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CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from an oil palm
plantation on deep peat as affected by N fertilisation
                                             Kristell Hergoualc’h
                      Handayani E, Indrasuara, Samosir Y, van Noordwijk M, Bonneau X, Verchot L
THINKINGbeyond the canopy
                                      23 February 2012 – ICOPE, Bali
Climate change and greenhouse
                  gases
 Increase in temperatures
                                        Catastrophic
                    +                   consequences
                    1°C




 Anthropogenic cause:  GHG emissions
                                      F-gaz
                                                       GHG         GWP
 Share GHG                       N2O
                                  8%
                                       1%
                            CH4                        CO2         1
                            14%
                                              CO2      CH4         25
                                              77%
                                                       NO2         298
                                                       THINKING beyond the canopy
              IPCC (2007)
Greenhouse gases and agriculture




                        IPCC (2007)




Global share GHG Agriculture


                                      Atmospheric N2O (ppb)




                                                                          N fertilizer consumption
 46% N2O: Nitrogen fertilisation




                                                                          (million tons N)
 45% CH4 (livestock, rice fields)
 9% CO2 (biomass combustion)
Baumert et al. (2005)
                                      www.ferilizer.org/ifa/statistics
                                             THINKING beyond the canopy
Oil palm

 World’s most rapidly
   expanding crop
   (Indonesia, Malaysia)




     Expansion to the detriment of natural forests
      Large C losses(Murdiyarso et al. 2010; Hergoualc’h & Verchot 2011)
      Biodiversity losses (Danielsen et al. 2008)
      Biofuel C debt (Fargione et al. 2008)

                                                          THINKING beyond the canopy
Oil palm

 Both on mineral (89%)
& peat soils (11%)
   (Koh et al. 2011)




     Voluntary RSPO and Government mandatory rules
   forbid forest conversion and use of deep peat

 Large doses of N fertiliser application:
   Mineral soils: 50 – 230 kg N ha-1 y-1
   Peat soils :50 – 160 kg N ha-1 y-1
                                             THINKING beyond the canopy
Research questions and hypothesis

 How does N fertilisation affect GHG emissions in an oil
   palm plantation on deep peat?
     Short term and moderated  in CH4& CO2 emissions
     Long term and large  in N2O emissions


 How does the emission factor related to N2O emissions
   arising from N fertilisation in an oil palm plantation on
   peat compare with IPCC estimates?
     Emission factor > IPCC estimates (recently opened peat with low N availability)


 Can optimisation of N fertilisation  GHG emissions per
    unit product?

                                                         THINKING beyond the canopy
Location and soil characteristics

 Climate
2466 mm y-1, 26.5°C
Driest months: June – Sept.




 Peat properties
Fibric
Depth (8.5 m)
pH (3.6)
Corg (42%)
Norg(1.2%)
                              THINKING beyond the canopy
Experimental plot
 Deforested in 04,
   acquired by PT. Bakrie
   in 07 in a state of fallow
 Planted Dec. 09;
   measurements Sep. 10
 148 palms ha-1
 Water table -56 cm

 Fertiliser trial
Factorial design: 3 N x 3 P x 3 K, 2 Ca (54 plots, 8 rows x 4 palms)

        N0: 0 kg N ha-1
        N1:14 kg N ha-1 (20 kg N ha-1 2010, 48 kg N ha-1 2011)
        N2: 28 kg N ha-1(40 kg N ha-1 2010, 96 kg N ha-1 2011) the canopy
                                                   THINKING beyond
“In situ” measurements




 Soil and air temperatures, soil moisture, water table depth
 Soil effluxes of N2O, CO2, CH4 (closed chamber method)

 Sampling frequency

                                               THINKING beyond the canopy
Methods
 4 replicate chambers per N dose

 Soil CO2 efflux: “in situ” IRGA



 Soil N2O, CH4




  4 samples/chamber          Transportation to the   Analysis by gas
   (t0’, t10’, t20’, t30’)   laboratory              chromatography
                                                     THINKING beyond the canopy
Extrapolation at the plot scale and
           emission factor


           FZ           Zone   Share plot        N2O assigned
                        NFZ    92%               N0
                        FZ     8%                N1 / N2

         NFZ
                        Example
                        N2O N1 Plot = 8% N2O N1 + 92% N2O N0




 Emission factor Ef
Slope regression between N dose and GHG emissions
                                            THINKING beyond the canopy
N2O emissions in the fertilised zone
                              700
                                          N0
     N2O (g N-N2O ha-1 d-1)
                              600         N1
                              500         N2
                              400
                              300
                              200
                              100
                                0
                              -100
                                     -1   1   3   5   7   9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
                                                      Days after fertilization


