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Introduction to Philosophy
of the Human Person
CONTENT
DOING PHILOSOPHY
• What is philosophy?
• What is the difference
between knowledge and
wisdom?
OBJECTIVES
1. Distinguish a holistic
perspective from a partial
point of view
2. Define philosophy
3. Differentiate knowledge from
wisdom
DOING PHILOSOPHY
Doing philosophy helps us
think many things, including
those that leave us confused
or without an acceptable
answer.
The Meaning of Philosophy
and Philosophy of
the Human Person
Philosophy is a bunch of crap that
people do when they want to make
money but don’t want to work.
Philosophy is trying to answer
questions through observation and
thought. It could be a formula to life,
or an informed way of life
The Meaning of Philosophy
and Philosophy of
the Human Person
Philosophy is the different people’s
views on life, death, and after-life.
Philosophy is wanting to know more
than the obvious; clarifying (using
reason and logic) answers to
questions-arguing.
The Meaning of Philosophy and
Philosophy of
the Human Person
Philosophy is how a person thinks
Philosophy is sitting around, smoking
cigarettes, and getting into deep
discussions about life’s little quirks.
Philosophy is a rational inquiry into the
nature of the universe, both physical and
metaphysical
The Meaning of Philosophy
and Philosophy of
the Human Person
Philosophy is an in-depth reasoning
about literary works (analyzing)
Philosophy is a search for truth
through the contemplation to reach a
higher sense of self or self-
actualization
The Meaning of Philosophy and
Philosophy of
the Human Person
Philosophy comes from the Greek work
“philosophia” which means "love of
wisdom," is a science where reason and
logic are used to understand reality and
answer questions of knowledge,
morality, and human nature.
It can be described as either a body of
knowledge or an intellectual activity.
The Meaning of Philosophy and
Philosophy of
the Human Person
• Philosophy as a body of knowledge
provides methodologies and insights
on how societal questions, such as
moral dilemmas of euthanasia or
same-sex marriage, can be
answered.
The Meaning of Philosophy and
Philosophy of
the Human Person
• On the other hand, philosophy as an
intellectual activity is an analytic
procedure of addressing individual
thought processes such as resolving
conflict and confusion, testing
positions, and analyzing beliefs.
• In all instances, doing philosophy is
prescribed by logic, reason, and ethics
leading to wisdom.
The Meaning of Philosophy and
Philosophy of
the Human Person
• Philosophy as applied to human
experience or everyday life denotes
the use of philosophy as an intellectual
activity.
• Also known as philosophy in life, this
concept is important because it serves
as the guiding principle on how one
ought to live life.
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
KNOWLEDGE
Quantitative: accumulation of
knowledge and information
Discovery of new truths
Descriptive knowledge
How to do certain things
Mastery of the outside world through
liberation from outside forces
Change of reality
Striving for certainty, regularity, and
predictability to plan for the future
Knowing how to deal with the expected
WISDOM
Qualitative: deeper understanding of
salient phenomena and events
Rediscovery of the significance of old
truths
Interpretative knowledge
Should I do certain things
Mastery of the inner world through
liberation from inner forces
Acceptance of reality
Acceptance of uncertainty, irregularity,
unpredictability, and impermanence
Knowing how to deal with the
unexpected and the unknown
GOALS
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
KNOWLEDGE
Scientific
Theoretical
Abstract, detached
Separation of form from content
Distinction between subject and object
Linear: final stage of formal operations
logos
impersonal
WISDOM
Spiritual
Applied
Concrete, involved
Integration of form and content
Synthesis of subject and object
Dialectic: beyond formal operations
mythos
Personal: intrapersonal and
interpersonal
APPROACH
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
KNOWLEDGE
time-bound: subject to political
and historical fluctuations
narrow: particularistic
Limited, domain-related
Fragmented, specialized,
selective
WISDOM
timeless: independent of
political and historical
fluctuations
broad, holistic
Unlimited, universal
Comprehensive, integrated
RANGE
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
KNOWLEDGE
Intelligence/cognition
Detached experience, i.e.,
studying books, listen to
lectures, conducting
experiments, objective
observations
Manipulation and control of
phenomena and events
WISDOM
Combination of cognition and
self-reflection
Personal life experiences
together with self-
awareness, determination,
and constancy to transcend
subjectivity and projections
Openness to experience
including the experience of
negativity, irregularity,
unpredictability,
contradictions, and ambiguity
through the development of
equanimity
ACQUISITION
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
KNOWLEDGE
Reversed U-shaped pattern
Influenced by cognitive
decline
May become outdated and
obsolete with time
WISDOM
Potentially positive
Influenced by openness to
experience, self-reflection,
self-awareness,
determination, and
constancy
Important at all stages of
the life course
RELATION TO AGING
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
By: Fountain Hendricks
(Proverbs 4:7) (Hosea 4:6)
Many people believe that Wisdom &
Knowledge is the same thing but it’s
not.
