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Design, development and delivery costs of Wired Class
Fixed and                   Activity                       Unit       Number of Unit cost    Total costs
variable costs                                                          units     (£)            (£)
Capital costs Web server (hardware & software)              £            1       3000          3000 a
                                                            £            1        100           100 b
              Programming language package                  £            1        395            395
              Photo editor                                  £            1         70            70
              CGI scripts package                           £            1         80            80
              Domain name registration                      £            1         18            18
              HTML editor                                   £            1         99            99
              Maths grapher                                 £            1         45            45
              Total                                                                            3,707 a
                                                                                                807 b
Module        Rewriting course content for the Web        Screen         252       C1        (2525C1)/
dependent     (lesson, examples, self-tests,              pages                                Screen
elements      exercises, send to the teachers tasks,                                         pages/hour
              on-line discussion topics and Web
              links)
              Writing HTML pages, including               HTML           252       C2         (2525C2)/
              writing HTML pages and layout and           pages                                 HTML
              hyperlinks design                                                               pages/hour
              Designing and developing graphics          Graphics        126       C3         (1265C3)/
                                                                                            Graphics/hour
              Designing interactive graphs and            Graphs         13        C4          (135C4)/
              scripts                                                                        graphs/hour
              Adapting & programming Java and           Code lines       330       C5       (235C5)/ code
              Java Scripts                                                                    lines/hour
              Programming CGI scripts                   Script code     4420       C5         (2215C5)/
                                                            line                              script code
                                                                                               line/hour
              Designing and developing on-line            HTML            9        C2           (95C2)/
              tests, including writing HTML pages         pages                               pages/hour
              and layout and hyperlinks design
                                                         Graphics         9        C3           (95C3)/
                                                                                            graphics/hour
                                                        CGI script       60        C4       (95C4)/ script
                                                        code line                           code line/hour
              Revising course materials by content       Pages           252       C5         (2525C5)/
              experts                                                                           revised
                                                                                              page/hour
Module-       Designing interaction tools (e.g., chat     Pages          29        C2          (295C2)/
independent   and discussion boards), including                                               pages/hour
elements      writing HTML pages and layout and
              hyperlinks design
                                                         Graphic          5        C3           (55C3)/
                                                                                            graphics/hour
                                                        Script line      130       C4         (1305C4)/
                                                                                             script code
                                                                                               line/hour
              Developing administration tools             Pages          14        C2          (145C2)/
              (logging-in and logging-out, grading,                                          pages/hour
              etc.), including writing HTML pages
              and layout and hyperlinks design.
                                                         Graphic          7        C3          (75C3)/
                                                                                            graphics/hour
Fixed and                      Activity                    Unit      Number of Unit cost    Total costs
variable costs                                                         units     (£)            (£)
                                                         Script line    190      C4         (1905C4)/
                                                                                            script code
                                                                                             line/hour
                 Developing support tools(on-line          Pages       169        C2        (1695C2)/
                 board, teacher today page, on-line                                         pages/hour
                 help, etc.), including writing HTML
                 pages, layout and hyperlinks design.
                                                          Graphic      112        C3         (1125C3)/
                                                                                           graphics/hour
                                                         Script line   80         C4          (805C4)/
                                                                                            script code
                                                                                              line/hour
                 Testing by experts                        Pages       212        C5         (2125C5)/
                                                                                            pages/hour
Total Fixed                                                  £                               (2525C1+
costs                                                                                         4725C2+
                                                                                              2595C3+
                                                                                              5225C4+
                                                                                              7085C5)
Variable costs Tuition, support and assessment           Hour/day       2         C6            25C6
Recurrent      Site maintenance                          Hour/week      2         C7            25C7
costs          Running the Web server
                                       Maintenance a     Hour/week      2         C7          25C7 a
                                        Connection a      £/month      500                   5005C7 a
                           Virtual Web server (rent) b    £/month       50                     50 b
Total variable                                            £/week                             (45C6)+
and recurrent                                                                               (1295C7) a
                                                                                             (45C6)+
                                                                                           (25C7)+12.5b
Total costs
a Purchasing a Web server model
b Renting a virtual Web server model
Rules-based estimates for design and development costs
Cost contributor                          Measure      Productivity     Requirement       Cost/hour
                                                          rule            per the
                                                                          course
Rewriting course content for the Web    Pages/hour           3              252               10
Writing HTML pages                      HTML                 5              464               10
                                        page/hour
Designing and developing graphics       Graph/hour           3               252              15
Designing interactive graphs and        Interactive          2               13               20
scripts                                 graph/hour
Adapting & programming Java, Java       Script code          10             5210              20
Scripts and CGI scripts                 line/hour
Revising course materials and design    Page/hour            9               464              20
by content and design experts
                                        Hour/day             2*              40               10
                 Tuition and support
                                        Hour/day             2               16               10
                    Site maintenance
                                        Hour/week            2               16               10
           Web server maintenance a
Web server connection a                 £/week              125             £1000              -
                                        £/week              12.5             £100              -
          Virtual Web server (rent) b
*
  This time estimation is based on 32 students, studying one course, two times a week and for 8 weeks.
a
  Purchasing a Web server model
b
  Renting a virtual Web server model
Costs of Wired Class