 N2ON2> N2ON1> N2ON0 (P < 0.0001)
                                                              N dose       Cumulated N2O emissions
 Cumulated emissions                                                      (kg N-N2O ha-1 28 days)
                                                              N0           0.3 ± 0.3
                                                              N1           2.4 ± 1.1
                                                              N2           8.8 ± 1.7
                                                                                   THINKING beyond the canopy
N2O emissions at the plot scale and
        emission factor (Ef)
 Cumulated emissions plot scale
            N dose   Cumulated N2O emissions
                     (kg N-N2O ha-1 28 days)
            N0       0.3 ± 0.3
            N1       0.5 ± 0.4
            N2       1.0 ± 0.6

                                                       1.2
                             (kg N-N2O ha-1 28 days)
 Emission factor
                               Cumulative N2O plot
                                                       1.0
                                                       0.8
                                                       0.6
     Ef = 2.5% ± 0.1%                                  0.4
                                                                              y = 0.025x + 0.03
                                                       0.2                        R² = 0.94
                                                       0.0
                                                             0    10              20          30
                                                                  THINKING beyond the
                                                                 N dose (kg N ha-1)canopy
CH4 emissions fertilised zone & plot scale
                                    90
                                                 N0



           CH4 (g C-CH4 ha-1 d-1)
                                    70           N1
                                                 N2
                                    50
                                    30
                                    10
                                    -10
                                    -30
                                          -1 1   3    5   7   9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
                                                              Days after fertilization

  No significant between N doses treatments (P = 0.3)
  Cumulated emissions
      N dose                        Cumulated CH4 emissions FZ           Cumulated CH4 emissions Plot Scale
                                    (kg C-CH4 ha-1 28 days)              (kg C-CH4 ha-1 28 days)
      N0                            0.2 ± 0.2                            0.2 ± 0.2
      N1                            0.6 ± 0.5                            0.2 ± 0.2
      N2                            0.4 ± 0.4                            0.2 ± 0.2   THINKING beyond the canopy
CO2 emissions fertilised zone & plot scale
                                      450
                                                                                               N0



            CO2 (kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1)
                                                                                               N1
                                      350
                                                                                               N2
                                      250

                                      150

                                      50

                                      -50 -1    1   3   5   7   9   11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29
                                                                Days after fertilization


  CO2 N2> CO2 N1 , CO2 N0 (P = 0.0002)
  Cumulated emissions
       N dose                               Cumulated CO2 emissions FZ Cumulated CO2 emissions Plot scale
                                            (Mg C-CO2 ha-1 28 days)    (Mg C-CO2 ha-1 28 days)
       N0                                   1.9 ± 0.5                           1.9 ± 0.5
       N1                                   2.1 ± 0.2                           1.9 ± 0.5
       N2                                   2.7 ± 0.3                           1.9 ± 0.5
                                                                                        THINKING beyond the canopy
Oil palms response to fertiliser application
                                                                                      400
                                     N0
      Collar girth (cm)



                                                                                                       N0




                                                                   Palm Height (cm)
                          140
                                     N1                                                                N1
                                     N2                                               300
                          100                                                                          N2

                           60                                                         200

                           20                                                         100
                                0      6     12     18    24                                     0       6     12    18    24
                          280       Months After Planting                                            Months After Planting
Frond length (cm)




                                     N0                                                 35




                                                                 Green leaf number
                                                                                                        N0
                          240        N1                                                                 N1
                                     N2                                                 25              N2
                          200
                          160                                                           15

                          120                                                               5
                                6         12       18       24                                    6      12      18     24
                          0.8         Months After Planting                                       Months After Planting
                                                                                                 Hanging female bunches palm-1 24 MAP
                                       N0
  Vigor index




                          0.6                                                               10
                                       N1
                                                                                             8
                          0.4          N2
                                                                                             6
                          0.2                                                                4
                          0.0                                                                2
                                    12       18          24                                  0
                                     Months After Planting                                              N0            N1             N2



                                          No        between N1 & N2 treatments
                                                                                                             THINKING beyond the canopy
Discussion

 No correlation with soil and air temperatures, soil
  moisture, water table depth: Short period observation

 Comparison with literature
  No study on the effect of N fertilisation on GHG emissions
  from oil palm plantation
   Melling et al. (06, 05): No intensive sampling after
  fertilisation, largest N2O fluxes during wet season
                    N2 O               CH4                  CO2
                    (g N-N2O ha-1 d-1) (g C-CH4 ha-1 d-1)   (kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1)
   This study (N0) 12.2 ± 4.7           6.0 ± 2.7           71.0 ± 10.6
   Melling et al.   14                  1.2                 53

                                                            THINKING beyond the canopy
Discussion

    Very strong effect of N fertilisation on N2O emissions:
       Ef = 2.5%
       Peat recently opened and drained? Young age of the palms?

