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What are computers?

Computers are machines that
perform
tasks
or
calculations according to a
set of instructions, or
programs. The first fully
electronic
computers,
introduced in the 1940s,
were huge machines that
required teams of people to
operate. Compared to those
early machines, today's
computers are amazing. Not
only are they thousands of
times faster, they can fit on
your desk, on your lap, or
even in your pocket.
Hardware
Computers
work
through
an
interaction of hardware and
software. Hardware refers to the
parts of a computer that you can
see and touch, including the case
and everything inside it. The most
important piece of hardware is a
tiny rectangular chip inside your
computer called the central
processing
unit
(CPU),
or
microprocessor. It's the "brain" of
your computer—the part that
translates
instructions
and
performs calculations. Hardware
items such as your monitor,
keyboard, mouse, printer, and
other components are often called
hardware devices, or devices.
Software
Software
refers
to
the
instructions, or programs,
that tell the hardware what to
do.
A
word-processing
program that you can use to
write letters on your computer
is a type of software. The
operating system (OS) is
software that manages your
computer and the devices
connected to it. Windows is a
well-known operating system.
Types of computers
 Computers range in size and capability. At

one end of the scale are supercomputers,
very large computers with thousands of
linked microprocessors that perform
extremely complex calculations. At the
other end are tiny computers embedded
in cars, TVs, stereo systems, calculators,
and appliances. These computers are built
to perform a limited number of tasks.
 The personal computer, or PC, is
designed to be used by one person at a
time. This section describes the various
kinds of personal computers: desktops,
laptops, handheld computers, and Tablet
PCs.
Desktop computers
Desktop computers are designed for use at a desk or table.
They are typically larger and more powerful than other types
of personal computers. Desktop computers are made up of
separate components. The main component, called the
system unit, is usually a rectangular case that sits on or
underneath a desk. Other components, such as the monitor,
mouse, and keyboard, connect to the system unit.
Laptop computers and small notebook PCs
 Laptop computers are lightweight

mobile PCs with a thin screen. Laptops
can operate on batteries, so you can
take them anywhere. Unlike desktops,
laptops combine the CPU, screen, and
keyboard in a single case. The screen
folds down onto the keyboard when
not in use.
 Small notebook PCs (often referred to
asmini-notebooks),
are
small,
affordable laptops that are designed to
perform a limited number of tasks.
They're usually less powerful than a
laptop, so they're used mainly to
browse the web and check e-mail.
Smartphones
Smartphones are mobile phones that have some of the
same capabilites as a computer. You can use a
smartphone to make telephone calls, access the
Internet, organize contact information, send e-mail
and text messages, play games, and take pictures.
Smartphones usually have a keyboard and a large
screen.
Handheld computers
Handheld computers, also called
personal digital assistants (PDAs),
are battery-powered computers
small enough to carry almost
anywhere. Although not as
powerful as desktops or laptops,
handheld computers are useful for
scheduling appointments, storing
addresses and phone numbers,
and playing games. Some have
more advanced capabilities, such
as making telephone calls or
accessing the Internet. Instead of
keyboards, handheld computers
have touch screens that you use
with your finger or a stylus (a penshaped pointing tool).
Tablet PCs
Tablet PCs are mobile PCs that combine features of
laptops and handheld computers. Like laptops, they're
powerful and have a built-in screen. Like handheld
computers, they allow you to write notes or draw
pictures on the screen, usually with a tablet pen
instead of a stylus. They can also convert your
handwriting into typed text. Some Tablet PCs are
“convertibles” with a screen that swivels and unfolds to
reveal a keyboard underneath.
What can you do with computers?
 In the workplace, many people use

computers to keep records, analyze
data, do research, and manage projects.
At home, you can use computers to find
information, store pictures and music,
track finances, play games, and
communicate with others—and those
are just a few of the possibilities.
 You can also use your computer to
connect to the Internet, a network that
links computers around the world.
Internet access is available for a
monthly fee in most urban areas, and
increasingly, in less populated areas.
With Internet access, you can
communicate with people all over the
world and find a vast amount of
information.
The web