                    Type of costs                  Costs (£)            %
Capital costs                                   3,707 a        18.20    a

                                                807 b          4.88 b
                                                12,347         -
Course-dependent development costs
                                                2,315          -
Course-independent development costs
Total development costs                         14,662         74.32 a
                                                               92.28 b
Total fixed costs                               18,369 a       93.11 a
                                                15,469 b       97.36 b
Tuition, support and Web site maintenance costs 960            -
                                                1,040          5.11
Server maintenance and connection re-current
costs a
Virtual web server re-current costs b           100            .60
            a
Total costs                                     20,369
            b
Total costs                                     16,529
a Model a: Purchasing a Web server
b Model b: Renting a virtual Web server
The elements of student-related costs


      Type of cost              Using school LAN                     Cost
                                                                      (£)
 Capital costs            LAN with shared modem                     16,000
                          (infrastructure and computers for
                          6 students)
                          Network printer                             400
                          Web clients                                  0
                          Textbooks                                    10
 Recurrent costs          Network operation and               10% of the LAN cost
                          maintenance                              per year
                          Connection charge per minute                .02
The variable and fixed costs over the course life-cycle


                       s1     s2    s3    s4    s5    s6    s7    s8    s9    s10   Total
        Costs (£)
Capital costs        3,707     0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0    0     3,707
Materials            14,662    0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0    0     14,662
development
Tuition & Web site    960     960   960   960   960   960   960   960   960   960 9,600
maintenance
Server               1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 10,400
maintenance &
connection
Variable costs       2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 20,000
Fixed costs          18,369 0       0     0     0     0     0     0     0     0 18,369
Total costs          20,369 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 38,369
The proportion of variable costs to fixed costs




                Fixed costs
                   48%                            Variable costs
                                                      52%
The cumulative fixed, variable and total costs over the course lifetime


Cumulative        s1     s2     s2      s4     s5     s6     s7     s8     s9    s10
Costs (£)
Fixed costs      18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369
Variable costs   2,000. 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
Total costs      20,369 22,369 24,369 26,369 28,369 30,369 32,369 34,369 36,369 38,369
The unit cost per course with increasing the number of courses


Number of courses              Course 1   Course 2   Course 3   Course 4 Course 5   Course 6 Total
Fixed and capital costs          3,707       0          0          0        0          0      3,707
Course-dependent elements       12,347     12,347     12,347     12,347   12,347     12,347  74,082
Course-independent elements      2,315       0          0          0        0          0      2,315
Tuition and support               960       960        960        960      960        960     5,760
Server costs                    1,040        0          0          0        0          0      1,040
Total costs                     20,369     13,307     13,307     13,307   13,307     13,307  86,904
Cumulative total costs          20,369     33,676     46,983     60,290   73,597     86,904     -
Cost per course                 20,369     16,838     15,661     15,072   14,719     14,484     -



Increasing the number of courses reduces the unit cost per course

                      25,000
               Cost




                      20,000                   Unit cost per course
                      15,000
                      10,000
                       5,000
                          0
                                 1         2         3      4         5       6
                                                                 Number of courses
4. Fixed and Variable Costs in Distance Education

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4. Fixed and Variable Costs in Distance Education

