SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Gross- Anatomy & Histology of
Tongue
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
Assistant Professor
Head of Department Anatomy
(Dentistry-BKCD)
B.D.S (SBDC), M.Phil. Anatomy (KMU),
Dip. Implant (Sharjah, Bangkok, ACHERS) , CHPE
(KMU),CHR (KMU), Dip. Arts (Florence, Italy)
Teaching Methodology
 LGF (Long Group Format)
 SGF (Short Group Format)
 LGD (Long Group Discussion, Interactive discussion with the use of models or diagrams)
 SGD (Short Group)
 SDL (Self-Directed Learning)
 DSL (Directed-Self Learning)
 PBL (Problem- Based Learning)
 Online Teaching Method
 Role Play
 Demonstrations
 Laboratory
 Museum
 Library (Computed Assisted Learning or E-Learning)
 Assignments
 Video tutorial method
Goal/Aim (main objective)
To help/facilitate/augment the students about the:
 Describe external features of tongue.
 Describe muscles of tongue, their origin and insertion, actions.
 Explain lymphatic drainage, blood and nerve supply of tongue.
 Enumerate relevant clinical problems tongue (glossitis, lingual tonsil,
carcinoma etc.).
 Describe histological features of tongue.
 Describe histological features of taste buds.
Specific Learning Objectives (cognitive)
At the end of the lecture the student will able to:
 Recognize the gross anatomical features of the external features of tongue.
 Describe muscles of tongue, their origin and insertion, actions.
 Explain lymphatic drainage, blood and nerve supply of tongue.
 Enumerate relevant clinical problems tongue (glossitis, lingual tonsil,
carcinoma etc.).
 Describe histological features of tongue.
 Describe histological features of taste buds.
 Sketch labeled diagram of the tongue histology
Psychomotor Objective: (Guided response)
 A student to draw labelled diagram of the tongue histology
Affective domain
 To be able to display a good code of conduct and moral values in the class.
 To cooperate with the teacher and in groups with the colleagues.
 To demonstrate a responsible behavior in the class and be punctual, regular, attentive and
on time in the class.
 To be able to perform well in the class under the guidance and supervision of the teacher.
 Study the topic before entering the class.
 Discuss among colleagues the topic under discussion in SGDs.
 Participate in group activities and museum classes and follow the rules.
 Volunteer to participate in psychomotor activities.
 Listen to the teacher's instructions carefully and follow the guidelines.
 Ask questions in the class by raising hand and avoid creating a disturbance.
 To be able to submit all assignments on time and get your sketch logbooks checked.
Lesson contents
Clinical chair side question: Students will be asked if they know what is the function
of
Outline:
 Activity 1 The facilitator will explain the student's Tongue Gross anatomy &
Histology
 Activity 2 The facilitator will ask the students to make a labeled diagram of the
histology of tongue
 Activity 3 The facilitator will ask the students a few Multiple Choice Questions
related to it with flashcards.
Recommendations
 Students assessment: MCQs, Flashcards, Diagrams labeling.
 Learning resources: Langman’s T.W. Sadler, Laiq Hussain Siddiqui, Snell
Clinical Anatomy, Netter’s Atlas, BD Chaurasia’s Human anatomy, Internet
sources links.
Gross Anatomy of Tongue
 EXTERNAL FEATURES OF TONGUE.
 MUSCLES OF TONGUE, THEIR ORIGIN, INSERTION & ACTIONS.
 LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE, BLOOD & NERVE SUPPLY OF TONGUE.
 ENUMERATE RELEVANT CLINICAL PROBLEMS TONGUE (GLOSSITIS, LINGUAL TONSIL, CARCINOMA ETC.).
Tongue
 Mass of striated muscle covered with
mucous membrane.
 Anterior 2/3rd: Lies in mouth
 Posterior 1/3rd: Lies in pharynx
 The muscles attach the tongue to:
Above: styloid process & soft palate
Below: mandible & hyoid bone.
 Its divided into right & left halves by
median fibrous septum.
Mucous Membrane of Tongue
A. Mucous Membrane of Upper Surface of Tongue is divided by a V-shaped sulcus, the
sulcus terminalis into:
 Anterior part
 Posterior part
 Apex of sulcus projects backward & is marked by a small pit, the foramen cecum
which is embryologic remnant & marks the site of upper end of thyroglossal duct.
 Sulcus serves to divide the tongue into:
a. Anterior 2/3rd (Oral part): 3 types of papillae are present on upper surface
1. Filiform papillae
2. Fungiform papillae
3. Vallate papillae.
b. Posterior 1/3rd (Pharyngeal part): devoid of papillae but has an irregular surface,
caused by presence of underlying lymph nodules, the lingual tonsil.
B. mucous membrane on inferior surface of
tongue is reflected from tongue to floor of the
mouth.
 In midline anteriorly, undersurface of tongue is
connected to floor of the mouth by a fold of
mucous membrane, the frenulum of tongue.
 On lateral side of frenulum, the deep lingual
vein can be seen through mucous membrane.
