidative stress
 Intake of 20 mg/day is required for optimum wound healing
49
4/9/2024
Fat soluble vitamins
50
4/9/2024
Vitamin-A
 Fat soluble vitamin
There are two forms
1. Retinoid: Includes retinol, retinaldehyde,
retinoic acid and retinyl palmitate
 Found only in foods of animal origin
 Also known as Previtamin
 Active and most absorbable type
51
4/9/2024
Con’t…
2. Carotenoids: Includes carotenes and related
compounds i.e. α, β,γ carotines and
cryptoxanthin
 Mostly found in plants based food groups
 Also known as provitamin A
 Less absorbable type
52
4/9/2024
Cont…
 50–80% of the total body content of retinol is stored in
the liver
 Peoples with protein-energy malnutrition are at risk for
vitamin-A deficiency. WHY???
 Vitamin A supplementation is found with reduction in
overall mortality and morbidity in children <5 years
53
4/9/2024
Cont…
Food sources
 Plant sources: Vitamin A is generally found in
green leafy vegetables, yellow orange fruits in the
form of B-carotene
 Animal sources: found in the form of retinol:
Liver , fish liver oil, Milk and Egg
54
4/9/2024
Food sources of vitamin-A
55
4/9/2024
Function of vitamin-A
1. Essential for normal function of retina
2. Builds body's resistance to respiratory infections
3. Helps to treat acne, impetigo, boils, and carbuncles,
open ulcers when applied externally
4. Helps to form and maintain healthy skin, hair, and
mucous membranes
6. Has anti oxidant function
7. For reproduction, tissue growth and differentiation56
4/9/2024
Deficiency of vitamin-A
1. Increases Susceptibility to respiratory infection
2. Night blindness, eventual blindness if deficiency is severe and
untreated
3. Lack of tear secretion (due to destruction of goblet cell)
4. Poor bone growth, Weak tooth enamel, Diarrhea , Slow growth
5. Dry, rough skin
6. Changes in mucous membranes
57
4/9/2024
Clinical indicators of Vitamin A
deficiency
• Night blindness- the most common type
• Bitot’s spot
• Conjuctival xerosis
• Corneal ulcer
• keratomalacia
58
4/9/2024
Strategies to alleviate vitamin-A deficiency
 Breast Milk: source of Vit A
 Food diversification
 Vitamin-A Supplementation : mothers, infants & children:
For infants 6-11 month: 100,000 IU (once)
For children 12-59 month: 200,000 IU (at every 4-6 month)
For lactating mothers: 200,000 IU
 Food fortification
 Public Heath Masures (Immunization, infection control)
59
4/9/2024
60
4/9/2024
Vitamin D (1,25, Dihydroxycholecalciferol)
• The normal dietary form of vitamin D is Cholecalciferol (also
known as calciol). This is also the compound that is formed in the
skin by ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol
 Hence, can be synthesised under the skin it is not strictly an
essential vitamin
 Vitamin D is absorbed in lipid micelles and incorporated into
Chylomicrons
 Regulate the blood calcium level
61
4/9/2024
Fig. The activation of vitamin D.
62
4/9/2024
Function of vitamin-D
 Regulates growth, hardening and repair of bone by
controlling absorption of calcium and phosphorus from
small intestine
 Prevents rickets and other vitamin-D related deficiency
disease
 Promotes normal growth and development of infants and
children, particularly bones and teeth
 Food source: Sunlight plus subcutaneous fat, Vitamin D-
fortified milk, Butter, Egg yolks , liver oil
63
4/9/2024
Deficiency of vitamin-D
1. Rickets: under mineralization of bone as a result of poor
absorption of calcium in the absence of adequate amounts
of calcitriol. It is common problem among childhood and
adolescents
 Mostly black children
• Symptoms: Bowed legs and knocked knees, malformations
of joints or bones, late tooth development, weak muscles,
double maleolus, Rachitic Rossary
64
4/9/2024
Cont…
65
4/9/2024
66
4/9/2024
Cont…
2. Osteomalacia (adult rickets): resulted from
demineralization of bone and common among
adult, old ages and women of reproductive age
(pregnant women)
3. Osteoporosis: due to loss of bone matrix
 Sign and symptom: pain in ribs, lower spine, pelvis
and legs, muscle weakness and spasm, brittle, easily
broken bones.
67
4/9/2024
Vitamin E
 Vitamin E is the generic descriptor for two families of compounds,
the tocopherols and the tocotrienols
 The tocotrienols have lower vitamin activity than tocopherols
 Alpha-tocopherol, commonly known as Vitamin E, is the form
found most in nature and the most biologically active
68
4/9/2024
Cont…
Food Sources
 Vegetable oils are rich sources of vitamin E, but significant
amounts are also found in nuts and seeds, most green leafy
vegetables and a variety of fish
 All vegetable oils(Apricot oil , Corn oil, Cottonseed oil, Peanut oil
 Wheat germ, Whole-wheat flour , Margarine, Sunflower seeds
69
4/9/2024
Functions
 Unlike other vitamins, no unequivocal physiological function
for vitamin E has been defined; since many of its functions
can be replaced by synthetic antioxidants but is a known
Chief antioxidant.
70
4/9/2024
Cont…
Deficiency
 Dietary deficiency of vitamin E in human beings is unknown,
• Premature infants and children: Irritability , Edema , Hemolytic
anemia
 Adults: Lethargy, Apathy, Muscle weakness, Causes infertility
71
4/9/2024
Vitamin K
 It is often suggested that about half of the requirement for vitamin
K is met by intestinal bacterial synthesis.
 Food sources: because of its role in photosynthesis, it is found in
all green leafy vegetables, Soybeans, Cabbage , Green leafy
vegetables, Oats
Available as:
• Tablets: Take with meals or 1 to 1-1/2 hours after meals
• Injectable : administered by a health professional.
NOTE: Vitamin K is not usually included in most
multivitamin/mineral preparations
72
4/9/2024
Functions
 Prevents abnormal bleeding
 Promotes health and strength of bone:
 Prevents hemorrhagic disease of the newborn
 Treats bleeding disorders due to Vitamin K deficiency
73
4/9/2024
Deficiency
Infants:
• Failure to grow and develop
• Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: characterized by blood
vomiting and bleeding from intestine, umbilical cord, circumcision
site. Symptoms begin 2 or 3 days after birth
Adults:
• Abnormal blood clotting that can lead to nosebleeds, blood in
urine, stomach bleeding, bleeding from capillaries or skin causing
spontaneous black-and-blue marks, prolonged clotting time
74
4/9/2024
CONT...
RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA):
 No RDA has been established. Adequate and safe range is 2
mcg/kg body weight per day
Overdose/ toxicity
Signs and symptoms:
 In infants: Brain damage.
 In all: Large doses may impair liver function
75
4/9/2024
Reading assignment on Pantothenic
acid and Biotin
76
4/9/2024
Thank you!
77
4/9/2024

