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Callus
 It is an unspecialized , unorganized, growing
and dividing mass of cells.
 It produced when explants are cultured on the
appropriate solid medium, with both an auxin
and a cytokinin in a correct conditions. 2,4-D are
commonly used.
 During callus formation there is some degree of
dedifferentiation both in morphology and
metabolism, resulting in the lose the ability to
photosynthesis.
•A callus is a blob of tissue – (mostly undifferentiated
cells)
•A callus is naturally developed on a plant as a result of a
wound
•This callus can be left to develop or can be further divided
Callus
Callus cultures may be compact or friable.
 Compact callus shows densely aggregated cells .
 Friable callus shows loosely associated cells and the callus becomes soft
and breaks apart easily.
• Habituation: it reduce the requirement of auxin and/or cytokinin by the
culture during long-term culture.
Three stages of callus culture
1.Induction:
Cells in explant dedifferentiate and begin to divide
2.Proliferative Stage:
Rapid cell division
3.Morphogenesis stage:
Differentiation and formation of organized structures; specifically processes that lead to
plant regeneration from somatic cells
1.Induction
2.Division
3.Morphogenesis
stage:
Organogenesis
Somatic embryogenesis
ORGANOGENESIS
SHOOT
FORMATION
ROOTING
ROOT
FORMATION
SHOOTING
WHOLE PLANT
3.3Plant morphogenesis
3.1 Organogenesis
The formation of organs (such as leaves, shoots, roots) on a plant organ, usually of a
different kind
1. Enhancement of axillary bud proliferation/development
2. Adventitious shoot formation
3. Adventitious root formation
3.2 Somatic embryogenesis
Embryo initiation and development from somatic cells
 Enhancement of axillary bud proliferation and development -
Stimulation of the shoot apical meristem in vitro that includes
proliferation of lateral buds
Adventitious shoot formation - Dedifferentiation and/or differentiation
and development of shoots from non-meristematic cells (one or more
than one) either directly or indirectly
Adventitious root formation - Roots are initiated adventitiously at the base
of the shoot apex and a vascular continuum is established to complete
plant regeneration.
3.1 Organogenesis
Properties of callus
Un-differentiate mass of cells
No definite shape
It difficult to describes its external morphology.
It Can be maintained indefinitely
No- photosynthesis and grows in dark
It Can be used to isolate single cells with stem cell like properties (totipotent)
• So it difficult to describes its external morphology.
• But they can be distinguished on the basis of other characteristics such as Texture ,
Colouration , Hormone requirements etc.
• On that basis , even callus tissue initiated from explants of the same plants species may
show considerable variation.
texture
• On the basis of texture callus tissue can be two categories such as ,
• 1. Soft callus is friable in nature and is made of Heterogenous mass
of cell having minimal contact.
• 2. Hard callus consists of giant cells and closely packed cells i.e.
Compact in nature .
• Hard callus may be nodular in form .
1. Soft Callus
2. Hard callus
colouration
• Generally callus tissue is creamish yellow or white in colour.
• Sometime it may be Pigmented.
• Pigmentation may be uniform or patchy.
• It may be green in colour.
• Sometime white callus tissue grown under dark condition turn it into
green colour after transferring in light condition.
• Some may be yellow in colour due to synthesis of Carotenoid pigments.
• In some cauliflower culture it is in purple colour due to accumulation of
anthocyanin in vacuoles or due to production of oxidized form of 3,4
Dihydroxy phenylalanin (DoPA)
Principle / procedure of callus culture
•There areThree criteria for callus culture are ,
1.Aseptic preparation of plant material
2.Selection of suitable nutrient medium
3.Incubation of culture under controlled
physical condition
1.Aseptic preparation of plant material
• Surface sterilization :-
Washed with Running Water (3hr – over night )`
1 % Bavistein treatment
70 % Alcohol
1 % Sodium hypochlorite
0.1 % Mercury chloride
Washed with sterile distilled water
LAF
2.Selection of suitable nutrient medium
 Auxin/cytokinin 10:1-100:1 induces roots.
