SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 22
Treatment and Rehabilitation of
Drug Addiction
S. Parasuraman M.Pharm., Ph.D.,
Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Pharmacy,
AIMST University,
Bedong 08100, Malaysia.
Drug rehabilitation
• Drug rehabilitation (drug rehab) is the medical and
psychotherapeutic treatment used to enable a patient to cease
substance abuse and become a normal and productive member of
society.
• Drug rehabilitation addresses the physical and psychological
aspects of drug dependency.
– Eliminating the physical dependency may involve the use of
chemical antagonists that block the action of the addictive
drugs. E.g.: methadone for withdrawal symptoms of heroin,
disulfiram for alcohol addiction.
– The psychological dependency on drugs is harder to treat
because it involves learning new patterns of behavior. Drug
rehabilitation programs attempt to teach the patient new
methods of interacting in a drug-free environment.
Drug rehabilitation
• Rehabilitation programs need to work closely with the patient.
• The most successful programs offer a variety of options including
– residential inpatient treatment
– short-stay options
– outpatient treatment with local support groups
– extended care centers
– sober houses
– addiction counselling
• Inpatient treatment is best accomplished when physicians and
nurses are available around the clock to ensure a safe withdrawal
from alcohol and other drugs.
• Rehabilitation is probably the hardest thing that an addict will have
to accomplish. It is not unusual for an individual to relapse or fall off
the wagon and resume drug or alcohol abuse.
Drug rehabilitation
• Detoxification alone is ineffective.
• The National Inst. on Drug Abuse (NIDA) recommends
detoxification followed by both medication and behavioral
therapy followed by relapse prevention.
• Purpose of Drug rehabilitation:
• Drug rehabilitation program if proved to be successful, that
will avoid many legal, psychological, financial, physical and
social consequences caused particularly by extreme drug
abuse.
Types of behavioral therapy
• Detoxification
• Group therapy:
– Cognitive-behavioral therapy
– Multidimensional family therapy
• Motivational interviewing
• Motivational incentives
• Miscellaneous: Lectures, Written Work, Holistic activities
Detoxification
• Every patient is required to follow the rules within the
recovery program to avoid any chances of relapse.
• The residential drug addiction treatment programs generally
offer varied therapeutic sessions that assist individuals in
enhancing their health.
Detoxification
• A safe detoxification process is initiated, overseen by a medical
doctor and nursing team. Once this has been successfully achieved
the patient is ready to start their program of recovery.
• There are several types of detoxification processes carried out
which offer help from drug addiction. These include:
– inpatient treatment
– out-patient treatment
– extended care and local support groups
– addiction counselling
– medical care
– Some rehab centers may also offer gender and age specific programs.
• Detoxification required minimum 30 days hospital administration.
During the stay, the patient will be offered round the clock medical
care and a comprehensive schedule consisting of counseling,
therapy, and recreational activities.
Group Therapy
• Starting with counseling and detoxification, the treatment
progresses through numerous stages such as, group therapy
and family therapy.
• The idea of group therapy is to share examples of addiction
related consequences.
• Sharing the feelings related to past and present such as guilt
and shame can help the affected person with acceptance and
recovery.
• In a group therapy session, an addict is able to contribute and
listen to stories and other insights toward the reasons for drug
addiction, and how to avoid triggers, and how to successfully
live a sober life.
• Duration of the therapy: weeks to month
Group Therapy
• Mode of the treatment: personal approach. Once individual
therapy is successfully completed, it will leave the addict in a
position to direct their life on a healthy path.
• Objective of the individual and group therapy sessions is the
creation of a support network to leave healthy life.
• Many of the facilities offer intensive therapy, which in some
cases is needed if the addict suffers from suicide tendancies,
depression, or other psychological issues.
• Daily responsibilities and activities are given to each addict,
which creates a sense of independence.
• This may be the first time in the addict’s life that he or she has
had responsibilities.
• Family members also require learning how to behave and
interact with the addict particularly if the addiction has
sustained for several years.
Group Therapy
– Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which seeks to help
patients to recognize, avoid and cope with situations in
which they are most likely to relapse.
– Multidimensional family therapy, which is designed to
support recovery of the patient by improving family
functioning.
• Motivational interviewing, which is designed to increase
patient motivation to change behavior and enter treatment.
• Motivational incentives, which uses positive reinforcement to
encourage abstinence from the addictive substance.
• Lectures: These lectures are delivered by qualified and well
trained people and these are focused upon addiction and
related issues regarding dysfunctional behaviors which are
helpful for the addict’s recovery.
• Written Work: This may include writing about ones life, their
addiction history and formally going through various steps of
treatment Process involved in rehabilitation.