More Related Content

Similar to Chapter-3 Vitamins.....................pptx

Vitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manik
Vitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manikVitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manik
Vitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manik
Imran Nur Manik
 
vitamins%20edit.pptx
vitamins%20edit.pptxvitamins%20edit.pptx
vitamins%20edit.pptx
atthibnys
 
1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt
1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt
1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt
myLord3
 
07 - Vitamins.ppt
07 - Vitamins.ppt07 - Vitamins.ppt
07 - Vitamins.ppt
sathishvsathish1
 
UG - Water soluble vitamins.pptx
UG - Water soluble vitamins.pptxUG - Water soluble vitamins.pptx
UG - Water soluble vitamins.pptx
MelbinRockieMJ1
 
VITAMINS (Water soluble).ppt
VITAMINS (Water soluble).pptVITAMINS (Water soluble).ppt
VITAMINS (Water soluble).ppt
SadiaBatool90
 
Vitamins
VitaminsVitamins
Introduction to Vitamins
Introduction to VitaminsIntroduction to Vitamins
Introduction to Vitamins
DHANANJAY PATIL
 
chapter 5 vitamins.ppt
chapter 5 vitamins.pptchapter 5 vitamins.ppt
chapter 5 vitamins.ppt
Fatima117039
 
Final vitamins
Final  vitaminsFinal  vitamins
Final vitamins
Dr. Amit Sharma
 
VITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMC
VITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMCVITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMC
VITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMC
NRKAOFFICIAL
 
Defisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptx
Defisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptxDefisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptx
Defisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptx
IndraWati89
 
water soluble vitamins..
water soluble vitamins..water soluble vitamins..
water soluble vitamins..
Athulya Lakshmanan
 
Group pharmacology uuuuu. .pptx
Group pharmacology   uuuuu.        .pptxGroup pharmacology   uuuuu.        .pptx
Group pharmacology uuuuu. .pptx
ssuser504dda
 
Lecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolism
Lecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolismLecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolism
Lecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolism
wajihahwafa
 
Water soluble vitamins
Water soluble vitaminsWater soluble vitamins
Sunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitamin
Sunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitaminSunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitamin
Sunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitamin
ravikop43
 
Vitamins part 1
Vitamins part 1Vitamins part 1
Vitamins part 1
Ali Faris
 
Vitamins water & fat Soluble
Vitamins  water & fat Soluble Vitamins  water & fat Soluble
Vitamins water & fat Soluble
Dr. Rupendra Bharti
 
Vitamins and anti oxidants pptx
Vitamins and anti oxidants pptxVitamins and anti oxidants pptx
Vitamins and anti oxidants pptx
PavaniSSLD
 

Similar to Chapter-3 Vitamins.....................pptx (20)

Vitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manik
Vitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manikVitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manik
Vitamins &amp; vitamin containing drugs manik
 
vitamins%20edit.pptx
vitamins%20edit.pptxvitamins%20edit.pptx
vitamins%20edit.pptx
 
1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt
1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt
1. Vitamins and Minerals.ppt
 
07 - Vitamins.ppt
07 - Vitamins.ppt07 - Vitamins.ppt
07 - Vitamins.ppt
 
UG - Water soluble vitamins.pptx
UG - Water soluble vitamins.pptxUG - Water soluble vitamins.pptx
UG - Water soluble vitamins.pptx
 
VITAMINS (Water soluble).ppt
VITAMINS (Water soluble).pptVITAMINS (Water soluble).ppt
VITAMINS (Water soluble).ppt
 
Vitamins
VitaminsVitamins
Vitamins
 
Introduction to Vitamins
Introduction to VitaminsIntroduction to Vitamins
Introduction to Vitamins
 
chapter 5 vitamins.ppt
chapter 5 vitamins.pptchapter 5 vitamins.ppt
chapter 5 vitamins.ppt
 
Final vitamins
Final  vitaminsFinal  vitamins
Final vitamins
 
VITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMC
VITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMCVITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMC
VITAMINS B1 to B9 By Dr Neelakanta MD General Medicine MRMC
 
Defisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptx
Defisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptxDefisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptx
Defisiensi vitamin dan mineral FK UNS.pptx
 
water soluble vitamins..
water soluble vitamins..water soluble vitamins..
water soluble vitamins..
 
Group pharmacology uuuuu. .pptx
Group pharmacology   uuuuu.        .pptxGroup pharmacology   uuuuu.        .pptx
Group pharmacology uuuuu. .pptx
 
Lecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolism
Lecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolismLecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolism
Lecture 12 nutrients involved in energy metabolism
 
Water soluble vitamins
Water soluble vitaminsWater soluble vitamins
Water soluble vitamins
 
Sunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitamin
Sunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitaminSunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitamin
Sunil Shirahatti - VITAMINS.pptx detailed notes of vitamin
 
Vitamins part 1
Vitamins part 1Vitamins part 1
Vitamins part 1
 
Vitamins water & fat Soluble
Vitamins  water & fat Soluble Vitamins  water & fat Soluble
Vitamins water & fat Soluble
 
Vitamins and anti oxidants pptx
Vitamins and anti oxidants pptxVitamins and anti oxidants pptx
Vitamins and anti oxidants pptx
 

More from EyobAlemu11

systemic bacteriology (7)............pptx
systemic bacteriology (7)............pptxsystemic bacteriology (7)............pptx
systemic bacteriology (7)............pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
GLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdf
GLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdfGLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdf
GLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdf
EyobAlemu11
 
1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx
1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx
1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
Thoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptx
Thoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptxThoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptx
Thoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptx
BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptxBRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptx
BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
Approach to respiratory distress in children.pptx
Approach to respiratory distress in children.pptxApproach to respiratory distress in children.pptx
Approach to respiratory distress in children.pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
Approach to Childhood Poisoning......pptx
Approach to Childhood Poisoning......pptxApproach to Childhood Poisoning......pptx
Approach to Childhood Poisoning......pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
APH for 3rd year HO.................pptx
APH for 3rd year HO.................pptxAPH for 3rd year HO.................pptx
APH for 3rd year HO.................pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
accidental injury...................pptx
accidental injury...................pptxaccidental injury...................pptx
accidental injury...................pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
RHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptx
RHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptxRHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptx
RHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptx
EyobAlemu11
 
1. Loss and Grief.ppt
1. Loss and  Grief.ppt1. Loss and  Grief.ppt
1. Loss and Grief.ppt
EyobAlemu11
 
Biostatics 8.pptx
Biostatics 8.pptxBiostatics 8.pptx
Biostatics 8.pptx
EyobAlemu11
 

More from EyobAlemu11 (12)

systemic bacteriology (7)............pptx
systemic bacteriology (7)............pptxsystemic bacteriology (7)............pptx
systemic bacteriology (7)............pptx
 
GLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdf
GLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdfGLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdf
GLYCOSIDES-Introduction & Classification.pdf
 
1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx
1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx
1.Introduction to human physiology-1 (1).pptx
 
Thoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptx
Thoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptxThoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptx
Thoracic and abdominal field blocks.pptx
 
BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptx
BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptxBRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptx
BRACHIAL PLEXUS BLOCK 1..............pptx
 
Approach to respiratory distress in children.pptx
Approach to respiratory distress in children.pptxApproach to respiratory distress in children.pptx
Approach to respiratory distress in children.pptx
 
Approach to Childhood Poisoning......pptx
Approach to Childhood Poisoning......pptxApproach to Childhood Poisoning......pptx
Approach to Childhood Poisoning......pptx
 