 Lateral to lingual vein, the mucous membrane
forms a fringed fold called the plica fimbriata
Muscles of the Tongue
Muscles of the Tongue
 Divided into two types:
A. Intrinsic Muscles
 Confined to tongue & are not
attached to bone.
 Consist of:
 Longitudinal Fibers
 Transverse Fibers
 Vertical Fibers
Nerve supply: Hypoglossal nerve
Action: Alters shape of tongue
B. Extrinsic Muscles
 Attached to bones & soft
palate.
 They are:
 Genioglossus
 Hyoglossus
 Styloglossus
 Palatoglossus.
Nerve supply: Hypoglossal nerve
Action: Depresses tongue, Draws
tongue upward and backward, Pulls
roots of tongue upward & backward,
Narrows oropharyngeal isthmus
Intrinsic Muscles
Extrinsic Muscles
Muscle Origin Insertion Nerve Supply Action
Intrinsic Muscles
Longitudinal
Median septum &
submucosa
Mucous membrane
Hypoglossal
nerve
Alters shape of
tongue
Transverse Vertical
Extrinsic Muscles
Genioglossus
Superior genial spine of
mandible
Blends with other
muscles of tongue
Hypoglossal
nerve
Protrudes apex
of tongue
through mouth
Hyoglossus
Body and greater cornu
of hyoid bone
Depresses
tongue
Styloglossus
Styloid process of
temporal bone
Draws tongue
upward and
backward
Palatoglossus Palatine aponeurosis Side of tongue Vagus Nerve
Pulls roots of
tongue upward
and backward,
narrows
oropharyngeal
isthmus
Movements of the Tongue
 Protrusion: Genioglossus muscles on both
sides acting together
 Retraction: Styloglossus & hyoglossus muscles
on both sides acting together
 Depression: Hyoglossus muscles on both sides
acting together
 Retraction and elevation of posterior third:
Styloglossus & Palatoglossus muscles on both
sides acting together
 Shape changes: Intrinsic muscles
Blood, Vein, Nerve & Lymphatic Supply
 Blood Supply
1. Lingual artery
2. Tonsillar branch of facial artery
3. Ascending pharyngeal artery
 Veins drain into internal jugular vein.
 Lymph Drainage
Tip: Submental lymph nodes
Sides of the anterior 2/3rd : Submandibular & deep cervical lymph nodes
Posterior 1/3rd : Deep cervical lymph nodes
Sensory Innervation
 Anterior 2/3rd :
General sensation: Lingual nerve
branch of mandibular division of
trigeminal nerve
Special Sensation (TASTE): Chorda
tympani branch of facial nerve (taste)
Excludes vallate papillae
 Posterior 1/3rd :
General sensation & taste:
Glossopharyngeal nerve
Includes vallate papillae
Mucous Membrane
covering Anterior
2/3rd of Tongue
Mucous Membrane
covering Poterior
1/3rd of Tongue
Posterior Most Part
of Tongue Root
Taste Sensation
(Sensory)
Chorda Tympani
(branch of facial
nerve) Excludes
vallate papillae
Glossopharyngeal
nerve (IX)
Includes vallate
papillae
Vagus nerve (via
Internal Laryngeal
branch)
General Sensation
(Sensory)
Lingual nerve
(Mandibular nerve
V3)
Glossopharyngeal
nerve
Internal Laryngeal
nerve (X) branch of
vagus
Intrinsic Muscles
(Motor)
All supplied by Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)
Extrinsic Muscles
(Motor)
All supplied by Hypoglossal nerve except Palato-glossus
muscle= Supplied by Pharyngeal Plexus (X,XI), cranial root of
accessory nerve
Clinical Correlation
Clinical Correlation
Laceration of the Tongue
 caused by patient’s teeth following a blow on chin
 Accidental bites tongue while eating
 During recovery from an aesthetic,
 During an epileptic attack.
 Bleeding is halted by grasping tongue between
the finger & thumb posterior to laceration,
occluding branches of lingual artery.
Lingual Tonsils- Tonsillitis
Fissured Tongue
Canker Sore Tongue
Taste Concerns
Lymphangioma
Glossitis
 Inflammation of tongue (Red, smooth, sore tongue)
 Maybe
a. Primary:
 Bacterial or Viral Infections
 Mechanical imitation from tooth, dentures ect
 Tobacco, Hot food & Alcohol
 Allergy to toothpaste, mouthwash etc
a. Secondary
 Benign or Malignant
Hairy appearance of tongue
Ankyloglossia
Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome
Oral cancer
Papilloma
Burning tongue
Angioedema
Thrush
Leukoplakia
Neuralgia
 Blood vessels pressing
on the glossopharyngeal
nerve.
 Growths at the base of
the skull pressing on the
glossopharyngeal nerve.
 Tumors or infections of
the throat and mouth
pressing on the
glossopharyngeal nerve
Trauma
Streptococcal pharyngitis
Vitamin deficiency
 vitamin B-12.
 iron.
 folate.
 zinc
Discoloration
Smoking
 Smoker's Melanosis
 Periodontal Disease
 Nicotinic Stomatitis
 Smokeless Tobacco Induced Changes
 Gingival Recession & Tooth Abrasion
 Black Hairy Tongue
 Oral Cancer
Anemia
Histology of Tongue
HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF:
 TONGUE.
 TASTE BUDS.
Tongue
 Mass of skeletal muscle
covered by mucous
membrane & fibers cross
eachother in 3 directions:
1. Longitudinal
2. Transverse
3. Vertical
 Mucous membrane adherent to muscle consists of:
1. Epithelium: Stratified Squamous being
a. Ventral (Lower): Surface: Non-Keratinized
b. Dorsal (upper): Keratinized, it is rough & irregular &
divided by sulcus terminalis into:
 Anterior 2/3rd