• Holistic activities: exercise, massage, meditation and yoga are
often part of the recovery program.
Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction
• There are many different options for treatment.
• There are both inpatient and outpatient centers, and each alcohol
rehab facility has their own programs designed for treatment.
• One of the most crucial steps in attending an alcohol rehab center is
the detoxification process.
• During this stage, many people are learning to live without alcohol
for the first time in a long time.
• Detoxication can be dangerous, and an alcoholic’s body can go into
shock when they are flushing the toxins out of their body.
• Rehab professionals are trained to treat individuals as they go
through the process of detoxication and withdrawal, and their
expertise can make the difference between life and death.
Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction
• In certain cases of extreme alcoholism, a person can go through
delirium, which can include symptoms so severe as seizure or even
cardiac arrest.
• Without the proper treatment, detoxication can be fatal.
• By using the proper medications, these withdrawal symptoms can be
treated and help alcoholics get through this process more easily.
• A patient who shows up an alcohol-withdrawal syndrome should be
considered to be in lethal condition and attention given to hydration
and electrolytes, vitamins, especially high-dose thiamine
administered.
Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction
• Sometime the sedating medication that is given for suppressing
withdrawal may elicit cross-tolerance with alcohol.
• To avoid cross tolerance, select a short-acting benzodiazepine such as
oxazepam at a dose of 15-30 mg every 6-8 hours according to the stage
and severity of withdrawal.
• Anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine have been shown to be
effective in alcohol withdrawal.
• After medical evaluation, uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal can be
treated effectively on an outpatient basis.
• When there are medical problems, a history of seizures, or
simultaneous dependence on other drugs, hospitalization is required.
Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction
Drugs for alcohol addiction:
• Disulfiram, Naltrexone, Acamprosate
• Disulfiram blocks aldehyde dehydrogenase and metabolism of ethanol,
which results accumulation of acetaldehyde. Accumulation of acetaldehyde
produces an unpleasant flushing reaction when alcohol is ingested.
• Naltrexone (adjunct therapy) an opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the
reinforcing properties of alcohol. Chronic administration of naltrexone
resulted in a decreased rate of relapse to alcohol drinking.
• Acamprosate (attenuate one of the mechanisms that lead to relapse) is a
competitive inhibitor of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate
receptor.
Rehabilitation for heroin addiction
Detoxification
• Thus the primary objective of detoxification is to relieve
withdrawal symptoms while patients adjust to a drug-free
state.
• The first phase in the treatment of heroin addiction is to
minimize the severity of withdrawal symptoms and other
medical complications.
• This is done with several synthetic drugs that duplicate heroin
in the body but can be given in tapered doses until the
addicted person can eventually be drug free.
Rehabilitation for heroin addiction
• Buprenorphine
• Buprenorphine is the newest medication for treating opiate
addiction. It binds to the same receptors as
morphine/heroin but does not produce the same effects.
• It is much safer than other detoxification medications and in
some combinations will block the euphoria of other opiates
after ingestion.
• Buprenorphine, along with other medications, is an effective
detoxification medication in that it produces a lower level of
dependence thus making the transition to drug-free status.
• less uncomfortable.
• Methadone treatment has been used for more than 30 years to effectively
to treat opioid addiction.
• Methadone used for heroin withdrawal treatment
• Opioid acts – 4to 6 hr
• Methadone acts – 24-36 hr
• Methadone has ability to eliminate cravings
• Its also act μ (mu) and NMDA receptor
• Used for treatment of heroin withdrawal
• Heroin withdrawal can be treated by
– Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT)
– Buprenorphine therapy
– Buprenorphine + naloxone therapy
– Behavioral therapy
• Other agents: Clonidine
Rehabilitation for heroin addiction
Methadone therapy for Heroin Addiction
Rehabilitation for heroin addiction
• A third method of treating opioid withdrawal involves
activation of the endogenous opioid system without
medication.
Rehabilitation for cocaine addiction
• Full-blown paranoid psychosis
• Cocaine addiction may lead to increasing
irritability, restlessness, and paranoia. This can often result in
full-blown paranoid psychosis, in which the user loses touch
with reality and experiences auditory hallucinations.
• Disturbances in heart rhythms
• Injecting cocaine can cause severe allergic
reactions, disturbances in heart rhythms, chest
pain, strokes, seizures, headaches, and instant heart attacks.
Rehabilitation for cocaine addiction
• Treatment:
– No medicine showed efficacy against cocaine addiction.
– Animal models suggest that enhancing GABAergic inhibition can
reduce reinstatement of cocaine self-administration, and a controlled
clinical trial of topiramate (TOPAMAX) showed a significant reduction
in cocaine use.
– A different approach was taken using modafinil, a medication that
increases alertness and is approved for the treatment of narcolepsy.
– Behavioral therapy
Thank you