The World Wide Web (usually called the web, or web) is a gigantic
storehouse of information. The web is the most popular part of the
Internet, partly because it displays most information in a visually
appealing format. Headlines, text, and pictures can be combined on a
single webpage—much like a page in a magazine—along with sounds and
animation. A website is a collection of interconnected webpages. The web
contains millions of websites and billions of webpages.
Surfing
Surfing the web means exploring
it. You can find information on
the web about almost any topic
imaginable. For example, you
can read news stories and
movie reviews, check airline
schedules, see street maps, get
the weather forecast for your
city, or research a health
condition. Most companies,
agencies,
museums,
and
libraries have websites with
information
about
their
products,
services,
or
collections. Reference sources,
such as dictionaries and
encyclopedias, are also widely
available.
E-Shopping
The web is also a shopper's delight. You can browse and
purchase products—books, music, toys, clothing,
electronics, and much more—at the websites of major
retailers. You can also buy and sell used items through
websites that use auction-style bidding.
E-mail
E-mail (short for electronic mail) is a convenient way to
communicate with others. When you send an e-mail
message, it arrives almost instantly in the recipient's
e-mail inbox. You can send e-mail to many people
simultaneously, and you can save, print, and forward
e-mail to others. You can send almost any type of file
in an e-mail message, including documents, pictures,
and music files. And with e-mail, you don't need a
postage stamp!
Instant messaging
Instant messaging is like having a real-time conversation
with another person or a group of people. When you
type and send an instant message, the message is
immediately visible to all participants. Unlike e-mail,
all participants have to be online (connected to the
Internet) and in front of their computers at the same
time. Communicating by means of instant messaging
is called chatting.
Pictures, music, and movies
If you have a digital camera, you can
move your pictures from the
camera to your computer. Then
you can print them, create slide
shows, or share them with others
by e-mail or by posting them on a
website. You can also listen to
music on your computer, either by
importing music from audio CDs
or by purchasing songs from a
music website. Or, you can tune in
to one of the thousands of radio
stations that broadcast over the
Internet. If your computer comes
with a DVD player, you can watch
movies too.
Gaming
Thousands of computer games in
every conceivable category are
available to entertain you. Get
behind the wheel of a car, battle
frightening creatures in a
dungeon, or control civilizations
and empires! Many games allow
you to compete with other
players around the world
through the Internet. Windows
includes a variety of card games,
puzzle games, and strategy
games.
Presented by