1:10-1:100 induces shoots
Intermediate ratios around 1:1 favor callus growth.
Agar solidified or semi – solid nutrient medium are
used.
That media are autoclaved at 15 psi pressure for 15 –
20 min at 121°c.
3.Incubation of culture under controlled physical
condition
Temperature : 25 + 2 0c
Photoperiod : 16 hr Light , 8 hr Dark
Light intensity : 2000 – 3000 lux
Relative Humidity : 55 % - 60 %
STEPS INVOLVED IN CALLUS CULTURE
Explant
Bavistein
Alcohol Na hypochlorite
HgCl2
Explant piecesInoculationCallus formation
Suspension culture
New plant
Callus multiplication
Actively growing callus can be initiated on
culture media with an even physiological
balance of cytokinin and auxin.
After callus biomass increases two to four
times (after 2–4 weeks of growth), callus
can be divided and placed on fresh media.
Suspension cultures
•Can be initiated from any part of the plant.
•Usually initiated from friable callus already growing in culture.
•Transferred into liquid medium.
Agitation
•Breakdown of cell aggregates into smaller
clumps of cells
•Maintains a uniform distribution of cells and cell
clumps in the medium
•Provides gas exchange
A rice
plant
growing
from
callus
with
nutrien
t rich
agar
Significances of callus culture
• Callus culture as such has no major importance unless and until it is used for other
experimental objectives . Still ,callus culture got some importance
1. The whole plant can be regenerated in large number from callus tissue through
manipulation of the nutrient and hormonal constituents in the culture medium .This
phenomenon is known as plant regeneration or organogenesis or morphogenesis .
2. Callus tissue is good source of genetic variability.
3. Cell suspension culture in moving liquid medium can be initiated from callus culture.
4. Callus culture is very useful to obtain commercially important secondary
metabolites.
5. Several biochemical assay (procedure to detect and quantify cellular processes) can
be performed from callus culture.
Conclusion:
•Sterilization, Hormone concentration , And
Proper handling is an important step in callus
culture for successful results….
Callus culture

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Callus culture

  • 1. Callus  It is an unspecialized , unorganized, growing and dividing mass of cells.  It produced when explants are cultured on the appropriate solid medium, with both an auxin and a cytokinin in a correct conditions. 2,4-D are commonly used.  During callus formation there is some degree of dedifferentiation both in morphology and metabolism, resulting in the lose the ability to photosynthesis.
  • 2. •A callus is a blob of tissue – (mostly undifferentiated cells) •A callus is naturally developed on a plant as a result of a wound •This callus can be left to develop or can be further divided
  • 3. Callus Callus cultures may be compact or friable.  Compact callus shows densely aggregated cells .  Friable callus shows loosely associated cells and the callus becomes soft and breaks apart easily. • Habituation: it reduce the requirement of auxin and/or cytokinin by the culture during long-term culture.
  • 4. Three stages of callus culture 1.Induction: Cells in explant dedifferentiate and begin to divide 2.Proliferative Stage: Rapid cell division 3.Morphogenesis stage: Differentiation and formation of organized structures; specifically processes that lead to plant regeneration from somatic cells
  • 9. 3.3Plant morphogenesis 3.1 Organogenesis The formation of organs (such as leaves, shoots, roots) on a plant organ, usually of a different kind 1. Enhancement of axillary bud proliferation/development 2. Adventitious shoot formation 3. Adventitious root formation 3.2 Somatic embryogenesis Embryo initiation and development from somatic cells
  • 10.  Enhancement of axillary bud proliferation and development - Stimulation of the shoot apical meristem in vitro that includes proliferation of lateral buds Adventitious shoot formation - Dedifferentiation and/or differentiation and development of shoots from non-meristematic cells (one or more than one) either directly or indirectly Adventitious root formation - Roots are initiated adventitiously at the base of the shoot apex and a vascular continuum is established to complete plant regeneration. 3.1 Organogenesis
  • 11. Properties of callus Un-differentiate mass of cells No definite shape It difficult to describes its external morphology. It Can be maintained indefinitely No- photosynthesis and grows in dark It Can be used to isolate single cells with stem cell like properties (totipotent) • So it difficult to describes its external morphology. • But they can be distinguished on the basis of other characteristics such as Texture , Colouration , Hormone requirements etc. • On that basis , even callus tissue initiated from explants of the same plants species may show considerable variation.