 Posterior 1/3rd : appears to be irregular nodular
because the root of tongue lodge aggregations of
lymphatic nodules which constitute Lingual tonsils;
Epithelium crypts are associated with these
aggregations
2. Lamina Propria
Lingual Papillae
1. FILIFORM PAPILLAE
2. FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE
3. CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE
4. FOLIATE PAPILLAE
Lingual Papillae
 Anterior 2/3rd on dorsal surface of
tongue are rough due to lingual
papillae
 These papillae formed of central core of
connective tissue & covering layer of
stratified squamous epithelium
 Classified into 4 types
1. Filiform Papillae
2. Fungiform Papillae
3. Circumvillate Papillae
4. Foliate Papillae
1. Filiform Papillae
 Thread-Like/ Slender-form called
filliform
 Donot have taste buds
 Most numerous and smallest
 Distributed over entire dorsal surface of
tongue body ( anterior 2/3rd)
 Covered by stratified squamous
keratinized epithelium that tapers to a
point which is directed backwards.
2. Fungiform Papillae
 Scattered among filiform papillae
 Abundant close to tip of tongue
 Mushroom shape with narrow stalk &
dilated upper part
 Covered by stratified squamous non-
keratinized epithelium
 Taste buds located on dorsal surface
3. Circumvallate Papillae (Vallate)
 Large domed shaped structures present in lingual mucosa just anterior & parallel to sulcus
terminalis
 8-12 present in human tongue
 They sunk into lingual mucosa & is surrounded by a deep trench like groove lined by Stratified
Squamous Non-Keratinized Epithelium. The papillae are covered by same type of
epithelium
 Numerous taste buds located in epithelial lining of groove & on sides (not on dorsum) of
circumvallate papillae.
 Ducts of Von Ebner’s Glands (Lingual Salivary glands of serous variety) open into base of
grooves surrounding these papillae
 The watery secretion of these galnds serves to flush food materials out of groove surrounding
the circumvallate papillae, so that taste buds can respond to the rapidly changing taste
stimuli
4. Foliate Papillae
 Minimally developed in humans
 Occurs on sides of tongue as
parallel low ridges separated by deep
mucosal furrows
 Easily identifiable on tongue of
young children but undergo gradual
atrophy and in aged person
unrecognizable
Glands of Tongue
1. ANTERIOR LINGUAL GLANDS
2. GLANDS OF VON EBNER
3. MUCOUS GLANDS OF THE ROOT
Glands of Tongue
 3 main groups of simple tubular (Tubulo-acinar glands) occur in
tongue:
1. Anterior Lingual Gland: Constitute paired group of mixed
(Seromucous) glands located under tip of tongue. Embedded in
muscle & their ducts opens on ventral surface of tongue
2. Gland of Von Ebner: Group of purely serous glands located in the
region of circumvallate papillae. They extend into muscle & their ducts
open into grooves surrounding the circumvallate papillae. Watery
secretions of these glands washes away food particles these grooves ,
allowing reception of new gustatory stimuli by the taste buds of
Circumvallate papillae.
3. Mucous Glands of the Root: Numerous small purely mucous
glands lie in posterior 1/3rd of tongue. Their ducts opens in crypts of
lingual tonsils
Taste Buds
Taste Buds
 Receptors of taste sensations
1. Located on dorsal surface of body of tongue
2. Soft palate
3. Laryngeal surface of epiglottis
 Lingual Taste buds: are embedded within stratified squamous epithelium
covering the fungiform & circumvallate papillae & rest on basal lamina of
epithelium.
 H&E stain: Taste bud appears as:
Oval
Pale staining body 70-80 micro m long & 40-50 m wide
 Taste bud extends through full thickness of epithelium covering the papillae
 Stained sections: taste buds appears distinctly paler than epithelium. The
apex of each taste bud communicates with the oral cavity through a small
aperture called Taste Pore.
 Taste bud is composed of 50-90 cells
classified into following 3 types:
1. Sustentacular Cells (Supporting cells)
2. Neuroepithelial cells (Taste Cells)
3. Basal Cells
1. Sustentacular cells
 Supporting cells
 Elongated cells extends from basal lamina
to taste pore
 Apical end : these cells bear long
microvilli that project into taste pore
 2 Varieties
1. Dark Cells: Type -I
2. Light Cells: Type-II
2. Neuroepithelial cells / Taste cells
 Taste cells or Type-III cells
 Gustatory receptor cells
 Elongated, Tall columnar cells extends from
basal lamina to taste pore & bear long
microvilli that project into taste pore
 Base: taste cells form synapses with
afferent nerve fibers through which taste
sensation is conveyed to CNS
 Apical End: Neuroepithelial &
sustentacular are joined to each other &
surrounding epithelial cells by tight junctions
3. Basal cells
 Small cells
 Located close to basal lamina
 Serve as stem cells for other cells of taste
buds
 Divide & Differentiate into Sustentacular &
Taste cells to regenerate these cells
 Average life span 10days.
Thank You