The COMPLIMENT one another but DO
NOT have the same value.
Knowledge is beneficial but Wisdom is
important.
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
KNOWLEDGE
Belief that knowledge is
potentially limitless
Tendency to believe in existing
knowledge if it is scientifically
arrived
Increased self-centeredness
because one believes that one
knows
Pride and a feeling of superiority
towards people with less intellectual
knowledge
Concerned about
individualistic and
particularistic issues
Negative feelings is
manipulation and control fails
WISDOM
Acceptance of the limits of
knowledge for human beings
Tendency to doubt existing
beliefs, values, knowledge,
and information
Diminished self-centeredness
because one knows that one
does not know
Sympathy and compassion for
others
Concerned about collective
and universal issues
Satisfaction and peacefulness
in spite of life’s vicissitudes
and uncertainties
EFFECTS ON THE KNOWER
Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom
Having knowledge will open your eyes,
having wisdom will open your mind.
Having knowledge will expand your
options, having wisdom will expand your
understanding.
Having knowledge will strengthen your
intellect but having wisdom will exalt
you.
Having knowledge will increase your
awareness but having wisdom will
increase your discernment.
Difference Between Knowledge and
Wisdom
Being knowledgeable will
empower you but being wise will
make you powerful.
Wisdom and Knowledge are like
brothers and sisters, they are
related but they have two different
personalities
DO WE NEED BOTH???
It is possible to have Knowledge
WITHOUT Wisdom and vice versa
but it NOT healthy,
More people have more
Knowledge than Wisdom why???
Because Knowledge can be
obtained easier that Wisdom.
DO WE NEED BOTH???
In order to gain Knowledge
about something the only thing
you must be willing to do is to
HEAR what is being said but in
order to gain Wisdom you must
be willing to LISTEN.
DO WE NEED BOTH???
The difference between hearing &
listening is that HEARING IS
EXTERNAL & LISTENING IS
INTERNAL.
BEING KNOWLEDGEABLE IS
SIMPLY STRENGTHENING YOUR
SENSES TO KNOW WHAT IS
AROUND YOU.
DO WE NEED BOTH???
Being wise is a little more
complicated than being
knowledgeable … why???
Because you have to learn how to
ALLOW information to ENTER
INTO YOU and not just be part of
you.
DO WE NEED BOTH???
In order to become wise,
remember the biblical principal..
“THE ONLY THINGS THAT
CHANGES YOU IS WHAT
ENTERS YOU”
Knowledge does not change
people, Wisdom does.
DO WE NEED BOTH???
Example:
Millions of people have knowledge
about the importance of obeying
the law …
but still see millions of people
breaking the law
DO WE NEED BOTH???
Example:
Many people have the knowledge
about how important it is to raise
their kids …
But unfortunately many parents
do not participate in the growth of
their children.
DO WE NEED BOTH???
WISDOM CHANGES YOU!!!
When people receive Wisdom
they become empowered to be
powerful which gives them the
ability TO DO THE RIGHT THING.
IT IS IMPORTANT TO GAIN
WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE SO
THAT YOU WON’T BECOME AN
EDUCATED FOOL
THE PRIMARY DIFFERENCE
KNOWLEDGE IS REVELATION BUT
WISDOM IS DIRECTION.
If you do not have revelation you
will be blinded and a blind person
will always perish because they
lack the ability to SEE what is going
on around them.
THE PRIMARY DIFFERENCE
HAVING A SENSE OF DIRECTION IS
THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IN
LIFE.
Knowing what to do WITHOUT
knowing how to get it done will
create massive frustration.
Knowing where to go but NOT
KNOWING how to get there will
create tremendous stress.
Knowledge INFORMS you that
you need a destination
while
Wisdom shows you HOW to
get to your destination
PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT
Philosophy is a system of beliefs about
reality.
It is one’s integrated view of the world.
It includes an understanding of the
nature of existence, man, and his role
in the world.
It is a necessary product of man’s
rational mind.
PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT
Concepts are of central importance to
an overall theory of cognition and the
mind.
Our thoughts, especially those that
express or involve propositions, are
analyzed and distinguished from one
another by appeal to various facts
involving concepts and our grasp of
them.
PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT
Similarly, our linguistic utterances that
express propositions also express
concepts, since concepts are normally
thought to be closely related to, or
even identified with, the meanings of
entities like predicates, adjectives, and
the like.
Our understanding and interaction
with the world also involves concepts
and our grasp of them.
PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT
Our understanding that a given thing is
a member of a given category is at
least partly in virtue of our grasp of
concepts, and so are our acts of
categorizing.