   IPPC guidelines for GHG inventories (2006)*
        Ef = 1% [0.3% – 3%]
        Ef calculated as yearly N2O / N fertilisation rate

    Effect N fertilisation on palm growth
        + effect N1 dose but no N1 & N2 doses also
        observedon coconut palms(Bonneau et al., 93)

*Agriculture, Forestry & Other Land Use, Vol. 4, Chap. 11 (N2O emissions from managed soils, and CO2
emissions from lime and urea application)                                   THINKING beyond the canopy
Conclusions

 Complementary studies on GHG for improving Ef
  - Experimental design improved with measurements in both
  fertilised and non-fertilised zones (results under analysis)
  - Yearly measurements including & fertilisation period in a 7-
  year old plantation



 GHG emission vs. Crop response to fertiliser
      N2ON2 = 2 N2ON1
      CropN2 CropN1              Reduction of emissions per unit
                                 product feasible


                                               THINKING beyond the canopy
Thank you



www.cifor.cgiar.org

      CIFOR advances human well-being, environmental conservation, and equity by conducting
      research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries.


                                                                  THINKINGbeyond the canopy

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Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide emissions from an oil palm plantation on deep peat as affected by nitrogen fertilisation

  • 1. CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from an oil palm plantation on deep peat as affected by N fertilisation Kristell Hergoualc’h Handayani E, Indrasuara, Samosir Y, van Noordwijk M, Bonneau X, Verchot L THINKINGbeyond the canopy 23 February 2012 – ICOPE, Bali
  • 2. Climate change and greenhouse gases  Increase in temperatures Catastrophic + consequences 1°C  Anthropogenic cause:  GHG emissions F-gaz GHG GWP  Share GHG N2O 8% 1% CH4 CO2 1 14% CO2 CH4 25 77% NO2 298 THINKING beyond the canopy IPCC (2007)
  • 3. Greenhouse gases and agriculture IPCC (2007) Global share GHG Agriculture Atmospheric N2O (ppb) N fertilizer consumption  46% N2O: Nitrogen fertilisation (million tons N)  45% CH4 (livestock, rice fields)  9% CO2 (biomass combustion) Baumert et al. (2005) www.ferilizer.org/ifa/statistics THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 4. Oil palm  World’s most rapidly expanding crop (Indonesia, Malaysia) Expansion to the detriment of natural forests Large C losses(Murdiyarso et al. 2010; Hergoualc’h & Verchot 2011) Biodiversity losses (Danielsen et al. 2008) Biofuel C debt (Fargione et al. 2008) THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 5. Oil palm  Both on mineral (89%) & peat soils (11%) (Koh et al. 2011) Voluntary RSPO and Government mandatory rules forbid forest conversion and use of deep peat  Large doses of N fertiliser application: Mineral soils: 50 – 230 kg N ha-1 y-1 Peat soils :50 – 160 kg N ha-1 y-1 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 6. Research questions and hypothesis  How does N fertilisation affect GHG emissions in an oil palm plantation on deep peat? Short term and moderated  in CH4& CO2 emissions Long term and large  in N2O emissions  How does the emission factor related to N2O emissions arising from N fertilisation in an oil palm plantation on peat compare with IPCC estimates? Emission factor > IPCC estimates (recently opened peat with low N availability)  Can optimisation of N fertilisation  GHG emissions per unit product? THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 7. Location and soil characteristics  Climate 2466 mm y-1, 26.5°C Driest months: June – Sept.  Peat properties Fibric Depth (8.5 m) pH (3.6) Corg (42%) Norg(1.2%) THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 8. Experimental plot  Deforested in 04, acquired by PT. Bakrie in 07 in a state of fallow  Planted Dec. 09; measurements Sep. 10  148 palms ha-1  Water table -56 cm  Fertiliser trial Factorial design: 3 N x 3 P x 3 K, 2 Ca (54 plots, 8 rows x 4 palms) N0: 0 kg N ha-1 N1:14 kg N ha-1 (20 kg N ha-1 2010, 48 kg N ha-1 2011) N2: 28 kg N ha-1(40 kg N ha-1 2010, 96 kg N ha-1 2011) the canopy THINKING beyond