More Related Content

What's hot

Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPT
Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPTSubstance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPT
Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPT
Nithiy Uday
 
Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16   Prevention Of Substance AbuseChapter 16   Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Justin Gatewood
 

What's hot (20)

Substance abuse treatment
Substance abuse treatmentSubstance abuse treatment
Substance abuse treatment
 
Drug Abuse
Drug AbuseDrug Abuse
Drug Abuse
 
Community Psychiatry
Community PsychiatryCommunity Psychiatry
Community Psychiatry
 
Psychotherapy for drug addiction
Psychotherapy for drug addictionPsychotherapy for drug addiction
Psychotherapy for drug addiction
 
Drug Abuse and its Prevention
Drug Abuse and its PreventionDrug Abuse and its Prevention
Drug Abuse and its Prevention
 
Drug abuse
Drug abuseDrug abuse
Drug abuse
 
Drug abuse
Drug abuseDrug abuse
Drug abuse
 
Psychosocial rehabilitation
Psychosocial rehabilitationPsychosocial rehabilitation
Psychosocial rehabilitation
 
DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION PRESENTATION
DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION PRESENTATIONDRUG ABUSE PREVENTION PRESENTATION
DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION PRESENTATION
 
Psychiatry and law
Psychiatry  and lawPsychiatry  and law
Psychiatry and law
 
DRUG ADDICTION
DRUG ADDICTIONDRUG ADDICTION
DRUG ADDICTION
 
Neurobiology of addiction
Neurobiology of addictionNeurobiology of addiction
Neurobiology of addiction
 
Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPT
Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPTSubstance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPT
Substance Abuse, Psychiatric Nursing, B. Sc (N) PPT
 
Substance Abuse Prevention
Substance Abuse PreventionSubstance Abuse Prevention
Substance Abuse Prevention
 
Substance abuse
Substance abuseSubstance abuse
Substance abuse
 
Substance use disorder
Substance use disorderSubstance use disorder
Substance use disorder
 
Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16   Prevention Of Substance AbuseChapter 16   Prevention Of Substance Abuse
Chapter 16 Prevention Of Substance Abuse
 
Psychopharmacology
PsychopharmacologyPsychopharmacology
Psychopharmacology
 
Alcohol & Drug Abuse
Alcohol &  Drug  AbuseAlcohol &  Drug  Abuse
Alcohol & Drug Abuse
 
Psychosurgery .pptx
Psychosurgery .pptxPsychosurgery .pptx
Psychosurgery .pptx
 

Viewers also liked

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment
Principles of Drug Addiction TreatmentPrinciples of Drug Addiction Treatment
Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment
Pk Doctors
 
How to write architectural thesis
How to write architectural thesisHow to write architectural thesis
How to write architectural thesis
Pranay Kumar Tode
 

Viewers also liked (7)

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment
Principles of Drug Addiction TreatmentPrinciples of Drug Addiction Treatment
Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment
 
Building and evaluating a community-based, immersion rural health experience
Building and evaluating a community-based, immersion rural health experienceBuilding and evaluating a community-based, immersion rural health experience
Building and evaluating a community-based, immersion rural health experience
 
Raveen Dhami Portfolio '09-'13
Raveen Dhami Portfolio '09-'13Raveen Dhami Portfolio '09-'13
Raveen Dhami Portfolio '09-'13
 
Thesis drug rehab and detox
Thesis   drug rehab and detoxThesis   drug rehab and detox
Thesis drug rehab and detox
 
How to write architectural thesis
How to write architectural thesisHow to write architectural thesis
How to write architectural thesis
 
2010 Thesis Project
2010 Thesis Project2010 Thesis Project
2010 Thesis Project
 
Architectural thesis-manual
Architectural thesis-manualArchitectural thesis-manual
Architectural thesis-manual
 