  • 1. Design, development and delivery costs of Wired Class Fixed and Activity Unit Number of Unit cost Total costs variable costs units (£) (£) Capital costs Web server (hardware & software) £ 1 3000 3000 a £ 1 100 100 b Programming language package £ 1 395 395 Photo editor £ 1 70 70 CGI scripts package £ 1 80 80 Domain name registration £ 1 18 18 HTML editor £ 1 99 99 Maths grapher £ 1 45 45 Total 3,707 a 807 b Module Rewriting course content for the Web Screen 252 C1 (2525C1)/ dependent (lesson, examples, self-tests, pages Screen elements exercises, send to the teachers tasks, pages/hour on-line discussion topics and Web links) Writing HTML pages, including HTML 252 C2 (2525C2)/ writing HTML pages and layout and pages HTML hyperlinks design pages/hour Designing and developing graphics Graphics 126 C3 (1265C3)/ Graphics/hour Designing interactive graphs and Graphs 13 C4 (135C4)/ scripts graphs/hour Adapting & programming Java and Code lines 330 C5 (235C5)/ code Java Scripts lines/hour Programming CGI scripts Script code 4420 C5 (2215C5)/ line script code line/hour Designing and developing on-line HTML 9 C2 (95C2)/ tests, including writing HTML pages pages pages/hour and layout and hyperlinks design Graphics 9 C3 (95C3)/ graphics/hour CGI script 60 C4 (95C4)/ script code line code line/hour Revising course materials by content Pages 252 C5 (2525C5)/ experts revised page/hour Module- Designing interaction tools (e.g., chat Pages 29 C2 (295C2)/ independent and discussion boards), including pages/hour elements writing HTML pages and layout and hyperlinks design Graphic 5 C3 (55C3)/ graphics/hour Script line 130 C4 (1305C4)/ script code line/hour Developing administration tools Pages 14 C2 (145C2)/ (logging-in and logging-out, grading, pages/hour etc.), including writing HTML pages and layout and hyperlinks design. Graphic 7 C3 (75C3)/ graphics/hour
  • 2. Fixed and Activity Unit Number of Unit cost Total costs variable costs units (£) (£) Script line 190 C4 (1905C4)/ script code line/hour Developing support tools(on-line Pages 169 C2 (1695C2)/ board, teacher today page, on-line pages/hour help, etc.), including writing HTML pages, layout and hyperlinks design. Graphic 112 C3 (1125C3)/ graphics/hour Script line 80 C4 (805C4)/ script code line/hour Testing by experts Pages 212 C5 (2125C5)/ pages/hour Total Fixed £ (2525C1+ costs 4725C2+ 2595C3+ 5225C4+ 7085C5) Variable costs Tuition, support and assessment Hour/day 2 C6 25C6 Recurrent Site maintenance Hour/week 2 C7 25C7 costs Running the Web server Maintenance a Hour/week 2 C7 25C7 a Connection a £/month 500 5005C7 a Virtual Web server (rent) b £/month 50 50 b Total variable £/week (45C6)+ and recurrent (1295C7) a (45C6)+ (25C7)+12.5b Total costs a Purchasing a Web server model b Renting a virtual Web server model
  • 3. Rules-based estimates for design and development costs Cost contributor Measure Productivity Requirement Cost/hour rule per the course Rewriting course content for the Web Pages/hour 3 252 10 Writing HTML pages HTML 5 464 10 page/hour Designing and developing graphics Graph/hour 3 252 15 Designing interactive graphs and Interactive 2 13 20 scripts graph/hour Adapting & programming Java, Java Script code 10 5210 20 Scripts and CGI scripts line/hour Revising course materials and design Page/hour 9 464 20 by content and design experts Hour/day 2* 40 10 Tuition and support Hour/day 2 16 10 Site maintenance Hour/week 2 16 10 Web server maintenance a Web server connection a £/week 125 £1000 - £/week 12.5 £100 - Virtual Web server (rent) b * This time estimation is based on 32 students, studying one course, two times a week and for 8 weeks. a Purchasing a Web server model b Renting a virtual Web server model
  • 4. Costs of Wired Class Type of costs Costs (£) % Capital costs 3,707 a 18.20 a 807 b 4.88 b 12,347 - Course-dependent development costs 2,315 - Course-independent development costs Total development costs 14,662 74.32 a 92.28 b Total fixed costs 18,369 a 93.11 a 15,469 b 97.36 b Tuition, support and Web site maintenance costs 960 - 1,040 5.11 Server maintenance and connection re-current costs a Virtual web server re-current costs b 100 .60 a Total costs 20,369 b Total costs 16,529 a Model a: Purchasing a Web server b Model b: Renting a virtual Web server
  • 5. The elements of student-related costs Type of cost Using school LAN Cost (£) Capital costs LAN with shared modem 16,000 (infrastructure and computers for 6 students) Network printer 400 Web clients 0 Textbooks 10 Recurrent costs Network operation and 10% of the LAN cost maintenance per year Connection charge per minute .02
  • 6. The variable and fixed costs over the course life-cycle s1 s2 s3 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8 s9 s10 Total Costs (£) Capital costs 3,707 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3,707 Materials 14,662 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14,662 development Tuition & Web site 960 960 960 960 960 960 960 960 960 960 9,600 maintenance Server 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 1,040 10,400 maintenance & connection Variable costs 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 20,000 Fixed costs 18,369 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18,369 Total costs 20,369 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 38,369
  • 7. The proportion of variable costs to fixed costs Fixed costs 48% Variable costs 52%
  • 8. The cumulative fixed, variable and total costs over the course lifetime Cumulative s1 s2 s2 s4 s5 s6 s7 s8 s9 s10 Costs (£) Fixed costs 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 18,369 Variable costs 2,000. 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 Total costs 20,369 22,369 24,369 26,369 28,369 30,369 32,369 34,369 36,369 38,369
  • 9. The unit cost per course with increasing the number of courses Number of courses Course 1 Course 2 Course 3 Course 4 Course 5 Course 6 Total Fixed and capital costs 3,707 0 0 0 0 0 3,707 Course-dependent elements 12,347 12,347 12,347 12,347 12,347 12,347 74,082 Course-independent elements 2,315 0 0 0 0 0 2,315 Tuition and support 960 960 960 960 960 960 5,760 Server costs 1,040 0 0 0 0 0 1,040 Total costs 20,369 13,307 13,307 13,307 13,307 13,307 86,904 Cumulative total costs 20,369 33,676 46,983 60,290 73,597 86,904 - Cost per course 20,369 16,838 15,661 15,072 14,719 14,484 - Increasing the number of courses reduces the unit cost per course 25,000 Cost 20,000 Unit cost per course 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Number of courses