APH for 3rd year HO.................pptx
APH for 3rd year HO.................pptxAPH for 3rd year HO.................pptx
APH for 3rd year HO.................pptx
 
accidental injury...................pptx
accidental injury...................pptxaccidental injury...................pptx
accidental injury...................pptx
 
RHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptx
RHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptxRHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptx
RHIS3rd year regular generic HI (1).pptx
 
1. Loss and Grief.ppt
1. Loss and  Grief.ppt1. Loss and  Grief.ppt
1. Loss and Grief.ppt
 
Biostatics 8.pptx
Biostatics 8.pptxBiostatics 8.pptx
Biostatics 8.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptxREGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
LaniyaNasrink
 
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxVestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
pathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathology
pathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathologypathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathology
pathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathology
ZayedKhan38
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
HongBiThi1
 
Does Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptx
Does Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptxDoes Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptx
Does Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptx
walterHu5
 
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptxTests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
taiba qazi
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
rishi2789
 
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdfCardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
shivalingatalekar1
 
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic ApproachIntegrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Ayurveda ForAll
 
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
Holistified Wellness
 
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptxPost-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
FFragrant
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Jim Jacob Roy
 
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USENARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
Dr. Ahana Haroon
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
AyeshaZaid1
 
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotesPromoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
PsychoTech Services
 
Histopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treat
Histopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treatHistopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treat
Histopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treat
DIVYANSHU740006
 
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
 Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc. Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
Aortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 Bern
Aortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 BernAortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 Bern
Aortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 Bern
suvadeepdas911
 
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Torstein Dalen-Lorentsen
 
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in AyurvedaEfficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Dr. Jyothirmai Paindla
 

Recently uploaded (20)

REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptxREGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
 
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxVestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
pathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathology
pathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathologypathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathology
pathology MCQS introduction to pathology general pathology
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
 
Does Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptx
Does Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptxDoes Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptx
Does Over-Masturbation Contribute to Chronic Prostatitis.pptx
 
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptxTests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
 
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdfCardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
 
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic ApproachIntegrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
 
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
8 Surprising Reasons To Meditate 40 Minutes A Day That Can Change Your Life.pptx
 
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptxPost-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
 
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USENARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
NARCOTICS- POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR ITS USE
 
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptxHistololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
Histololgy of Female Reproductive System.pptx
 
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotesPromoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
Promoting Wellbeing - Applied Social Psychology - Psychology SuperNotes
 
Histopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treat
Histopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treatHistopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treat
Histopathology of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Visual treat
 
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
 Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc. Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
 
Aortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 Bern
Aortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 BernAortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 Bern
Aortic Association CBL Pilot April 19 – 20 Bern
 
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
Physical demands in sports - WCSPT Oslo 2024
 
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in AyurvedaEfficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
 