Similar to Treatment and rehabilitation of drug addiction

df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016
df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016
df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016
zelko mustac
 
Medical solutions
Medical solutionsMedical solutions
Medical solutions
fitango
 
Treatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docx
Treatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docxTreatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docx
Treatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docx
juliennehar
 
Drug Rehabilitation.pdf
Drug Rehabilitation.pdfDrug Rehabilitation.pdf
Drug Rehabilitation.pdf
personal
 

Similar to Treatment and rehabilitation of drug addiction (20)

Inhalant Addiction | Amphetamine Addiction | Cocaine Addiction | OxyContin Ad...
Inhalant Addiction | Amphetamine Addiction | Cocaine Addiction | OxyContin Ad...Inhalant Addiction | Amphetamine Addiction | Cocaine Addiction | OxyContin Ad...
Inhalant Addiction | Amphetamine Addiction | Cocaine Addiction | OxyContin Ad...
 
df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016
df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016
df_treatmentapproaches_1_2016
 
Treatment of addiction.pptx
Treatment of addiction.pptxTreatment of addiction.pptx
Treatment of addiction.pptx
 
Treatment of opioid addiction. ihi
Treatment of opioid addiction. ihiTreatment of opioid addiction. ihi
Treatment of opioid addiction. ihi
 
Chapter15 Substance Abuse Treatment
Chapter15 Substance Abuse TreatmentChapter15 Substance Abuse Treatment
Chapter15 Substance Abuse Treatment
 
Goldberg Chapter 15
Goldberg Chapter 15Goldberg Chapter 15
Goldberg Chapter 15
 
Drug Rehabilitation Treatment
Drug Rehabilitation TreatmentDrug Rehabilitation Treatment
Drug Rehabilitation Treatment
 
Treatment
TreatmentTreatment
Treatment
 
A long journey from inebriate asylums
A long journey from inebriate asylumsA long journey from inebriate asylums
A long journey from inebriate asylums
 
Nice guidance on smoking cessation in mental health settings
Nice guidance on smoking cessation in mental health settingsNice guidance on smoking cessation in mental health settings
Nice guidance on smoking cessation in mental health settings
 
Medical solutions
Medical solutionsMedical solutions
Medical solutions
 
Addiction treatment cocaine heroin marijuana meth
Addiction treatment   cocaine  heroin  marijuana  methAddiction treatment   cocaine  heroin  marijuana  meth
Addiction treatment cocaine heroin marijuana meth
 
Treatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docx
Treatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docxTreatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docx
Treatments for Unipolar Depression • Around half of person.docx
 
Drug Rehab In Prisons
Drug Rehab In PrisonsDrug Rehab In Prisons
Drug Rehab In Prisons
 
Substance abuse and treatment final presentation
Substance abuse and treatment final presentationSubstance abuse and treatment final presentation
Substance abuse and treatment final presentation
 
PSYCHOPHARMCOLOGY- INTRODUCTION.pdf
PSYCHOPHARMCOLOGY- INTRODUCTION.pdfPSYCHOPHARMCOLOGY- INTRODUCTION.pdf
PSYCHOPHARMCOLOGY- INTRODUCTION.pdf
 
Tx 1 dupont
Tx 1 dupontTx 1 dupont
Tx 1 dupont
 
Drug And Alcohol Abuse Treatment Programs
Drug And Alcohol Abuse Treatment Programs Drug And Alcohol Abuse Treatment Programs
Drug And Alcohol Abuse Treatment Programs
 
Drug Rehabilitation.pdf
Drug Rehabilitation.pdfDrug Rehabilitation.pdf
Drug Rehabilitation.pdf
 
Various Drug & Alcohol Addiction Treatment Options
Various Drug & Alcohol Addiction Treatment OptionsVarious Drug & Alcohol Addiction Treatment Options
Various Drug & Alcohol Addiction Treatment Options
 

More from Subramani Parasuraman

More from Subramani Parasuraman (20)

Role of preclinical studies in drug discovery
Role of preclinical studies in drug discoveryRole of preclinical studies in drug discovery
Role of preclinical studies in drug discovery
 
Tolerance, autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases.pptx
Tolerance, autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases.pptxTolerance, autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases.pptx
Tolerance, autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases.pptx
 