  • 9. “In situ” measurements  Soil and air temperatures, soil moisture, water table depth  Soil effluxes of N2O, CO2, CH4 (closed chamber method)  Sampling frequency THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 10. Methods  4 replicate chambers per N dose  Soil CO2 efflux: “in situ” IRGA  Soil N2O, CH4 4 samples/chamber Transportation to the Analysis by gas (t0’, t10’, t20’, t30’) laboratory chromatography THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 11. Extrapolation at the plot scale and emission factor FZ Zone Share plot N2O assigned NFZ 92% N0 FZ 8% N1 / N2 NFZ Example N2O N1 Plot = 8% N2O N1 + 92% N2O N0  Emission factor Ef Slope regression between N dose and GHG emissions THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 12. N2O emissions in the fertilised zone 700 N0 N2O (g N-N2O ha-1 d-1) 600 N1 500 N2 400 300 200 100 0 -100 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Days after fertilization  N2ON2> N2ON1> N2ON0 (P < 0.0001) N dose Cumulated N2O emissions  Cumulated emissions (kg N-N2O ha-1 28 days) N0 0.3 ± 0.3 N1 2.4 ± 1.1 N2 8.8 ± 1.7 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 13. N2O emissions at the plot scale and emission factor (Ef)  Cumulated emissions plot scale N dose Cumulated N2O emissions (kg N-N2O ha-1 28 days) N0 0.3 ± 0.3 N1 0.5 ± 0.4 N2 1.0 ± 0.6 1.2 (kg N-N2O ha-1 28 days)  Emission factor Cumulative N2O plot 1.0 0.8 0.6 Ef = 2.5% ± 0.1% 0.4 y = 0.025x + 0.03 0.2 R² = 0.94 0.0 0 10 20 30 THINKING beyond the N dose (kg N ha-1)canopy
  • 14. CH4 emissions fertilised zone & plot scale 90 N0 CH4 (g C-CH4 ha-1 d-1) 70 N1 N2 50 30 10 -10 -30 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Days after fertilization  No significant between N doses treatments (P = 0.3)  Cumulated emissions N dose Cumulated CH4 emissions FZ Cumulated CH4 emissions Plot Scale (kg C-CH4 ha-1 28 days) (kg C-CH4 ha-1 28 days) N0 0.2 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 0.2 N1 0.6 ± 0.5 0.2 ± 0.2 N2 0.4 ± 0.4 0.2 ± 0.2 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 15. CO2 emissions fertilised zone & plot scale 450 N0 CO2 (kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1) N1 350 N2 250 150 50 -50 -1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 Days after fertilization  CO2 N2> CO2 N1 , CO2 N0 (P = 0.0002)  Cumulated emissions N dose Cumulated CO2 emissions FZ Cumulated CO2 emissions Plot scale (Mg C-CO2 ha-1 28 days) (Mg C-CO2 ha-1 28 days) N0 1.9 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.5 N1 2.1 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.5 N2 2.7 ± 0.3 1.9 ± 0.5 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 16. Oil palms response to fertiliser application 400 N0 Collar girth (cm) N0 Palm Height (cm) 140 N1 N1 N2 300 100 N2 60 200 20 100 0 6 12 18 24 0 6 12 18 24 280 Months After Planting Months After Planting Frond length (cm) N0 35 Green leaf number N0 240 N1 N1 N2 25 N2 200 160 15 120 5 6 12 18 24 6 12 18 24 0.8 Months After Planting Months After Planting Hanging female bunches palm-1 24 MAP N0 Vigor index 0.6 10 N1 8 0.4 N2 6 0.2 4 0.0 2 12 18 24 0 Months After Planting N0 N1 N2 No between N1 & N2 treatments THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 17. Discussion  No correlation with soil and air temperatures, soil moisture, water table depth: Short period observation  Comparison with literature No study on the effect of N fertilisation on GHG emissions from oil palm plantation Melling et al. (06, 05): No intensive sampling after fertilisation, largest N2O fluxes during wet season N2 O CH4 CO2 (g N-N2O ha-1 d-1) (g C-CH4 ha-1 d-1) (kg C-CO2 ha-1 d-1) This study (N0) 12.2 ± 4.7 6.0 ± 2.7 71.0 ± 10.6 Melling et al. 14 1.2 53 THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 18. Discussion  Very strong effect of N fertilisation on N2O emissions: Ef = 2.5% Peat recently opened and drained? Young age of the palms?  IPPC guidelines for GHG inventories (2006)* Ef = 1% [0.3% – 3%] Ef calculated as yearly N2O / N fertilisation rate  Effect N fertilisation on palm growth + effect N1 dose but no N1 & N2 doses also observedon coconut palms(Bonneau et al., 93) *Agriculture, Forestry & Other Land Use, Vol. 4, Chap. 11 (N2O emissions from managed soils, and CO2 emissions from lime and urea application) THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 19. Conclusions  Complementary studies on GHG for improving Ef - Experimental design improved with measurements in both fertilised and non-fertilised zones (results under analysis) - Yearly measurements including & fertilisation period in a 7- year old plantation  GHG emission vs. Crop response to fertiliser N2ON2 = 2 N2ON1 CropN2 CropN1 Reduction of emissions per unit product feasible THINKING beyond the canopy
  • 20. Thank you www.cifor.cgiar.org CIFOR advances human well-being, environmental conservation, and equity by conducting research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries. THINKINGbeyond the canopy

Editor's Notes

  1. Photo: CIFOR Slide Library #12148 – Burkina FasoWomen collecting Piliostigma reticulatum pods for animal feed.