More Related Content

Similar to Gross Anatomy and Histology of Tongue by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx

Tongue development,anatomy,prosthetic consideration
Tongue development,anatomy,prosthetic considerationTongue development,anatomy,prosthetic consideration
Tongue development,anatomy,prosthetic consideration
Nandana Bose
 
Human tongue for mbbs first year.pptx
Human tongue for mbbs first year.pptxHuman tongue for mbbs first year.pptx
Human tongue for mbbs first year.pptx
SagarJana15
 
Tongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminar
Tongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminarTongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminar
Tongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminar
adifay wan
 
Surgical anatomy of tongue
Surgical anatomy of tongueSurgical anatomy of tongue
Surgical anatomy of tongue
siddharth verma
 
Tongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implications
Tongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implicationsTongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implications
Tongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implications
Dr. KRITI TREHAN
 
Tongue
TongueTongue
Tongue
TongueTongue
MSD ASSESSMENT MASLP
MSD ASSESSMENT MASLPMSD ASSESSMENT MASLP
MSD ASSESSMENT MASLP
HimaniBansal15
 
Tongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.S
Tongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.STongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.S
Tongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.S
mgmcri1234
 
Tongue
Tongue   Tongue
Tongue
Minerva Singh
 
tongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptx
tongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptxtongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptx
tongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptx
PrashantBaviskar10
 
tongue and palate
tongue and palatetongue and palate
tongue and palate
dipalmawani91
 
Anatomy of the Oral cavity Proper
Anatomy of the Oral cavity ProperAnatomy of the Oral cavity Proper
Anatomy of the Oral cavity Proper
Rahaf Sn
 
Oma lab 1
Oma lab 1Oma lab 1
Oma lab 1
Huang Yu-Wen
 
Nose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Nose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxNose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Nose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Anatomy of tongue & its applied aspects
Anatomy of tongue & its applied aspectsAnatomy of tongue & its applied aspects
Anatomy of tongue & its applied aspects
Anchal Mehra
 
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptxMaxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Tongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDS
Tongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDSTongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDS
Tongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDS
GAURAVVARMA34
 
The Tongue
The TongueThe Tongue
Seminar on tongue /prosthodontic courses
Seminar on tongue /prosthodontic coursesSeminar on tongue /prosthodontic courses
Seminar on tongue /prosthodontic courses
Indian dental academy
 

Similar to Gross Anatomy and Histology of Tongue by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx (20)

Tongue development,anatomy,prosthetic consideration
Tongue development,anatomy,prosthetic considerationTongue development,anatomy,prosthetic consideration
Tongue development,anatomy,prosthetic consideration
 
Human tongue for mbbs first year.pptx
Human tongue for mbbs first year.pptxHuman tongue for mbbs first year.pptx
Human tongue for mbbs first year.pptx
 
Tongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminar
Tongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminarTongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminar
Tongue & its prosthetic coniderations seminar
 
Surgical anatomy of tongue
Surgical anatomy of tongueSurgical anatomy of tongue
Surgical anatomy of tongue
 
Tongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implications
Tongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implicationsTongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implications
Tongue development, applied anatomy and prosthetic implications
 
Tongue
TongueTongue
Tongue
 
Tongue
TongueTongue
Tongue
 
MSD ASSESSMENT MASLP
MSD ASSESSMENT MASLPMSD ASSESSMENT MASLP
MSD ASSESSMENT MASLP
 
Tongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.S
Tongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.STongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.S
Tongue-Gross Anatomy & Applied Aspects. Dr.N.Mugunthan.M.S
 
Tongue
Tongue   Tongue
Tongue
 
tongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptx
tongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptxtongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptx
tongue and malocclusion - Copy.pptx
 
tongue and palate
tongue and palatetongue and palate
tongue and palate
 
Anatomy of the Oral cavity Proper
Anatomy of the Oral cavity ProperAnatomy of the Oral cavity Proper
Anatomy of the Oral cavity Proper
 
Oma lab 1
Oma lab 1Oma lab 1
Oma lab 1
 
Nose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Nose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxNose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Nose-Nasal Cavity & Paranasal Sinuses BY Dr.Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Anatomy of tongue & its applied aspects
Anatomy of tongue & its applied aspectsAnatomy of tongue & its applied aspects
Anatomy of tongue & its applied aspects
 
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptxMaxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone by Dr. RIG.pptx
 
Tongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDS
Tongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDSTongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDS
Tongue and malocclusion - by DR. GAURAV VARMA . MDS
 
The Tongue
The TongueThe Tongue
The Tongue
 
Seminar on tongue /prosthodontic courses
Seminar on tongue /prosthodontic coursesSeminar on tongue /prosthodontic courses
Seminar on tongue /prosthodontic courses
 

More from Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore

BONE MARKINGS Part 3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
BONE MARKINGS Part  3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxBONE MARKINGS Part  3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
BONE MARKINGS Part 3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Lymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Lymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxLymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Lymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
MUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptx
MUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptxMUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptx
MUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Introduction To General Anatomy (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy  (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptxIntroduction To General Anatomy  (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Introduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptxIntroduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Cerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptx
Cerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptxCerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptx
Cerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Cerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptx
Cerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptxCerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptx
Cerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxMuscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxVestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxEar and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxThyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Cervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptx
Cervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptxCervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptx
Cervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Superficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptx
Superficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptxSuperficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptx
Superficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Triangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptx
Triangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptxTriangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptx
Triangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Pictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdf
Pictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdfPictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdf
Pictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdf
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptxMaxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Temporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptx
Temporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptxTemporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptx
Temporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Temporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptx
Temporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptxTemporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptx
Temporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptxThe Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Face and Muscles of facial expression.pptx
Face and Muscles of facial expression.pptxFace and Muscles of facial expression.pptx
Face and Muscles of facial expression.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 

