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CELL
SUSPENSION
CULTURE
Anushi Jain
Roll No. : 8
MSc. II
Paper I
Introduction
 Plant Tissue Culture (PTC) is defined as a collection
of experimental methods of growing plant cells, tissues
and organs in an artificially prepared nutrient medium
static or liquid, under aseptic conditions.
 It is also referred to as micropropagation.
 It was introduced by G. Haberlandt.
 The basic key used in plant tissue culture is the
totipotency of plant cells, meaning that each plant cell
has the potential to regenerate into a complete plant.
 With this characteristic, plant tissue culture is used to
produce genetically identical plants (clones) in the
absence of fertilization, pollination or seeds.
Cell suspension Culture
 The cell suspension culture also called as the
plant cell culture is a system for production of
fine chemicals.
 It can be defined as “The culture of tissue and
cells cultured in liquid nutrient medium, producing
a suspension of single cells and cell clumps.”
 Cell suspension culture is the primary route for
studying plant cell secondary metabolism.
 The cell suspension culture requires optimization
of the cell line, the cultivation media, and the
bioreactor system.
Types Of Cell Suspension
Cultures
 There are two types of cell suspension
cultures :
A. Batch culture
B. Continuous culture
 Each of these cultures have its own
advantage and all types are being used in
practice.
A. Batch Culture
 Batch culture is a type of cell suspension
where the cell material grows in a finite
volume of agitated liquid medium.
 These cultures are maintained continuously
by sub culturing.
 Batch cultures are most commonly
maintained in conical flasks incubated on
orbital platform shakers at the speed of 80-
120 rpm.
 It is a closed system, with no additions or
removal of nutrient and waste products during
the period of incubation.
Growth curve in batch culture
Types
1. Slow rotating cultures :
o In this culture, single cells and cell aggregates are
grown in a specially designed flask, the nipple
flask.
o Each nipple flask possesses eight nipple like
projections, having a capacity of 250ml.
o They are loaded in a circular manner on the large
flat disc of vertical shaker.
o When the flat disc rotates at a speed of 1-2rpm,
the cells within each nipple of the flask are
alternatively bathed in the culture medium and
exposed to air.
2. Shaker cultures :
 It is very and effective
system.
 In this method, single cells
and cell aggregates in fixed
volume of liquid medium are
placed in conical flasks.
 These flasks are then
mounted with the help of
clips on a horizontal large
square plate of an orbital
platform shaker.
 The square plate moves in a
circular motion at the speed
of 60-180 rpm.
3. Spinning Cultures
:
 In this culture system,
large bottles are used,
usually bottles with the
capacity of 10L.
 Large volumes of cell
suspension is cultured
in 10L bottles, with the
bottles spinning in a
spinner at 120 rpm at an
angle of 45° .
4. Stirred Culture :
o This system is used for large scale batch culture.
o In this method, the large culture vessel (round-bottom
flask) is not rotated but the cell suspension inside the
vessel is kept dispersed continuously by bubbling
sterile air through the culture medium.
o Internal magnetic stirrer is used to agitate the culture
medium safely.
o The magnetic stirrer revolves at 200-600 rpm.
B. Continuous Culture
 In continuous culture system, the old liquid
medium is replaced continuously by the fresh
liquid medium to stabilize the physiological states
of the growing cells.
 In this system, nutrient depletion does not occur
due to the continuous flow of nutrients and the
cells always remain in the steady growth phase.
 Continuous culture is further divided into two types
:
1. In closed type, the used medium is replaced with
the fresh medium, hence, the cells from used
medium are mechanically retrieved and added
back to the culture and thus, the cell biomass
keeps increasing.
2. In open type, both the cells and used medium are
replaced with fresh medium thus maintaining culture at
constant and submaximal growth rate.
 Open continuous cell suspension culture is of two
types :
i. Chemostat :
o In this system, culture vessels are usually cylindrical
or circular in shape and possess inlet and outlet pores
for aeration and the introduction and removal of cells
and medium.
o Such a system are maintained in a steady state.
o Thus in a steady state condition the density, growth
rate, chemical composition and metabolic activity of
the cells all remain constant.
o Such continuous cultures are ideal for studying growth
kinetics and the regulation of metabolic activity in
higher plants.
ii. Turbidostats :
o A turbidostat is a continuous culturing method
where the turbidity of the culture is held constant
by manipulating the rate at which medium is fed.
o In this system, the cells are allowed to grow upto a
certain turbidity, when the predetermined volume
of culture is replaced by fresh culture.
o The turbidity is measured by the changes of
optical density of medium
o An automatic monitoring unit is connected with the
culture vessel and such unit adjusts the medium
flow in such a way as to maintain the optical
density or PH at chosen, present level.
Importance of cell suspension
culture
 Such systems are capable of contributing significant
information about cell physiology, biochemistry,
metabolic events, etc.
 It is important to build up an understanding of an
organ/embryoid formation starting from a single cell.
 Mutagenesis studies maybe facilitated by cell
suspension culture to produce mutant cell clone from
which mutant plants can be raised.
Advantages :
 The nutrients can be continually adjusted.
 This system can be scaled for large scale
production of the cells.
 A whole plant can be regenerated from a
single plant cell.
Disadvantages :
 The productivity of suspension cultures
decreases over extended subculture periods.
