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Biochemistry
Carbohydrates
Learning Objectives
• To understand the role of carbohydrates in
biology.
• To understand the logic of monomer, isomer
and polymer carbohydrates
What is a carbohydrate?
• Carbohydrates are
‘sugars’
• The name describes the
atoms they contain:
Carbon, Hydrogen and
Oxygen
• Glucose is the basic
sugar made by plants
• The ratio of hydrogen
to oxygen is always 2:1
Shortcut to Biochemistry.lnk
Shortcut to Biochemistry.lnk
Glucose
• C6H12O6 is made by
photosynthesis
• It is a simple sugar or
‘monomer’.
• The carbons are counted in
a clockwise direction, 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6.
• Most other more complex
sugars are chains of this
• Complex sugars have to be
broken back down to
glucose before they are
absorbed in the small
intestine.
• It is essential for respiration
Skeletal formula of glucose
Fructose
• Fructose is a monomer
carbohydrate found in fruits
and honey
• It has the same formula as
glucose but its structure is
different: it is an isomer of
glucose
• Monomer carbohydrates
are also known as
monosaccharides
Two kinds of glucose
• There are two types of glucose:
• Alpha glucose with the OH group below
• Beta glucose with the OH group above.
Linking Sugar Monomers
-Disaccharides
• Two conjoined
monosaccharides form
a disaccharide
• They conjoin by a
condensation reaction
(a water molecule is
lost)
• The ‘join’ is called a
glycosidic link
Maltose is two glucose
molecules joined in a
condensation reaction.
For the glucose to be
re-released water must be
available.
Sucrose
• Sucrose is a very
common disaccharide
made from glucose and
fructose.
• It is the sugar sold in
the supermarket
• It is commonly made in
plants for transport in
phloem.
Sucrose is made from
the joining of the isomers
glucose and fructose.
Polymers (polysaccharides)
• Carbohydrate Monomers linked in a long
chain are known as polysaccharides.
• A common example in plants is starch,
made from long chains of alpha glucose.
• Amylose Starch forms alpha 1-4 glycosidic
links.
• Plants put monomers into long chains for
storage purposes
• Starch doesn’t dissolve so doesn’t influence
water potential.
Amylopectin
• Amylopectin is a
combination of straight
chain 1,4 bonded glucose
• AND
• 1, 6 bonded glucose which
causes branches to form
• It therefore forms many
branches providing many
‘ends’
Glycogen (animal starch)
• The surplus glucose we eat is
stored in the liver as the
polysaccharide glycogen
• It’s essentially the same as
Amylopectin
• Glycogen it forms branches as
well as straight chains, this is
because 1, 6 links form as well
as 1, 4 links.
• This makes it easy to break
down quickly
Hydrolysis
• Hydrolysis ‘water breaking’, is just the
condensation reaction in reverse
• The water molecule is added to the glycosidic link
to break the bond and re-form glucoses
• It can occur in disaccharides or polysaccharides
The disaccharide lactose broken by hydrolysis
Cellulose
• Plants also build starch
chains into structures
such as cellulose.
• Beta glucose make
straight chains
• These straight chains
linked top and bottom by
hydrogen bonds form
cellulose.
• Cell walls are made of
cellulose, these give
structure.
 
Cellulose
PRESENTED BY
ANKIT KUMAR

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Carbohydrates 130513135303-phpapp01

  • 2. Learning Objectives • To understand the role of carbohydrates in biology. • To understand the logic of monomer, isomer and polymer carbohydrates
  • 3. What is a carbohydrate? • Carbohydrates are ‘sugars’ • The name describes the atoms they contain: Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen • Glucose is the basic sugar made by plants • The ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is always 2:1 Shortcut to Biochemistry.lnk Shortcut to Biochemistry.lnk
  • 4. Glucose • C6H12O6 is made by photosynthesis • It is a simple sugar or ‘monomer’. • The carbons are counted in a clockwise direction, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. • Most other more complex sugars are chains of this • Complex sugars have to be broken back down to glucose before they are absorbed in the small intestine. • It is essential for respiration Skeletal formula of glucose
  • 5. Fructose • Fructose is a monomer carbohydrate found in fruits and honey • It has the same formula as glucose but its structure is different: it is an isomer of glucose • Monomer carbohydrates are also known as monosaccharides
  • 6. Two kinds of glucose • There are two types of glucose: • Alpha glucose with the OH group below • Beta glucose with the OH group above.
  • 7. Linking Sugar Monomers -Disaccharides • Two conjoined monosaccharides form a disaccharide • They conjoin by a condensation reaction (a water molecule is lost) • The ‘join’ is called a glycosidic link Maltose is two glucose molecules joined in a condensation reaction. For the glucose to be re-released water must be available.
  • 8. Sucrose • Sucrose is a very common disaccharide made from glucose and fructose. • It is the sugar sold in the supermarket • It is commonly made in plants for transport in phloem. Sucrose is made from the joining of the isomers glucose and fructose.
  • 9. Polymers (polysaccharides) • Carbohydrate Monomers linked in a long chain are known as polysaccharides. • A common example in plants is starch, made from long chains of alpha glucose. • Amylose Starch forms alpha 1-4 glycosidic links. • Plants put monomers into long chains for storage purposes • Starch doesn’t dissolve so doesn’t influence water potential.
  • 10. Amylopectin • Amylopectin is a combination of straight chain 1,4 bonded glucose • AND • 1, 6 bonded glucose which causes branches to form • It therefore forms many branches providing many ‘ends’
  • 11. Glycogen (animal starch) • The surplus glucose we eat is stored in the liver as the polysaccharide glycogen • It’s essentially the same as Amylopectin • Glycogen it forms branches as well as straight chains, this is because 1, 6 links form as well as 1, 4 links. • This makes it easy to break down quickly
  • 12. Hydrolysis • Hydrolysis ‘water breaking’, is just the condensation reaction in reverse • The water molecule is added to the glycosidic link to break the bond and re-form glucoses • It can occur in disaccharides or polysaccharides The disaccharide lactose broken by hydrolysis
  • 13. Cellulose • Plants also build starch chains into structures such as cellulose. • Beta glucose make straight chains • These straight chains linked top and bottom by hydrogen bonds form cellulose. • Cell walls are made of cellulose, these give structure.