More from Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore (20)

BONE MARKINGS Part 3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
BONE MARKINGS Part  3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxBONE MARKINGS Part  3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
BONE MARKINGS Part 3 by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Lymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Lymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxLymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Lymphatic System of Human Body by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
MUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptx
MUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptxMUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptx
MUSCLES OF HUMAN BODY GENERAL ANATOMY .pptx
 
Introduction To General Anatomy (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy  (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptxIntroduction To General Anatomy  (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy (muscle and body systems) Parrt 2.pptx
 
Introduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptxIntroduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptx
Introduction To General Anatomy Part 1.pptx
 
Cerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptx
Cerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptxCerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptx
Cerebral Cortex and clinical correlations.pptx
 
Cerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptx
Cerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptxCerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptx
Cerebrum & White Matter and Clinical Correlations.pptx
 
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxMuscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Muscles of Mastication by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxVestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxEar and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxThyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Thyroid Gland- Gross Anatomy by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Cervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptx
Cervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptxCervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptx
Cervical & Brachial Plexus By Dr. RIG.pptx
 
Superficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptx
Superficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptxSuperficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptx
Superficial & Deep Fascia of the NECK.pptx
 
Triangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptx
Triangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptxTriangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptx
Triangles of Neck and Clinical Correlation by Dr. RIG.pptx
 
Pictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdf
Pictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdfPictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdf
Pictures of Superficial & Deep Fascia.ppt.pdf
 
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptxMaxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptx
Maxilla, Mandible & Hyoid Bone & Clinical Correlations by Dr. RIG.pptx
 
Temporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptx
Temporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptxTemporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptx
Temporomandibular Joint By RABIA INAM GANDAPORE.pptx
 
Temporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptx
Temporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptxTemporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptx
Temporal, Infratemporal & Pterygopalatine BY Dr.RIG.pptx
 
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptxThe Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
The Orbit & its contents by Dr. Rabia I. Gandapore.pptx
 
Face and Muscles of facial expression.pptx
Face and Muscles of facial expression.pptxFace and Muscles of facial expression.pptx
Face and Muscles of facial expression.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdfCardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
shivalingatalekar1
 
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
chandankumarsmartiso
 
Top 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in India
Top 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in IndiaTop 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in India
Top 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in India
Swastik Ayurveda
 
ARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTS
ARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTSARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTS
ARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTS
Dr. Vinay Pareek
 
Novas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidade
Novas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidadeNovas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidade
Novas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidade
Prof. Marcus Renato de Carvalho
 
The Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in India
The Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in IndiaThe Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in India
The Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in India
Swastik Ayurveda
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
rishi2789
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
rishi2789
 
Physiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdf
Physiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdfPhysiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdf
Physiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdf
MedicoseAcademics
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
rishi2789
 
Non-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdf
Non-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdfNon-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdf
Non-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdf
MedicoseAcademics
 
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in DehradunDehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
chandankumarsmartiso
 
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptxTests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
taiba qazi
 
Management of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptx
Management of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptxManagement of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptx
Management of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptx
AkshaySarraf1
 
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in AyurvedaEfficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Dr. Jyothirmai Paindla
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
NephroTube - Dr.Gawad
 
Sex determination from mandible pelvis and skull
Sex determination from mandible pelvis and skullSex determination from mandible pelvis and skull
Sex determination from mandible pelvis and skull
ShashankRoodkee
 
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptxREGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
LaniyaNasrink
 
share - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptx
share - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptxshare - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptx
share - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptx
Tina Purnat
 
micro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdf
micro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdfmicro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdf
micro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdf
Anurag Sharma
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdfCardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
Cardiac Assessment for B.sc Nursing Student.pdf
 
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
#cALL# #gIRLS# In Dehradun ꧁❤8107221448❤꧂#cALL# #gIRLS# Service In Dehradun W...
 
Top 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in India
Top 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in IndiaTop 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in India
Top 10 Best Ayurvedic Kidney Stone Syrups in India
 
ARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTS
ARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTSARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTS
ARTHROLOGY PPT NCISM SYLLABUS AYURVEDA STUDENTS
 
Novas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidade
Novas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidadeNovas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidade
Novas diretrizes da OMS para os cuidados perinatais de mais qualidade
 
The Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in India
The Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in IndiaThe Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in India
The Best Ayurvedic Antacid Tablets in India
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 3_ANTIFUNGAL AGENT.pdf
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
 
Physiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdf
Physiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdfPhysiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdf
Physiology of Chemical Sensation of smell.pdf
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
 
Non-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdf
Non-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdfNon-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdf
Non-respiratory Functions of the Lungs.pdf
 