Chapter-3 Vitamins.....................pptx

  • 1. UNIVERSITY OF GONDAR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCINCES Institute of Public Health Department of Human Nutrition Human Nutrition course By: Lemlem D. (Bsc, MPH) 1 4/9/2024
  • 3. Objectives At the end of completing this chapter, the students are expected to:  Describe the different types of vitamins  Describe the functions of vitamins in the body  Enumerate the food sources of vitamins  Describe the clinical manifestations of specific vitamin deficiency  List The RDAs of Vitamins and health problems related to over/under intake of vitamins 3 4/9/2024
  • 4. Vitamins  Vitamins are organic compounds, needed in small amounts in the diet of higher animals  ‘Vita’- meaning life  ‘Amin’- because it was believed that all types of vitamins contain the chemical structure of an amine group  Essential, non caloric organic nutrients  Currently , there are 13 known vitamins  Without vitamins thousands of chemical reactions do not occur 4 4/9/2024
  • 6. Con’t… Deficiency Apt to develop following acute shortages Deficiency does not develop following acute shortage of the vitamins 6 4/9/2024
  • 8. Vitamins cont… 1. Water Soluble Vitamins A. Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)  water-soluble vitamin  The substance initially called thiamine that corrected the problems was first isolated from rice bran in 1912 by Casmir Funk.  Plays a central role in energy yielding reactions  Coenzyme : Thiamin pyrophosphate(TPP)  Food source: The best dietary sources of thiamine are whole-grain cereals, potato, fish, meat and Pork 8 4/9/2024
  • 9. Vitamins cont… Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA): • Since it has central role in energy yielding reaction specially of CHO metabolism, intake depends on the amount of calorie intake from carbohydrates i.e. 0.5mg/1000Kcal 9 4/9/2024
  • 10. Function of Thiamin • Necessary for protein and carbohydrate metabolism • Maintains normal function of nervous system, muscles, and heart • Replaces deficiency caused by alcoholism, cirrhosis, infection, breast-feeding, pregnancy and prolonged diarrhoea • Promotes normal growth and development • Treats beriberi (thiamine-deficiency disease) • Keeps mucous membranes healthy 10 4/9/2024
  • 11. Deficiency of Thiamin  First observed among white rice eaters in the Far East  Beriberi : resulted from prolonged thiamin deficiency  Lactic acidosis : impaired conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coA which in turn results increased serum lactate and pyruvate  Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: Thiamin responsive condition associated with alcoholism and patients on parentral nutrition manifested with short term memory loss, motor problems, and psychosis  Mild deficiency: Loss of appetite, Fatigue, Nausea, Vomiting, Muscle tenderness and atrophy, constipation and GI disorders 11 4/9/2024
  • 12. Type of beriberi Clinical manifestation DRY  Chronic Wasting disease, neuritis-paralysis of limbs  Thin, wasted, weak muscle  Feels pins and needles in feet and arms, tender calves gradually paralysis of limb Treatment- Paralysis does not respond to thiamine treatment. Slowly little improvement WET  More acute form, whole body swollen, disturbance in the Circulatory system - Sudden death from heart Failure  Pitting oedema in legs and may appear in face, trunks  Breathless, irregular rapid pulses and distended veins, condition deteriorates. Treatment- Patient recovers dramatically after 1 or 2 hours of injection with thiamine. INFANTILE Is common during 2nd and 5th months of life children who are being breast-fed mothers eating beriberi-producing diet. 12 4/9/2024
  • 13. Vitamin cont… Treatment Dietary management • Fortification of staple cereal with Vitamin B1 • Adequate amounts of alternative foods rich in thiamine • Decrease consumption of refined sugar and Alcohol Therapeutic management • Tablets: Take with meals or 1 to 1-1/2 hours after meals • Injection: Injectable forms are administered by doctor or nurse in the form of Thiamine hydrochloride 13 4/9/2024
  • 14. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) • Intense yellow in color as a result widely used as food additive • Easily destroyed by light, heat and acid • pro-oxidant activity: The combination of light, oxygen and riboflavin can lead to the formation of free radicals • Coenzymes forms: flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 14 4/9/2024
  • 15. Vitamins cont… FOOD SOURCES OF VITAMIN B2: • Milk and other dairy products are good source of riboflavin • Other food sources: eggs, meat, fish, Green leafy vegetables, Brewer's yeast , Cheese , Organ meats, Chicken.... Tablets: • A constituent of many multivitamin/mineral preparations • Available as simple riboflavin or activated riboflavin (riboflavin-5-phosphate) • Should be taken with or immediately after food to decrease stomach irritation 15 4/9/2024
  • 16. Function of Riboflavin • Acts as co-enzymes • Aids in release of energy from food • Necessary for the regeneration of glutathione • Preserves integrity of nervous system, skin, eyes • Aids for metabolism of iron • Activates dietary vitamin-6 16 4/9/2024
  • 17. Deficiency of riboflavin • Cracks and sores in corners of mouth • Inflammation of tongue and lips • Eyes overly sensitive to light and easily tired • Itching and scaling of skin around nose, mouth, scrotum, forehead, ears, scalp • Trembling, Dizziness, Insomnia, Slow learning, Itching, burning and reddening of eyes 17 4/9/2024