Introduction to pharmacology (For Allied health students)
Introduction to pharmacology (For Allied health students)Introduction to pharmacology (For Allied health students)
Introduction to pharmacology (For Allied health students)
 
Pharmacodynamics - Introduction (Allied health students)
Pharmacodynamics - Introduction (Allied health students)Pharmacodynamics - Introduction (Allied health students)
Pharmacodynamics - Introduction (Allied health students)
 
Sustainability in preclinical drug discovery.pptx
Sustainability in preclinical drug discovery.pptxSustainability in preclinical drug discovery.pptx
Sustainability in preclinical drug discovery.pptx
 
Role of preclinical studies in drug discovery.pptx
Role of preclinical studies in drug discovery.pptxRole of preclinical studies in drug discovery.pptx
Role of preclinical studies in drug discovery.pptx
 
Research with animals and animal models.pptx
Research with animals and animal models.pptxResearch with animals and animal models.pptx
Research with animals and animal models.pptx
 
Nicotine and Tobacco
Nicotine and TobaccoNicotine and Tobacco
Nicotine and Tobacco
 
Statistical software.pptx
Statistical software.pptxStatistical software.pptx
Statistical software.pptx
 
Cerebellum and control of postures and movements.pptx
Cerebellum and control of postures and movements.pptxCerebellum and control of postures and movements.pptx
Cerebellum and control of postures and movements.pptx
 
Drugs Used in Renal Alteration
Drugs Used in Renal AlterationDrugs Used in Renal Alteration
Drugs Used in Renal Alteration
 
Drugs Used in Endocrine Alteration
Drugs Used in Endocrine AlterationDrugs Used in Endocrine Alteration
Drugs Used in Endocrine Alteration
 
Antidiabetic drugs
Antidiabetic drugsAntidiabetic drugs
Antidiabetic drugs
 
Pancreatic Hormones
Pancreatic HormonesPancreatic Hormones
Pancreatic Hormones
 
Terrestrial laboratory animals
Terrestrial laboratory animalsTerrestrial laboratory animals
Terrestrial laboratory animals
 
Drugs used in haematological disorders
Drugs used in haematological disordersDrugs used in haematological disorders
Drugs used in haematological disorders
 
Laboratory animals
Laboratory animalsLaboratory animals
Laboratory animals
 
Immunomodulators-1.pptx
Immunomodulators-1.pptxImmunomodulators-1.pptx
Immunomodulators-1.pptx
 
Immunomodulators - 3.pptx
Immunomodulators - 3.pptxImmunomodulators - 3.pptx
Immunomodulators - 3.pptx
 
Immunomodulators - 2.pptx
Immunomodulators - 2.pptxImmunomodulators - 2.pptx
Immunomodulators - 2.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
中 央社
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
CaitlinCummins3
 

Recently uploaded (20)

An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in HinduismAn overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
An overview of the various scriptures in Hinduism
 
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDFThe Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Free Study Material PDF
 
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
Mattingly "AI and Prompt Design: LLMs with NER"
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge AppAn Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
An Overview of the Odoo 17 Knowledge App
 
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽會考英聽
 
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life PowerpointBook Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
Book Review of Run For Your Life Powerpoint
 
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
BỘ LUYỆN NGHE TIẾNG ANH 8 GLOBAL SUCCESS CẢ NĂM (GỒM 12 UNITS, MỖI UNIT GỒM 3...
 
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & SystemsOSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems
 
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer  Multilingual LearnersSupporting Newcomer  Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
 
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
24 ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH SỞ GIÁO DỤC HẢI DƯ...
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of TransportBasic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
 
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical PrinciplesTrauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
Trauma-Informed Leadership - Five Practical Principles
 
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUMDEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
DEMONSTRATION LESSON IN ENGLISH 4 MATATAG CURRICULUM
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
Climbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscapingClimbers and Creepers used in landscaping
Climbers and Creepers used in landscaping
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
SURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project researchSURVEY I created for uni project research
SURVEY I created for uni project research
 