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in DehradunDehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
Dehradun #ℂall #gIRLS Oyo Hotel 8107221448 #ℂall #gIRL in Dehradun
 
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptxTests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
 
Management of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptx
Management of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptxManagement of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptx
Management of Traumatic Splenic injury.pptx
 
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in AyurvedaEfficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
 
Sex determination from mandible pelvis and skull
Sex determination from mandible pelvis and skullSex determination from mandible pelvis and skull
Sex determination from mandible pelvis and skull
 
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptxREGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
REGULATION FOR COMBINATION PRODUCTS AND MEDICAL DEVICES.pptx
 
share - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptx
share - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptxshare - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptx
share - Lions, tigers, AI and health misinformation, oh my!.pptx
 
micro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdf
micro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdfmicro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdf
micro teaching on communication m.sc nursing.pdf
 

Gross Anatomy and Histology of Tongue by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx

  • 1. Gross- Anatomy & Histology of Tongue Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore Assistant Professor Head of Department Anatomy (Dentistry-BKCD) B.D.S (SBDC), M.Phil. Anatomy (KMU), Dip. Implant (Sharjah, Bangkok, ACHERS) , CHPE (KMU),CHR (KMU), Dip. Arts (Florence, Italy)
  • 2. Teaching Methodology  LGF (Long Group Format)  SGF (Short Group Format)  LGD (Long Group Discussion, Interactive discussion with the use of models or diagrams)  SGD (Short Group)  SDL (Self-Directed Learning)  DSL (Directed-Self Learning)  PBL (Problem- Based Learning)  Online Teaching Method  Role Play  Demonstrations  Laboratory  Museum  Library (Computed Assisted Learning or E-Learning)  Assignments  Video tutorial method
  • 3. Goal/Aim (main objective) To help/facilitate/augment the students about the:  Describe external features of tongue.  Describe muscles of tongue, their origin and insertion, actions.  Explain lymphatic drainage, blood and nerve supply of tongue.  Enumerate relevant clinical problems tongue (glossitis, lingual tonsil, carcinoma etc.).  Describe histological features of tongue.  Describe histological features of taste buds.
  • 4. Specific Learning Objectives (cognitive) At the end of the lecture the student will able to:  Recognize the gross anatomical features of the external features of tongue.  Describe muscles of tongue, their origin and insertion, actions.  Explain lymphatic drainage, blood and nerve supply of tongue.  Enumerate relevant clinical problems tongue (glossitis, lingual tonsil, carcinoma etc.).  Describe histological features of tongue.  Describe histological features of taste buds.  Sketch labeled diagram of the tongue histology
  • 5. Psychomotor Objective: (Guided response)  A student to draw labelled diagram of the tongue histology
  • 6. Affective domain  To be able to display a good code of conduct and moral values in the class.  To cooperate with the teacher and in groups with the colleagues.  To demonstrate a responsible behavior in the class and be punctual, regular, attentive and on time in the class.  To be able to perform well in the class under the guidance and supervision of the teacher.  Study the topic before entering the class.  Discuss among colleagues the topic under discussion in SGDs.  Participate in group activities and museum classes and follow the rules.  Volunteer to participate in psychomotor activities.  Listen to the teacher's instructions carefully and follow the guidelines.  Ask questions in the class by raising hand and avoid creating a disturbance.  To be able to submit all assignments on time and get your sketch logbooks checked.
  • 7. Lesson contents Clinical chair side question: Students will be asked if they know what is the function of Outline:  Activity 1 The facilitator will explain the student's Tongue Gross anatomy & Histology  Activity 2 The facilitator will ask the students to make a labeled diagram of the histology of tongue  Activity 3 The facilitator will ask the students a few Multiple Choice Questions related to it with flashcards.
  • 8. Recommendations  Students assessment: MCQs, Flashcards, Diagrams labeling.  Learning resources: Langman’s T.W. Sadler, Laiq Hussain Siddiqui, Snell Clinical Anatomy, Netter’s Atlas, BD Chaurasia’s Human anatomy, Internet sources links.
  • 9. Gross Anatomy of Tongue  EXTERNAL FEATURES OF TONGUE.  MUSCLES OF TONGUE, THEIR ORIGIN, INSERTION & ACTIONS.  LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE, BLOOD & NERVE SUPPLY OF TONGUE.  ENUMERATE RELEVANT CLINICAL PROBLEMS TONGUE (GLOSSITIS, LINGUAL TONSIL, CARCINOMA ETC.).