  • 19. Niacin (Vitamin B3)  Niacin was discovered as a nutrient during studies of the deficiency disease pellagra. • “Niacin” is used as a generic descriptor for both vitamers: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide (niacin amide)  synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid, Tryptophan  Acts as coenzyme: NAD(Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP 19 4/9/2024
  • 20. Vitamin cont… Food sources of vitamin B3 • It is found in meat, liver, fish, poultry, Peanut, peas, beans, and whole grains. However Milk, eggs, and cheese are poor source; however, they are good source of Tryptophan Tablet • Available in the form of tablet or capsule and Injectable forms as constituent of many multivitamin/mineral preparations 20 4/9/2024
  • 21. Function of vitamin B3 • As component of co-enzymes • Aids in release of energy from foods (Carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) • Involved in the synthesis of sex and adrenal hormones • Plays an important role in DNA repair mechanism • Reduces cholesterol, triglycerides and raises HDL cholesterol in the blood • Helps to threat pellagra and arthritis and prevents premenstrual headache 21 4/9/2024
  • 22. Deficiency of niacin(vitamin B3) • Common in the community where maize is staple food • Pellagra is characterized by a photosensitive dermatitis, affecting all parts of the skin that are exposed to sunlight such as the knees, elbows, wrists, and ankles • Advanced pellagra is also accompanied by dementia and there may be diarrhea if Untreated, it would result death Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA): • 6mg/1000kcal for adult • Excess intake (>500mg/d) can cause toxicity then to liver damage 22 4/9/2024
  • 24. VITAMIN B6 (Pyridoxine) • Generic descriptor of six vitamers • All converted to the metabolically active form, pyridoxal phosphate(PLP) • Pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and pyridoxine are all absorbed rapidly by passive diffusion • Unlike other water soluble vitamins, B6 stored in the muscle • 80% of the body’s total vitamin B6 is found in the muscle as pyridoxal phosphate, mostly associated with glycogen phosphorylase 24 4/9/2024
  • 25. Vitamin cont…  Food sources of vitamin B6 :  avocado, banana, carrot, lentils, Rice, Soybean , Sunflower seeds  Tablet:  Available in the form of tablet as constituent of multivitamin tablet  Active forms: Pyridoxine hydrochloride and pyridoxal-5- phosphate  Anti-TB drugs i.e. Isoniazide (INH) binds and inactivates the vitamin, and increases renal excretion  As a result the vitamin should be supplemented while prescribing INH 25 4/9/2024
  • 26. Function of vitamin B6 • Acts as co-enzyme for metabolic functions affecting protein, carbohydrates and fat utilization • Coenzyme in the first step in the synthesis of heme • Promotes conversion of tryptophan to niacin or serotonin • Involved in the production of several body proteins and neurot transmitters like serotonin, dopamine, melatonin and norepinephrine 26 4/9/2024
  • 27. Deficiency of vitamin B6  Symptoms of vitamin B-6 deficiency are non specific  Hormone-dependent cancer of the breast, uterus, and prostate  Mental confusion, Irritability, Nervousness , Insomnia, Poor coordination walking, Hyperactivity, Anaemia ,Skin lesions , Discoloration of tongue , Muscle twitching , Kidney stones, Depression, Convulsions, Glucose intolerance, Impaired nerve function , Cracked lips 27 4/9/2024
  • 28. Deficiency of vitamin B6 cont…  A hypo chromic, microcytic anaemia may also result from a vitamin B6 deficiency due to impaired heme synthesis  Impairs niacin synthesis from tryptophan, and inhibits metabolism of homocysteine. In turn results in hyper- homocysteinemia, a risk factor for heart disease 28 4/9/2024
  • 29. Vitamin cont…  RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA)  Protein intake largely affects vitamin B6 requirement as a result the reference intakes are based on 15–16 μg/g dietary protein  The therapeutic dose is between 50-100mg 29 4/9/2024
  • 30. Vitamin cont… Interaction with other substances  Alcohol: distracts and enhances excretion of B-6 in the body (acetaldehyde)  Tobacco-decreases Vitamin B-6 absorption  Estrogens or oral contraceptives: increase requirements of pyridoxine  Phenytoin: Large doses of B-6 accelerate break-down of Phenytoin Therefore individuals/clients taking these drugs require regular vitamin B-6 supplementation 30 4/9/2024
  • 31. Folic Acid (Vitamin B9)  One of water soluble vitamin which is also known as folacin or Folate, important for cell division  As a supplement, folic acid is almost completely available (especially if consumed on an empty stomach): 85% bioavailable.  Memory and abstract thinking appear to be influenced by folate. Cognitive dysfunction and dementia have been shown to correlate with plasma homocysteine concentrations, which in turn are influenced in part by folate status. 31 4/9/2024
  • 32. Function of folacin 1. It is critical to cellular division since it is necessary in DNA synthesis: 2. Protein synthesis: conversion of homocysteine to methionine 3. Regulate embryonic and Foetal development of nerve cells: 4. Promotes normal red blood cell formation 32 4/9/2024