Such capacities involve our knowledge
in an essential way, and thus such
philosophical issues regarding our
epistemic capacities are tied to issues
about concepts and their nature.
PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS
It is an engagement in the search for
the meaning of life, its value and
relevance.
It is a process for finding significance in
existence.
PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS
Process philosophy is a longstanding
philosophical tradition that
emphasizes becoming and changing
over static being.
Process philosophy is characterized by
an attempt to reconcile the diverse
intuitions found in human experience
(such as religious, scientific, and
aesthetic) into a coherent holistic
scheme.
PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS
Process philosophy seeks a return to a
neo-classical realism that avoids
subjectivism.
This reconciliation of the intuitions of
objectivity and subjectivity, with a
concern for scientific findings, produces
the explicitly metaphysical speculation
that the world, at its most fundamental
level, is made up of momentary events of
experience rather than enduring material
substances.
PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS
Process philosophy speculates that these
momentary events, called “actual
occasions” or “actual entities,” are
essentially self-determining,
experiential, and internally related to
each other.
The human person is a society of billions
of these occasions (that is, the body),
which is organized and coordinated by a
single dominant occasion (that is, the
mind).
THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRIES
1.COMMON SENSE
– A basic ability to perceive,
understand, and judge things
that are shared by (common
to) nearly all people without
need for debate
THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRIES
2. SCIENTIFIC
– Based on or characterized by
the methods and principles of
science
THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRIES
3. PHILOSOPHICAL
– Relating or devoted to the
study of the fundamental
nature of knowledge, reality
and existence
THE HUMAN
PERSON AS AN
EMBODIED
SPIRIT
THE HUMAN PERSON AS AN
EMBODIED SPIRIT
KEY TERMS:
Man – the general term commonly used
to refer to the entire human race
Human – refers to man as a species
Human being – used to distinguish man
from other animals
THE HUMAN PERSON AS AN
EMBODIED SPIRIT
Person – refers to a human being
granted recognition of certain rights,
protection, responsibilities, and dignity
above all. It is the totality of an
individual, possessing awareness, self-
determination, and the capacity to
interact with others and with
himself/herself.
Personhood – refers to the state of
being a person
THE HUMAN PERSON AS AN
EMBODIED SPIRIT
Human nature – refers to the
characteristics (like thinking, feeling and
acting) that distinguish humans from all
other creatures. These traits are
considered to form the essence of
humanity, and without them, an
individual may not be considered a
human person.
WHAT IS HUMAN PERSON?
Person
Has
awareness
of self
Has self
determination
Is able to
reach
out and
interact
with other
Has dignity
Refers to the person having a clear
perception of oneself, including his
thoughts, emotions, identity and actions
This awareness goes beyond perception
and reaction to the environment. We
have deeper awareness that is driven by
rationality or human thought.
A person is aware of both his
surroundings and himself. He knows that
he is living an experience and is an active
participant in this experience.
SELF - AWARENESS
This awareness gives rise to the notion of
the “self” which the philosophers describe
as the person who is actively aware that he
is perceiving and experiencing reality.
This awareness of the self also enables us to
experience an “inner world” that is defined
by our personal thoughts and ideas. We
experience interiority, that is, the quality of
being focused on one’s inner life and
identity. This interiority enables us to
practice creativity.
SELF - AWARENESS
Creativity also means that a person can
create within himself what is not yet
existing outside.
Having an inner world allows a person to
create goals, dreams and plans which
may be realized through activity.
SELF - AWARENESS
I am a person.
I am alive.
I exist.
I am here. I am present.
I am living at this very moment.
TRY SAYING THESE
This refers to the capability of persons to make
choices and decisions based on their own
preferences, monitor and regulate their
actions, and be goal-oriented and self-
directed. We are persons because we act and
we are aware of our actions.
Our free will enables us to do actions
whenever we want to and make various
alternatives. The existence of free will enables
a person to act willfully, control his actions,
and recognize himself as the source of action.
SELF - DETERMINATION
Consequence is the result or effect of an
action or condition. Philosophers believe
that a person acts freely and with due
regard for the consequences of his
actions.
Morality is the goodness or ‘badness’ of
an act.
SELF - DETERMINATION
Human action is such an important aspect
of the person that many philosophers
consider human action as a way to reveal
a person’s true nature.
Human acts complete the person, as it is
through his actions that his inner self is
revealed to others, and it is through
action that a person is able to explore and
fulfill his potential.
SELF - DETERMINATION
I am a person.
My actions are my very own and
are made freely.
I know that I am the cause of my
actions.
I know that my actions have
consequences.
TRY SAYING THESE
This refers to the capability of a
person to reach out and interact with
others and the world.