Treatment and rehabilitation of drug addiction

  • 1. Treatment and Rehabilitation of Drug Addiction S. Parasuraman M.Pharm., Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Bedong 08100, Malaysia.
  • 2. Drug rehabilitation • Drug rehabilitation (drug rehab) is the medical and psychotherapeutic treatment used to enable a patient to cease substance abuse and become a normal and productive member of society. • Drug rehabilitation addresses the physical and psychological aspects of drug dependency. – Eliminating the physical dependency may involve the use of chemical antagonists that block the action of the addictive drugs. E.g.: methadone for withdrawal symptoms of heroin, disulfiram for alcohol addiction. – The psychological dependency on drugs is harder to treat because it involves learning new patterns of behavior. Drug rehabilitation programs attempt to teach the patient new methods of interacting in a drug-free environment.
  • 3. Drug rehabilitation • Rehabilitation programs need to work closely with the patient. • The most successful programs offer a variety of options including – residential inpatient treatment – short-stay options – outpatient treatment with local support groups – extended care centers – sober houses – addiction counselling • Inpatient treatment is best accomplished when physicians and nurses are available around the clock to ensure a safe withdrawal from alcohol and other drugs. • Rehabilitation is probably the hardest thing that an addict will have to accomplish. It is not unusual for an individual to relapse or fall off the wagon and resume drug or alcohol abuse.
  • 4. Drug rehabilitation • Detoxification alone is ineffective. • The National Inst. on Drug Abuse (NIDA) recommends detoxification followed by both medication and behavioral therapy followed by relapse prevention. • Purpose of Drug rehabilitation: • Drug rehabilitation program if proved to be successful, that will avoid many legal, psychological, financial, physical and social consequences caused particularly by extreme drug abuse.
  • 5. Types of behavioral therapy • Detoxification • Group therapy: – Cognitive-behavioral therapy – Multidimensional family therapy • Motivational interviewing • Motivational incentives • Miscellaneous: Lectures, Written Work, Holistic activities
  • 6. Detoxification • Every patient is required to follow the rules within the recovery program to avoid any chances of relapse. • The residential drug addiction treatment programs generally offer varied therapeutic sessions that assist individuals in enhancing their health.
  • 7. Detoxification • A safe detoxification process is initiated, overseen by a medical doctor and nursing team. Once this has been successfully achieved the patient is ready to start their program of recovery. • There are several types of detoxification processes carried out which offer help from drug addiction. These include: – inpatient treatment – out-patient treatment – extended care and local support groups – addiction counselling – medical care – Some rehab centers may also offer gender and age specific programs. • Detoxification required minimum 30 days hospital administration. During the stay, the patient will be offered round the clock medical care and a comprehensive schedule consisting of counseling, therapy, and recreational activities.
  • 8. Group Therapy • Starting with counseling and detoxification, the treatment progresses through numerous stages such as, group therapy and family therapy. • The idea of group therapy is to share examples of addiction related consequences. • Sharing the feelings related to past and present such as guilt and shame can help the affected person with acceptance and recovery. • In a group therapy session, an addict is able to contribute and listen to stories and other insights toward the reasons for drug addiction, and how to avoid triggers, and how to successfully live a sober life. • Duration of the therapy: weeks to month
  • 9. Group Therapy • Mode of the treatment: personal approach. Once individual therapy is successfully completed, it will leave the addict in a position to direct their life on a healthy path. • Objective of the individual and group therapy sessions is the creation of a support network to leave healthy life. • Many of the facilities offer intensive therapy, which in some cases is needed if the addict suffers from suicide tendancies, depression, or other psychological issues. • Daily responsibilities and activities are given to each addict, which creates a sense of independence. • This may be the first time in the addict’s life that he or she has had responsibilities. • Family members also require learning how to behave and interact with the addict particularly if the addiction has sustained for several years.
  • 10. Group Therapy – Cognitive-behavioral therapy, which seeks to help patients to recognize, avoid and cope with situations in which they are most likely to relapse. – Multidimensional family therapy, which is designed to support recovery of the patient by improving family functioning.
  • 11. • Motivational interviewing, which is designed to increase patient motivation to change behavior and enter treatment. • Motivational incentives, which uses positive reinforcement to encourage abstinence from the addictive substance. • Lectures: These lectures are delivered by qualified and well trained people and these are focused upon addiction and related issues regarding dysfunctional behaviors which are helpful for the addict’s recovery. • Written Work: This may include writing about ones life, their addiction history and formally going through various steps of treatment Process involved in rehabilitation. • Holistic activities: exercise, massage, meditation and yoga are often part of the recovery program.