  • 33. Folic acid cont…  FOOD SOURCES: generally fruits and vegetables are good sources, Beans , Barley Brewer's yeast , Calves' liver, Fruits , Green, leafy vegetables, Lentils Peas , Rice , Soybeans , Split peas , Sprouts , Wheat ,Wheat germ , Orange juice , Oranges  Available as: Tablets: in combination with iron and other multi-vitamins  Should be taken with meals or 1 to 1-1/2 hours after meals 33 4/9/2024
  • 34. Deficiency of folic acid 1. Megaloblastic anaemia During Folate deficiency there is release of immature precursors of RBC and red blood cells are large and uneven in size, have a shorter life span or are likely to have cell membranes rupture 2. Neural tube defect in the foetus 34 4/9/2024
  • 35. Folic acid cont… Recommended dietary allowance  Pregnant women need to be supplemented with folic acid at least 1 month before and 3 months after the onset of pregnancy 400microgram of folic acid  Pregnant women who has previous experience of giving birth of child with spina bifida 4gm of folic acid 35 4/9/2024
  • 36. Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)  Cobalt containing vitamin which is found only in animal foods.  Absorption of vitamin-B12 is made possible by binding with the intrinsic factor at the intestinal lumen  Intrinsic factor: are is a small glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa  Vitamin B12 is absorbed from the distal third of the ileum 36 4/9/2024
  • 37. Vitamin cont… FOOD SOURCES  Vitamin B-12 is found from foods of animal origin : Milk, milk products , Liver , Beef, Beef liver, Eggs , Kidney....  Available: in the form of tablet and Injectable forms  Tablets used as dietary supplements  Unlike other water-soluble vitamins, this vitamin is stored in the body tissues, approximately 50% in the liver, so a deficiency can take years to appear 37 4/9/2024
  • 39. Function of Cobalamin 1. Treats pernicious anaemia 2. Promotes formation of blood-cell 3. Plays an important role in protein synthesis 4. In combination with folic acid, it is necessary for the synthesis of DNA and for maintaining the myelin sheath that surrounds nerve cells and facilitates the signals along the neurotransmitters 39 4/9/2024
  • 40. DEFICIENCY OF VITAMIN B-12 1. Pernicious anaemia : commonly because of failure of the absorption of vitamin B12, rather than dietary deficiency  Problem with absorption may be due to failure of intrinsic factor secretion, as a result of autoimmune disease 2. Impaired brain and nervous system function: demylination of nerve fibbers in Central Nervous System 40 4/9/2024
  • 41. Vitamin cont…  Risk groups: vegetarians, people undergoes surgical removal of the stomach (parietal cells) or terminal ileum  People with parasitic infections such as tapeworms may develop a vitamin B12 deficiency because the parasite uses the vitamin  Problems causing decreased HCL secretion and IF production Recommended dietary allowance  Vegetarians are advised to obtain at least 100 mcg of B-12 each day 41 4/9/2024
  • 43. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)  Forms: Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid have vitamin activity  There is no specific storage organ for ascorbate; apart from leukocytes (which account for only 10% of total blood ascorbate) 43 4/9/2024
  • 44. Vitamin cont… Food Sources  Citrus Fruits and Green Leafy vegetables are common Sources Vitamin C like Oranges, Papayas , Potatoes , Tomatoes , Cabbage , Grapefruit , Green peppers , Lemons ...  Also available in the form of tablet (as constituent of other multi-vitamins) and Injectable forms 44 4/9/2024
  • 46. Function of Ascorbic Acid 1. Chief antioxidant 2. Helps to form collagen in connective tissue 3. Plays an important role in blood clotting system 4. Increases iron absorption from intestines 46 4/9/2024
  • 47. Deficiency of vitamin C 1. Scurvy: muscle weakness, swollen gums, loss of teeth, tiredness, depression, bleeding under skin, bleeding gums, Swollen or painful joints, Nose bleeds, Changes in personality and psychomotor performance 2. Anaemia and frequent infections 3. Delayed healing of wound and reopening of surgical wounds 47 4/9/2024
  • 49. Vitamin cont… RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA):  Adjusted depending on age, sex and other physiological factors • RDA is 90mg/day for adult men and 75 mg/day for adult women • Smokers require more as smoking causes oxidative stress  Intake of 20 mg/day is required for optimum wound healing 49 4/9/2024
  • 51. Vitamin-A  Fat soluble vitamin There are two forms 1. Retinoid: Includes retinol, retinaldehyde, retinoic acid and retinyl palmitate  Found only in foods of animal origin  Also known as Previtamin  Active and most absorbable type 51 4/9/2024
  • 52. Con’t… 2. Carotenoids: Includes carotenes and related compounds i.e. α, β,γ carotines and cryptoxanthin  Mostly found in plants based food groups  Also known as provitamin A  Less absorbable type 52 4/9/2024
  • 53. Cont…  50–80% of the total body content of retinol is stored in the liver  Peoples with protein-energy malnutrition are at risk for vitamin-A deficiency. WHY???  Vitamin A supplementation is found with reduction in overall mortality and morbidity in children <5 years 53 4/9/2024
  • 54. Cont… Food sources  Plant sources: Vitamin A is generally found in green leafy vegetables, yellow orange fruits in the form of B-carotene  Animal sources: found in the form of retinol: Liver , fish liver oil, Milk and Egg 54 4/9/2024
  • 55. Food sources of vitamin-A 55 4/9/2024