  • 10. Tongue  Mass of striated muscle covered with mucous membrane.  Anterior 2/3rd: Lies in mouth  Posterior 1/3rd: Lies in pharynx  The muscles attach the tongue to: Above: styloid process & soft palate Below: mandible & hyoid bone.  Its divided into right & left halves by median fibrous septum.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Mucous Membrane of Tongue A. Mucous Membrane of Upper Surface of Tongue is divided by a V-shaped sulcus, the sulcus terminalis into:  Anterior part  Posterior part  Apex of sulcus projects backward & is marked by a small pit, the foramen cecum which is embryologic remnant & marks the site of upper end of thyroglossal duct.  Sulcus serves to divide the tongue into: a. Anterior 2/3rd (Oral part): 3 types of papillae are present on upper surface 1. Filiform papillae 2. Fungiform papillae 3. Vallate papillae. b. Posterior 1/3rd (Pharyngeal part): devoid of papillae but has an irregular surface, caused by presence of underlying lymph nodules, the lingual tonsil.
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. B. mucous membrane on inferior surface of tongue is reflected from tongue to floor of the mouth.  In midline anteriorly, undersurface of tongue is connected to floor of the mouth by a fold of mucous membrane, the frenulum of tongue.  On lateral side of frenulum, the deep lingual vein can be seen through mucous membrane.  Lateral to lingual vein, the mucous membrane forms a fringed fold called the plica fimbriata
  • 17.
  • 18. Muscles of the Tongue
  • 19. Muscles of the Tongue  Divided into two types: A. Intrinsic Muscles  Confined to tongue & are not attached to bone.  Consist of:  Longitudinal Fibers  Transverse Fibers  Vertical Fibers Nerve supply: Hypoglossal nerve Action: Alters shape of tongue B. Extrinsic Muscles  Attached to bones & soft palate.  They are:  Genioglossus  Hyoglossus  Styloglossus  Palatoglossus. Nerve supply: Hypoglossal nerve Action: Depresses tongue, Draws tongue upward and backward, Pulls roots of tongue upward & backward, Narrows oropharyngeal isthmus
  • 22. Muscle Origin Insertion Nerve Supply Action Intrinsic Muscles Longitudinal Median septum & submucosa Mucous membrane Hypoglossal nerve Alters shape of tongue Transverse Vertical Extrinsic Muscles Genioglossus Superior genial spine of mandible Blends with other muscles of tongue Hypoglossal nerve Protrudes apex of tongue through mouth Hyoglossus Body and greater cornu of hyoid bone Depresses tongue Styloglossus Styloid process of temporal bone Draws tongue upward and backward Palatoglossus Palatine aponeurosis Side of tongue Vagus Nerve Pulls roots of tongue upward and backward, narrows oropharyngeal isthmus
  • 23.
  • 24. Movements of the Tongue  Protrusion: Genioglossus muscles on both sides acting together  Retraction: Styloglossus & hyoglossus muscles on both sides acting together  Depression: Hyoglossus muscles on both sides acting together  Retraction and elevation of posterior third: Styloglossus & Palatoglossus muscles on both sides acting together  Shape changes: Intrinsic muscles
  • 25. Blood, Vein, Nerve & Lymphatic Supply  Blood Supply 1. Lingual artery 2. Tonsillar branch of facial artery 3. Ascending pharyngeal artery  Veins drain into internal jugular vein.  Lymph Drainage Tip: Submental lymph nodes Sides of the anterior 2/3rd : Submandibular & deep cervical lymph nodes Posterior 1/3rd : Deep cervical lymph nodes
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. Sensory Innervation  Anterior 2/3rd : General sensation: Lingual nerve branch of mandibular division of trigeminal nerve Special Sensation (TASTE): Chorda tympani branch of facial nerve (taste) Excludes vallate papillae  Posterior 1/3rd : General sensation & taste: Glossopharyngeal nerve Includes vallate papillae
  • 29.
  • 30. Mucous Membrane covering Anterior 2/3rd of Tongue Mucous Membrane covering Poterior 1/3rd of Tongue Posterior Most Part of Tongue Root Taste Sensation (Sensory) Chorda Tympani (branch of facial nerve) Excludes vallate papillae Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) Includes vallate papillae Vagus nerve (via Internal Laryngeal branch) General Sensation (Sensory) Lingual nerve (Mandibular nerve V3) Glossopharyngeal nerve Internal Laryngeal nerve (X) branch of vagus Intrinsic Muscles (Motor) All supplied by Hypoglossal Nerve (XII) Extrinsic Muscles (Motor) All supplied by Hypoglossal nerve except Palato-glossus muscle= Supplied by Pharyngeal Plexus (X,XI), cranial root of accessory nerve
  • 32. Clinical Correlation Laceration of the Tongue  caused by patient’s teeth following a blow on chin  Accidental bites tongue while eating  During recovery from an aesthetic,  During an epileptic attack.  Bleeding is halted by grasping tongue between the finger & thumb posterior to laceration, occluding branches of lingual artery.
  • 38. Glossitis  Inflammation of tongue (Red, smooth, sore tongue)  Maybe a. Primary:  Bacterial or Viral Infections  Mechanical imitation from tooth, dentures ect  Tobacco, Hot food & Alcohol  Allergy to toothpaste, mouthwash etc a. Secondary  Benign or Malignant
  • 48. Neuralgia  Blood vessels pressing on the glossopharyngeal nerve.  Growths at the base of the skull pressing on the glossopharyngeal nerve.  Tumors or infections of the throat and mouth pressing on the glossopharyngeal nerve
  • 51. Vitamin deficiency  vitamin B-12.  iron.  folate.  zinc
  • 53. Smoking  Smoker's Melanosis  Periodontal Disease  Nicotinic Stomatitis  Smokeless Tobacco Induced Changes  Gingival Recession & Tooth Abrasion  Black Hairy Tongue  Oral Cancer
  • 55. Histology of Tongue HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF:  TONGUE.  TASTE BUDS.
  • 56. Tongue  Mass of skeletal muscle covered by mucous membrane & fibers cross eachother in 3 directions: 1. Longitudinal 2. Transverse 3. Vertical