  • 12. texture • On the basis of texture callus tissue can be two categories such as , • 1. Soft callus is friable in nature and is made of Heterogenous mass of cell having minimal contact. • 2. Hard callus consists of giant cells and closely packed cells i.e. Compact in nature . • Hard callus may be nodular in form . 1. Soft Callus 2. Hard callus
  • 13. colouration • Generally callus tissue is creamish yellow or white in colour. • Sometime it may be Pigmented. • Pigmentation may be uniform or patchy. • It may be green in colour. • Sometime white callus tissue grown under dark condition turn it into green colour after transferring in light condition. • Some may be yellow in colour due to synthesis of Carotenoid pigments. • In some cauliflower culture it is in purple colour due to accumulation of anthocyanin in vacuoles or due to production of oxidized form of 3,4 Dihydroxy phenylalanin (DoPA)
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. Principle / procedure of callus culture •There areThree criteria for callus culture are , 1.Aseptic preparation of plant material 2.Selection of suitable nutrient medium 3.Incubation of culture under controlled physical condition
  • 17. 1.Aseptic preparation of plant material • Surface sterilization :- Washed with Running Water (3hr – over night )` 1 % Bavistein treatment 70 % Alcohol 1 % Sodium hypochlorite 0.1 % Mercury chloride Washed with sterile distilled water
  • 18. LAF
  • 19. 2.Selection of suitable nutrient medium  Auxin/cytokinin 10:1-100:1 induces roots. 1:10-1:100 induces shoots Intermediate ratios around 1:1 favor callus growth. Agar solidified or semi – solid nutrient medium are used. That media are autoclaved at 15 psi pressure for 15 – 20 min at 121°c.
  • 20. 3.Incubation of culture under controlled physical condition Temperature : 25 + 2 0c Photoperiod : 16 hr Light , 8 hr Dark Light intensity : 2000 – 3000 lux Relative Humidity : 55 % - 60 %
  • 21. STEPS INVOLVED IN CALLUS CULTURE Explant Bavistein Alcohol Na hypochlorite HgCl2 Explant piecesInoculationCallus formation Suspension culture New plant
  • 22. Callus multiplication Actively growing callus can be initiated on culture media with an even physiological balance of cytokinin and auxin. After callus biomass increases two to four times (after 2–4 weeks of growth), callus can be divided and placed on fresh media.
  • 23. Suspension cultures •Can be initiated from any part of the plant. •Usually initiated from friable callus already growing in culture. •Transferred into liquid medium.
  • 24. Agitation •Breakdown of cell aggregates into smaller clumps of cells •Maintains a uniform distribution of cells and cell clumps in the medium •Provides gas exchange
  • 26. Significances of callus culture • Callus culture as such has no major importance unless and until it is used for other experimental objectives . Still ,callus culture got some importance 1. The whole plant can be regenerated in large number from callus tissue through manipulation of the nutrient and hormonal constituents in the culture medium .This phenomenon is known as plant regeneration or organogenesis or morphogenesis . 2. Callus tissue is good source of genetic variability. 3. Cell suspension culture in moving liquid medium can be initiated from callus culture. 4. Callus culture is very useful to obtain commercially important secondary metabolites. 5. Several biochemical assay (procedure to detect and quantify cellular processes) can be performed from callus culture.
  • 27. Conclusion: •Sterilization, Hormone concentration , And Proper handling is an important step in callus culture for successful results….