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Wireless LRT in Spain - Calvo and Nash - TRB 2018


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Experience with wireless LRT operations in Seville, Zaragoza and Granada. Brief statistics from other Spanish LRT for comparison.

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Wireless LRT in Spain - Calvo and Nash - TRB 2018

  1. 1. Wireless Electric Propulsion Light Rail Transit Systems in Spain Francisco Calvo University of Granada Granada, Spain Andrew Nash Emch+Berger AG Bern Vienna, Austria
  2. 2. Outline • Light rail transit in Spain • Types of wireless propulsion • Wireless propulsion in Spanish LRT networks • Experience with wireless propulsion in Spain (survey results) • Conclusions
  3. 3. Vitoria-Gasteiz: Tram (Photo: Andrew Nash)
  4. 4. Spanish LRT Boom • Madrid § ML1 § ML2 § ML3 • Parla (Madrid satellite) • Barcelona § Trambaix (3 lines) § Trambesos (3 lines) • Bilbao • Tenerife • Vitoria • Murcia • Valencia • Seville (part wireless) • Zaragoza (part wireless) • Granada (part wireless)
  6. 6. Bilbao: Tram and Guggenheim Museum. (Photo: Andrew Nash)
  7. 7. City Population LRT Length (km) Opening Year LRT Cost Annual Ridership Bilbao 345,000 5.57 2002 53.50 2.9 million Vitoria 245,000 8.20 2008 108.65 7.7 million Madrid ML1 3.17 million 5.40 2007 287.54 >16 million (all 3)Madrid ML2 8.70 2007 294.33 Madrid ML3 13.70 2007 296.60 Parla 125,000 8.20 2008 145.13 5.4 million Barcelona Trambaix 1.6 million 15.10 2003 - 07 378.00 26.8 million (both)Barcelona Trambesos 14.10 344.52 Tenerife 357,000 (*) 15.90 2007 371.61 13.5 million Murcia 441,000 18.00 2011 272.44 4.3 million Valencia 790,000 20.00 1994 364.43 > 9 million Granada 235,000 15.92 2017 592.04 ± 25,000 day Seville 691,000 2.20 2007-11 60.54 4.1 million Zaragoza 660,000 12.80 2011 452.82 28 million Systems with partial wireless propulsion New LRT Lines: Basic Information
  8. 8. Types of Wireless Propulsion 1. Ground level power supply (GLPS) – power continuously supplied to the vehicle at ground level via direct contact with a conductor of inductively (Bordeaux); 2. On-board energy storage system (OESS) – power stored on the vehicle using flywheels, batteries, supercapacitors or a combination, recharged periodically via regenerative braking and contact with a power supply. 3. On-board power generation system (OPGS) – power continuously generated on the vehicle via fuel cells, micro turbines or diesel engines. Source: Swanson, J. and Smatlak, J.; State-of-the-art in Light Rail Alternative Power Supplies; APTA/TRB 2015 Light Rail Conference
  9. 9. Wireless LRT in Spain • Partial wireless propulsion in Seville, Zaragoza, and Granada. • The 3 cities use same wireless system: Urbos III ACR trams (Acumulador de Carga Rapida, English: fast charge accumulator, or supercapacitor). • But, they all use different methods for re-charging the supercapacitor. • ACR trams use braking energy (regenerative braking). • Supercapacitor life expected to be 15-years. • Recharge time is between 20-30 seconds. • Technology developed by the Spanish tram manufacturer CAF and the Technical Institute of Aragón.
  10. 10. Seville • Tram runs through historic centre (tourist area). • Extensive street redevelopment. • Originally (2007) had catenary, in 2011 wires removed. • Line length: 2.2 km (SHORT!); with 1.4 km wireless (about 64%). • Ridership 4.1 million (2015). • Cost: 27.5 million per km (total cost 61 million EUR). • Recharging via rigid catenary section integrated into tram stops.
  11. 11. Seville: Wires had to be removed for Easter processions. (Photo: Easter procession in Granada, Andrew Nash)
  12. 12. Seville: Recharging system at LRT stations. (Photo: Martin Marta)
  13. 13. Seville: Tram Station
  14. 14. Zaragoza • Tram runs between two suburban centres via the historic centre. • Extensive street redevelopment (pedestrian zone). • Line length: 12.8 km, with 2.2 km wireless (about 17%). • Ridership: 28 million (2015). • Cost: 35 million EUR per km (total cost 453 million EUR). • Recharging via contact shoe and short sections of third rail embedded in street at stops (only energised when tram is present).