  • 12. Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction • There are many different options for treatment. • There are both inpatient and outpatient centers, and each alcohol rehab facility has their own programs designed for treatment. • One of the most crucial steps in attending an alcohol rehab center is the detoxification process. • During this stage, many people are learning to live without alcohol for the first time in a long time. • Detoxication can be dangerous, and an alcoholic’s body can go into shock when they are flushing the toxins out of their body. • Rehab professionals are trained to treat individuals as they go through the process of detoxication and withdrawal, and their expertise can make the difference between life and death.
  • 13. Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction • In certain cases of extreme alcoholism, a person can go through delirium, which can include symptoms so severe as seizure or even cardiac arrest. • Without the proper treatment, detoxication can be fatal. • By using the proper medications, these withdrawal symptoms can be treated and help alcoholics get through this process more easily. • A patient who shows up an alcohol-withdrawal syndrome should be considered to be in lethal condition and attention given to hydration and electrolytes, vitamins, especially high-dose thiamine administered.
  • 14. Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction • Sometime the sedating medication that is given for suppressing withdrawal may elicit cross-tolerance with alcohol. • To avoid cross tolerance, select a short-acting benzodiazepine such as oxazepam at a dose of 15-30 mg every 6-8 hours according to the stage and severity of withdrawal. • Anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine have been shown to be effective in alcohol withdrawal. • After medical evaluation, uncomplicated alcohol withdrawal can be treated effectively on an outpatient basis. • When there are medical problems, a history of seizures, or simultaneous dependence on other drugs, hospitalization is required.
  • 15. Rehabilitation for alcohol addiction Drugs for alcohol addiction: • Disulfiram, Naltrexone, Acamprosate • Disulfiram blocks aldehyde dehydrogenase and metabolism of ethanol, which results accumulation of acetaldehyde. Accumulation of acetaldehyde produces an unpleasant flushing reaction when alcohol is ingested. • Naltrexone (adjunct therapy) an opioid receptor antagonist that blocks the reinforcing properties of alcohol. Chronic administration of naltrexone resulted in a decreased rate of relapse to alcohol drinking. • Acamprosate (attenuate one of the mechanisms that lead to relapse) is a competitive inhibitor of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptor.
  • 16. Rehabilitation for heroin addiction Detoxification • Thus the primary objective of detoxification is to relieve withdrawal symptoms while patients adjust to a drug-free state. • The first phase in the treatment of heroin addiction is to minimize the severity of withdrawal symptoms and other medical complications. • This is done with several synthetic drugs that duplicate heroin in the body but can be given in tapered doses until the addicted person can eventually be drug free.
  • 17. Rehabilitation for heroin addiction • Buprenorphine • Buprenorphine is the newest medication for treating opiate addiction. It binds to the same receptors as morphine/heroin but does not produce the same effects. • It is much safer than other detoxification medications and in some combinations will block the euphoria of other opiates after ingestion. • Buprenorphine, along with other medications, is an effective detoxification medication in that it produces a lower level of dependence thus making the transition to drug-free status. • less uncomfortable.
  • 18. • Methadone treatment has been used for more than 30 years to effectively to treat opioid addiction. • Methadone used for heroin withdrawal treatment • Opioid acts – 4to 6 hr • Methadone acts – 24-36 hr • Methadone has ability to eliminate cravings • Its also act μ (mu) and NMDA receptor • Used for treatment of heroin withdrawal • Heroin withdrawal can be treated by – Methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) – Buprenorphine therapy – Buprenorphine + naloxone therapy – Behavioral therapy • Other agents: Clonidine Rehabilitation for heroin addiction Methadone therapy for Heroin Addiction
  • 19. Rehabilitation for heroin addiction • A third method of treating opioid withdrawal involves activation of the endogenous opioid system without medication.
  • 20. Rehabilitation for cocaine addiction • Full-blown paranoid psychosis • Cocaine addiction may lead to increasing irritability, restlessness, and paranoia. This can often result in full-blown paranoid psychosis, in which the user loses touch with reality and experiences auditory hallucinations. • Disturbances in heart rhythms • Injecting cocaine can cause severe allergic reactions, disturbances in heart rhythms, chest pain, strokes, seizures, headaches, and instant heart attacks.
  • 21. Rehabilitation for cocaine addiction • Treatment: – No medicine showed efficacy against cocaine addiction. – Animal models suggest that enhancing GABAergic inhibition can reduce reinstatement of cocaine self-administration, and a controlled clinical trial of topiramate (TOPAMAX) showed a significant reduction in cocaine use. – A different approach was taken using modafinil, a medication that increases alertness and is approved for the treatment of narcolepsy. – Behavioral therapy