Ashim Jaglan

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Introduction to computer

  • 1.
  • 2. What are computers? Computers are machines that perform tasks or calculations according to a set of instructions, or programs. The first fully electronic computers, introduced in the 1940s, were huge machines that required teams of people to operate. Compared to those early machines, today's computers are amazing. Not only are they thousands of times faster, they can fit on your desk, on your lap, or even in your pocket.
  • 3. Hardware Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software. Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that you can see and touch, including the case and everything inside it. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular chip inside your computer called the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor. It's the "brain" of your computer—the part that translates instructions and performs calculations. Hardware items such as your monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other components are often called hardware devices, or devices.
  • 4. Software Software refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do. A word-processing program that you can use to write letters on your computer is a type of software. The operating system (OS) is software that manages your computer and the devices connected to it. Windows is a well-known operating system.
  • 5. Types of computers  Computers range in size and capability. At one end of the scale are supercomputers, very large computers with thousands of linked microprocessors that perform extremely complex calculations. At the other end are tiny computers embedded in cars, TVs, stereo systems, calculators, and appliances. These computers are built to perform a limited number of tasks.  The personal computer, or PC, is designed to be used by one person at a time. This section describes the various kinds of personal computers: desktops, laptops, handheld computers, and Tablet PCs.
  • 6. Desktop computers Desktop computers are designed for use at a desk or table. They are typically larger and more powerful than other types of personal computers. Desktop computers are made up of separate components. The main component, called the system unit, is usually a rectangular case that sits on or underneath a desk. Other components, such as the monitor, mouse, and keyboard, connect to the system unit.
  • 7. Laptop computers and small notebook PCs  Laptop computers are lightweight mobile PCs with a thin screen. Laptops can operate on batteries, so you can take them anywhere. Unlike desktops, laptops combine the CPU, screen, and keyboard in a single case. The screen folds down onto the keyboard when not in use.  Small notebook PCs (often referred to asmini-notebooks), are small, affordable laptops that are designed to perform a limited number of tasks. They're usually less powerful than a laptop, so they're used mainly to browse the web and check e-mail.
  • 8. Smartphones Smartphones are mobile phones that have some of the same capabilites as a computer. You can use a smartphone to make telephone calls, access the Internet, organize contact information, send e-mail and text messages, play games, and take pictures. Smartphones usually have a keyboard and a large screen.
  • 9. Handheld computers Handheld computers, also called personal digital assistants (PDAs), are battery-powered computers small enough to carry almost anywhere. Although not as powerful as desktops or laptops, handheld computers are useful for scheduling appointments, storing addresses and phone numbers, and playing games. Some have more advanced capabilities, such as making telephone calls or accessing the Internet. Instead of keyboards, handheld computers have touch screens that you use with your finger or a stylus (a penshaped pointing tool).
  • 10. Tablet PCs Tablet PCs are mobile PCs that combine features of laptops and handheld computers. Like laptops, they're powerful and have a built-in screen. Like handheld computers, they allow you to write notes or draw pictures on the screen, usually with a tablet pen instead of a stylus. They can also convert your handwriting into typed text. Some Tablet PCs are “convertibles” with a screen that swivels and unfolds to reveal a keyboard underneath.
  • 11. What can you do with computers?  In the workplace, many people use computers to keep records, analyze data, do research, and manage projects. At home, you can use computers to find information, store pictures and music, track finances, play games, and communicate with others—and those are just a few of the possibilities.  You can also use your computer to connect to the Internet, a network that links computers around the world. Internet access is available for a monthly fee in most urban areas, and increasingly, in less populated areas. With Internet access, you can communicate with people all over the world and find a vast amount of information.
  • 12. The web The World Wide Web (usually called the web, or web) is a gigantic storehouse of information. The web is the most popular part of the Internet, partly because it displays most information in a visually appealing format. Headlines, text, and pictures can be combined on a single webpage—much like a page in a magazine—along with sounds and animation. A website is a collection of interconnected webpages. The web contains millions of websites and billions of webpages.
  • 13. Surfing Surfing the web means exploring it. You can find information on the web about almost any topic imaginable. For example, you can read news stories and movie reviews, check airline schedules, see street maps, get the weather forecast for your city, or research a health condition. Most companies, agencies, museums, and libraries have websites with information about their products, services, or collections. Reference sources, such as dictionaries and encyclopedias, are also widely available.
  • 14. E-Shopping The web is also a shopper's delight. You can browse and purchase products—books, music, toys, clothing, electronics, and much more—at the websites of major retailers. You can also buy and sell used items through websites that use auction-style bidding.
  • 15. E-mail E-mail (short for electronic mail) is a convenient way to communicate with others. When you send an e-mail message, it arrives almost instantly in the recipient's e-mail inbox. You can send e-mail to many people simultaneously, and you can save, print, and forward e-mail to others. You can send almost any type of file in an e-mail message, including documents, pictures, and music files. And with e-mail, you don't need a postage stamp!
  • 16. Instant messaging Instant messaging is like having a real-time conversation with another person or a group of people. When you type and send an instant message, the message is immediately visible to all participants. Unlike e-mail, all participants have to be online (connected to the Internet) and in front of their computers at the same time. Communicating by means of instant messaging is called chatting.
  • 17. Pictures, music, and movies If you have a digital camera, you can move your pictures from the camera to your computer. Then you can print them, create slide shows, or share them with others by e-mail or by posting them on a website. You can also listen to music on your computer, either by importing music from audio CDs or by purchasing songs from a music website. Or, you can tune in to one of the thousands of radio stations that broadcast over the Internet. If your computer comes with a DVD player, you can watch movies too.
  • 18. Gaming Thousands of computer games in every conceivable category are available to entertain you. Get behind the wheel of a car, battle frightening creatures in a dungeon, or control civilizations and empires! Many games allow you to compete with other players around the world through the Internet. Windows includes a variety of card games, puzzle games, and strategy games.