 Slow growth and low productivity of plant
cells.
 Cells may get damaged by shear conditions.
THANK
YOU

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Cell suspension culture

  • 2. Introduction  Plant Tissue Culture (PTC) is defined as a collection of experimental methods of growing plant cells, tissues and organs in an artificially prepared nutrient medium static or liquid, under aseptic conditions.  It is also referred to as micropropagation.  It was introduced by G. Haberlandt.  The basic key used in plant tissue culture is the totipotency of plant cells, meaning that each plant cell has the potential to regenerate into a complete plant.  With this characteristic, plant tissue culture is used to produce genetically identical plants (clones) in the absence of fertilization, pollination or seeds.
  • 3. Cell suspension Culture  The cell suspension culture also called as the plant cell culture is a system for production of fine chemicals.  It can be defined as “The culture of tissue and cells cultured in liquid nutrient medium, producing a suspension of single cells and cell clumps.”  Cell suspension culture is the primary route for studying plant cell secondary metabolism.  The cell suspension culture requires optimization of the cell line, the cultivation media, and the bioreactor system.
  • 4.
  • 5. Types Of Cell Suspension Cultures  There are two types of cell suspension cultures : A. Batch culture B. Continuous culture  Each of these cultures have its own advantage and all types are being used in practice.
  • 6. A. Batch Culture  Batch culture is a type of cell suspension where the cell material grows in a finite volume of agitated liquid medium.  These cultures are maintained continuously by sub culturing.  Batch cultures are most commonly maintained in conical flasks incubated on orbital platform shakers at the speed of 80- 120 rpm.  It is a closed system, with no additions or removal of nutrient and waste products during the period of incubation.
  • 7. Growth curve in batch culture
  • 8. Types 1. Slow rotating cultures : o In this culture, single cells and cell aggregates are grown in a specially designed flask, the nipple flask. o Each nipple flask possesses eight nipple like projections, having a capacity of 250ml. o They are loaded in a circular manner on the large flat disc of vertical shaker. o When the flat disc rotates at a speed of 1-2rpm, the cells within each nipple of the flask are alternatively bathed in the culture medium and exposed to air.
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  • 10. 2. Shaker cultures :  It is very and effective system.  In this method, single cells and cell aggregates in fixed volume of liquid medium are placed in conical flasks.  These flasks are then mounted with the help of clips on a horizontal large square plate of an orbital platform shaker.  The square plate moves in a circular motion at the speed of 60-180 rpm.
  • 11. 3. Spinning Cultures :  In this culture system, large bottles are used, usually bottles with the capacity of 10L.  Large volumes of cell suspension is cultured in 10L bottles, with the bottles spinning in a spinner at 120 rpm at an angle of 45° .
  • 12. 4. Stirred Culture : o This system is used for large scale batch culture. o In this method, the large culture vessel (round-bottom flask) is not rotated but the cell suspension inside the vessel is kept dispersed continuously by bubbling sterile air through the culture medium. o Internal magnetic stirrer is used to agitate the culture medium safely. o The magnetic stirrer revolves at 200-600 rpm.
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  • 14. B. Continuous Culture  In continuous culture system, the old liquid medium is replaced continuously by the fresh liquid medium to stabilize the physiological states of the growing cells.  In this system, nutrient depletion does not occur due to the continuous flow of nutrients and the cells always remain in the steady growth phase.  Continuous culture is further divided into two types : 1. In closed type, the used medium is replaced with the fresh medium, hence, the cells from used medium are mechanically retrieved and added back to the culture and thus, the cell biomass keeps increasing.
  • 15. 2. In open type, both the cells and used medium are replaced with fresh medium thus maintaining culture at constant and submaximal growth rate.  Open continuous cell suspension culture is of two types : i. Chemostat : o In this system, culture vessels are usually cylindrical or circular in shape and possess inlet and outlet pores for aeration and the introduction and removal of cells and medium. o Such a system are maintained in a steady state. o Thus in a steady state condition the density, growth rate, chemical composition and metabolic activity of the cells all remain constant. o Such continuous cultures are ideal for studying growth kinetics and the regulation of metabolic activity in higher plants.
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  • 17. ii. Turbidostats : o A turbidostat is a continuous culturing method where the turbidity of the culture is held constant by manipulating the rate at which medium is fed. o In this system, the cells are allowed to grow upto a certain turbidity, when the predetermined volume of culture is replaced by fresh culture. o The turbidity is measured by the changes of optical density of medium o An automatic monitoring unit is connected with the culture vessel and such unit adjusts the medium flow in such a way as to maintain the optical density or PH at chosen, present level.
  • 18. Importance of cell suspension culture  Such systems are capable of contributing significant information about cell physiology, biochemistry, metabolic events, etc.  It is important to build up an understanding of an organ/embryoid formation starting from a single cell.  Mutagenesis studies maybe facilitated by cell suspension culture to produce mutant cell clone from which mutant plants can be raised.
  • 19. Advantages :  The nutrients can be continually adjusted.  This system can be scaled for large scale production of the cells.  A whole plant can be regenerated from a single plant cell. Disadvantages :  The productivity of suspension cultures decreases over extended subculture periods.  Slow growth and low productivity of plant cells.  Cells may get damaged by shear conditions.