  15. 15. Zaragoza: Third rail charging system embedded in street at LRT station. (Photo: Hoff1980,
  16. 16. Zaragoza: Tram stopped at LRT station in wireless section. (Photo: Tranvía de Zaragoza en la parada de las Murallas Romanas, wikimedia commons, user: Ajzh2074)
  17. 17. Granada • Tram serves several regional destinations via the centre city. • Extensive street redevelopment and underground sections. • Construction 2007 to 2017, due to world economic crisis. • Line length: 16 km; 3 wireless sections: 4.7 km total (30%). • Trams recharge from catenary (no special recharging). • Cost: 37 million EUR per km (592 million EUR). • Ridership: 12.9 million (estimated, open in Sept. 2017).
  18. 18. Granada: Tram with Sierra Nevada in background. (Photo: By Andreuvv - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikim urid=64815919)
  19. 19. Granada: Calle Real de Armilla – wireless section. (Photo: Francisco Calvo)
  20. 20. Costs • Average cost: million EUR / km § Non-wireless (Spain) 23.2 § Wireless (3 cities) 33.4 (+44%) § Both figures higher than plain vanilla LRT projects. • Key cost factor #1: extensive street redevelopment done as part of LRT projects (especially in historic centres). • Key cost factor #2: grade separation often used rather than public transport priority measures and sharing the street with other traffic.
  21. 21. Seville: Tram Station with Street Redevelopment
  22. 22. Zaragoza: Tram in wireless section and street redevelopment (Photo: By Héctor Ochoa 'Robot8A' - Own work, CC BY 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia .org/w/index.php?curid=51 483302)
  23. 23. Granada: Tram in Alcázar Genil station. (Photo: J.M. Grimaldi photos/juntagranada/3 7177235016/in/album- 72157689379237105/)
  24. 24. Reasons for Wireless Propulsion • Official reason: mitigate visual impacts. • However, wireless propulsion often used to help overcome general resistance towards public transport service that reduces space for automobiles. • Other strategies to overcome resistance include full redevelopment of streets and grade separation. • These strategies significantly affect LRT costs.
  25. 25. Operator Survey Results (1) Service Availability No differences Maintenance (Vehicles) More Maintenance (Catenary) Less Maintenance (wireless) Special requirements (e.g., location beacons) Safety Additional first responder training, SIL 4 requirement for 3rd rail in street (Zaragoza) Operations Trams must be precisely positioned for recharging.
  26. 26. Operator Survey Results (2) Design Wireless sections must be carefully designed to ensure that trams have sufficient energy to reach recharging point. Air conditioning Uses a significant amount of power. Historic / Ped Zones Require less power due to slower speeds. Energy storage All operators would like higher storage capacity. Regenerative braking Regenerative braking is a good benefit. Long term maintenance Too early to tell, but recharging cycles important.
  27. 27. Operator Survey Results (3) Visual impacts All operators appreciate reduced visual impacts. Future plans All operators are considering use of wireless propulsion for future extensions. Public image All operators believe public image is improved with wireless propulsion. Safety No safety problems have been identified to date.
  28. 28. Granada: Tram entering underground section. (Photo: Francisco Calvo)
  29. 29. Conclusions • Wireless propulsion has been used successfully in Spain. • Wireless propulsion has clear benefits in terms of reducing visual impacts and thereby increasing support for LRT. • Measures including urban redevelopment, underground sections and wireless propulsion tend to increase costs. • This paper presents a high level survey of wireless LRT in Spain. • It was difficult to obtain detailed cost data (costs aggregated). • Further research: more detailed cost data, including maintenance and vehicle as systems age, and detailed follow- up with agencies on operating experience.
  30. 30. Vienna: Electric bus charging. (Photo: Andrew Nash) Questions?