  • 57.
  • 58.  Mucous membrane adherent to muscle consists of: 1. Epithelium: Stratified Squamous being a. Ventral (Lower): Surface: Non-Keratinized b. Dorsal (upper): Keratinized, it is rough & irregular & divided by sulcus terminalis into:  Anterior 2/3rd  Posterior 1/3rd : appears to be irregular nodular because the root of tongue lodge aggregations of lymphatic nodules which constitute Lingual tonsils; Epithelium crypts are associated with these aggregations 2. Lamina Propria
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61. Lingual Papillae 1. FILIFORM PAPILLAE 2. FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE 3. CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE 4. FOLIATE PAPILLAE
  • 62. Lingual Papillae  Anterior 2/3rd on dorsal surface of tongue are rough due to lingual papillae  These papillae formed of central core of connective tissue & covering layer of stratified squamous epithelium  Classified into 4 types 1. Filiform Papillae 2. Fungiform Papillae 3. Circumvillate Papillae 4. Foliate Papillae
  • 63. 1. Filiform Papillae  Thread-Like/ Slender-form called filliform  Donot have taste buds  Most numerous and smallest  Distributed over entire dorsal surface of tongue body ( anterior 2/3rd)  Covered by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that tapers to a point which is directed backwards.
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66.
  • 67. 2. Fungiform Papillae  Scattered among filiform papillae  Abundant close to tip of tongue  Mushroom shape with narrow stalk & dilated upper part  Covered by stratified squamous non- keratinized epithelium  Taste buds located on dorsal surface
  • 68. 3. Circumvallate Papillae (Vallate)  Large domed shaped structures present in lingual mucosa just anterior & parallel to sulcus terminalis  8-12 present in human tongue  They sunk into lingual mucosa & is surrounded by a deep trench like groove lined by Stratified Squamous Non-Keratinized Epithelium. The papillae are covered by same type of epithelium  Numerous taste buds located in epithelial lining of groove & on sides (not on dorsum) of circumvallate papillae.  Ducts of Von Ebner’s Glands (Lingual Salivary glands of serous variety) open into base of grooves surrounding these papillae  The watery secretion of these galnds serves to flush food materials out of groove surrounding the circumvallate papillae, so that taste buds can respond to the rapidly changing taste stimuli
  • 69.
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72. 4. Foliate Papillae  Minimally developed in humans  Occurs on sides of tongue as parallel low ridges separated by deep mucosal furrows  Easily identifiable on tongue of young children but undergo gradual atrophy and in aged person unrecognizable
  • 73. Glands of Tongue 1. ANTERIOR LINGUAL GLANDS 2. GLANDS OF VON EBNER 3. MUCOUS GLANDS OF THE ROOT
  • 74. Glands of Tongue  3 main groups of simple tubular (Tubulo-acinar glands) occur in tongue: 1. Anterior Lingual Gland: Constitute paired group of mixed (Seromucous) glands located under tip of tongue. Embedded in muscle & their ducts opens on ventral surface of tongue 2. Gland of Von Ebner: Group of purely serous glands located in the region of circumvallate papillae. They extend into muscle & their ducts open into grooves surrounding the circumvallate papillae. Watery secretions of these glands washes away food particles these grooves , allowing reception of new gustatory stimuli by the taste buds of Circumvallate papillae. 3. Mucous Glands of the Root: Numerous small purely mucous glands lie in posterior 1/3rd of tongue. Their ducts opens in crypts of lingual tonsils
  • 75.
  • 76.
  • 78. Taste Buds  Receptors of taste sensations 1. Located on dorsal surface of body of tongue 2. Soft palate 3. Laryngeal surface of epiglottis  Lingual Taste buds: are embedded within stratified squamous epithelium covering the fungiform & circumvallate papillae & rest on basal lamina of epithelium.  H&E stain: Taste bud appears as: Oval Pale staining body 70-80 micro m long & 40-50 m wide  Taste bud extends through full thickness of epithelium covering the papillae  Stained sections: taste buds appears distinctly paler than epithelium. The apex of each taste bud communicates with the oral cavity through a small aperture called Taste Pore.
  • 79.
  • 80.
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.  Taste bud is composed of 50-90 cells classified into following 3 types: 1. Sustentacular Cells (Supporting cells) 2. Neuroepithelial cells (Taste Cells) 3. Basal Cells
  • 84.
  • 85. 1. Sustentacular cells  Supporting cells  Elongated cells extends from basal lamina to taste pore  Apical end : these cells bear long microvilli that project into taste pore  2 Varieties 1. Dark Cells: Type -I 2. Light Cells: Type-II
  • 86. 2. Neuroepithelial cells / Taste cells  Taste cells or Type-III cells  Gustatory receptor cells  Elongated, Tall columnar cells extends from basal lamina to taste pore & bear long microvilli that project into taste pore  Base: taste cells form synapses with afferent nerve fibers through which taste sensation is conveyed to CNS  Apical End: Neuroepithelial & sustentacular are joined to each other & surrounding epithelial cells by tight junctions
  • 87. 3. Basal cells  Small cells  Located close to basal lamina  Serve as stem cells for other cells of taste buds  Divide & Differentiate into Sustentacular & Taste cells to regenerate these cells  Average life span 10days.
  • 88.