  • 56. Function of vitamin-A 1. Essential for normal function of retina 2. Builds body's resistance to respiratory infections 3. Helps to treat acne, impetigo, boils, and carbuncles, open ulcers when applied externally 4. Helps to form and maintain healthy skin, hair, and mucous membranes 6. Has anti oxidant function 7. For reproduction, tissue growth and differentiation56 4/9/2024
  • 57. Deficiency of vitamin-A 1. Increases Susceptibility to respiratory infection 2. Night blindness, eventual blindness if deficiency is severe and untreated 3. Lack of tear secretion (due to destruction of goblet cell) 4. Poor bone growth, Weak tooth enamel, Diarrhea , Slow growth 5. Dry, rough skin 6. Changes in mucous membranes 57 4/9/2024
  • 58. Clinical indicators of Vitamin A deficiency • Night blindness- the most common type • Bitot’s spot • Conjuctival xerosis • Corneal ulcer • keratomalacia 58 4/9/2024
  • 59. Strategies to alleviate vitamin-A deficiency  Breast Milk: source of Vit A  Food diversification  Vitamin-A Supplementation : mothers, infants & children: For infants 6-11 month: 100,000 IU (once) For children 12-59 month: 200,000 IU (at every 4-6 month) For lactating mothers: 200,000 IU  Food fortification  Public Heath Masures (Immunization, infection control) 59 4/9/2024
  • 61. Vitamin D (1,25, Dihydroxycholecalciferol) • The normal dietary form of vitamin D is Cholecalciferol (also known as calciol). This is also the compound that is formed in the skin by ultraviolet (UV) radiation of 7-dehydrocholesterol  Hence, can be synthesised under the skin it is not strictly an essential vitamin  Vitamin D is absorbed in lipid micelles and incorporated into Chylomicrons  Regulate the blood calcium level 61 4/9/2024
  • 62. Fig. The activation of vitamin D. 62 4/9/2024
  • 63. Function of vitamin-D  Regulates growth, hardening and repair of bone by controlling absorption of calcium and phosphorus from small intestine  Prevents rickets and other vitamin-D related deficiency disease  Promotes normal growth and development of infants and children, particularly bones and teeth  Food source: Sunlight plus subcutaneous fat, Vitamin D- fortified milk, Butter, Egg yolks , liver oil 63 4/9/2024
  • 64. Deficiency of vitamin-D 1. Rickets: under mineralization of bone as a result of poor absorption of calcium in the absence of adequate amounts of calcitriol. It is common problem among childhood and adolescents  Mostly black children • Symptoms: Bowed legs and knocked knees, malformations of joints or bones, late tooth development, weak muscles, double maleolus, Rachitic Rossary 64 4/9/2024
  • 67. Cont… 2. Osteomalacia (adult rickets): resulted from demineralization of bone and common among adult, old ages and women of reproductive age (pregnant women) 3. Osteoporosis: due to loss of bone matrix  Sign and symptom: pain in ribs, lower spine, pelvis and legs, muscle weakness and spasm, brittle, easily broken bones. 67 4/9/2024
  • 68. Vitamin E  Vitamin E is the generic descriptor for two families of compounds, the tocopherols and the tocotrienols  The tocotrienols have lower vitamin activity than tocopherols  Alpha-tocopherol, commonly known as Vitamin E, is the form found most in nature and the most biologically active 68 4/9/2024
  • 69. Cont… Food Sources  Vegetable oils are rich sources of vitamin E, but significant amounts are also found in nuts and seeds, most green leafy vegetables and a variety of fish  All vegetable oils(Apricot oil , Corn oil, Cottonseed oil, Peanut oil  Wheat germ, Whole-wheat flour , Margarine, Sunflower seeds 69 4/9/2024
  • 70. Functions  Unlike other vitamins, no unequivocal physiological function for vitamin E has been defined; since many of its functions can be replaced by synthetic antioxidants but is a known Chief antioxidant. 70 4/9/2024
  • 71. Cont… Deficiency  Dietary deficiency of vitamin E in human beings is unknown, • Premature infants and children: Irritability , Edema , Hemolytic anemia  Adults: Lethargy, Apathy, Muscle weakness, Causes infertility 71 4/9/2024
  • 72. Vitamin K  It is often suggested that about half of the requirement for vitamin K is met by intestinal bacterial synthesis.  Food sources: because of its role in photosynthesis, it is found in all green leafy vegetables, Soybeans, Cabbage , Green leafy vegetables, Oats Available as: • Tablets: Take with meals or 1 to 1-1/2 hours after meals • Injectable : administered by a health professional. NOTE: Vitamin K is not usually included in most multivitamin/mineral preparations 72 4/9/2024
  • 73. Functions  Prevents abnormal bleeding  Promotes health and strength of bone:  Prevents hemorrhagic disease of the newborn  Treats bleeding disorders due to Vitamin K deficiency 73 4/9/2024
  • 74. Deficiency Infants: • Failure to grow and develop • Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn: characterized by blood vomiting and bleeding from intestine, umbilical cord, circumcision site. Symptoms begin 2 or 3 days after birth Adults: • Abnormal blood clotting that can lead to nosebleeds, blood in urine, stomach bleeding, bleeding from capillaries or skin causing spontaneous black-and-blue marks, prolonged clotting time 74 4/9/2024
  • 75. CONT... RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCE (RDA):  No RDA has been established. Adequate and safe range is 2 mcg/kg body weight per day Overdose/ toxicity Signs and symptoms:  In infants: Brain damage.  In all: Large doses may impair liver function 75 4/9/2024
  • 76. Reading assignment on Pantothenic acid and Biotin 76 4/9/2024