The realization that we are not alone
and that there are indeed other
people around us enables us to reach
out and establish meaningful
relationships with others.
Externality
Philosophers consider man as a social being
and that a person never exist in isolation. Man
has the natural tendency to seek out fellow
human beings, and the relationships
established by this interaction is a vital
component for survival.
Our interactions with others define our
existence as persons. We grow and develop not
only through our thoughts and actions, but also
through the influence of other people in our
lives, and the individuals we meet and interact
with.
Externality
I am a person.
I value others.
I interact with others in meaningful
ways.
I value my relationships with others.
I have grown as a person because
I’ve had meaningful interactions with
people I’ve met in my life.
TRY SAYING THESE
This refers to the innate right to be
valued and respected.
Philosophers consider all humans as
having an inherent worth or value.
“You’re worthless!” is an insult since
it attacks the very notion of a person
having value or worth.
Dignity
Each person is worth the same as
another person in the sense that
every person is priceless, unique,
unrepeatable and irreplaceable.
No person is dispensable or
interchangeable.
This is the reason why separation
from the people we love and value
is a difficult and painful experience.
Dignity
Human dignity is rooted in the nature
of the human being, meaning, a person
has dignity simply because of the fact
that he is human.
Dignity is not defined by outside factors
like intelligence, beauty, skills, etc.
A person retains his dignity in spite of
his actions or behavior.
Dignity
Dignity also drives us to seek what is
good.
Doing good deeds upholds and
promotes dignity of the human person.
This recognition of dignity is also the
basis for the recognition of human
rights.
Dignity
I am a person.
I am a person with dignity.
I recognize that others have
dignity, as well.
I must uphold human dignity in
my thoughts and actions.
TRY SAYING THESE
Aside from the physical characteristics,
another aspect of the human that
defines us as persons is the spirit.
This intangible element enables us to
exercise thought, possess awareness,
interiority, and the capacity to reach
out to the outside world and other
persons.
What is in our human nature that
enables us to become persons?
Philosophers consider the human person as
defined by the union of the body and the
spirit.
THE HUMAN PERSON IS AN EMBODIED
SPIRIT.
The body and the spirit are not only united,
but they are integrated with each other.
Embodiment enables us to do and
experience all the things that make us
human persons.
How are the body and spirit related?
Science: Love is a result of various
biological reactions associated with an
increase in hormones, which may have
certain effects on the body.
Philosophy: Human persons do not love
just with the heart nor the brain. We
love another person with our entire
being. Embodiment is the one thing
that enables us to feel love and love
others.
How are the body and spirit related?
The human body stands as the mediator between
the material world and the spiritual world.
Being an embodied spirit, the person is able to
encounter the world of objects (and other
personal subjects) in a manner that transcends the
physical.
This feature allows him to form intimate
relationship with those outside him.
Human embodiment allows persons to attach
certain feelings or ideas not only to people but
also to objects. (pair of shoes as a present from a
loved one)
Embodiment
With human embodiment, physical acts are no
longer purely physical acts, because the body
conveys something from a person’s inner world.
A pat on the shoulder from your idol, a smile
from your crush, a kiss from your partner will
create intense emotional reaction in you.
These examples show that it is through
embodiment that a person in able to have a
very unique relationship with the world.
And it is this unique relationship that defines us
as humans.
Embodiment
Human nature still has limits despite
being an embodied spirit. It can be said
that the person is very biologically
deficient being.
We do not have the natural ability to fly.
We cannot breathe underwater without
using breathing apparatus. We cannot
survive in certain environments like other
animals.
How does my human nature enable me
to explore my limits?
Despite this limitations, we have used out
intellect to devise means to achieve
several feats.
The ability to surpass limits is called
transcendence, and it is also one
important trait that distinguishes the
human person from other beings in
existence.
How does my human nature enable me
to explore my limits?
Our mind is an important tool that allows
us to go beyond many of our physical
limits.
Although we have these physical
limitations, we can transcend them
because of our spiritual dimension.
Transcendence
As human persons, we have natural
tendencies or inclinations.
Some of these are felt bodily functions like
hunger, fatigue, etc. transcendence means
overcoming oneself or being in control even
if the body reminds us of certain tendencies.
Although these tendencies are felt, the
person can govern them and ensure that
they are exercised within the bounds of
reason.
Transcendence
Each individual carries within himself the
possibility of transcending his limits by
exerting enough effort and perseverance.
Philosophy gives us useful tools to
explore our limits and possibilities.
The essence of transcendence is to
acknowledge our limitations, identify
possibilities for development and change
ourselves for the better.
Transcendence
Opening yourself to new experiences
and ideas is another aspect of
transcendence.
Our capacity for transcendence gives us
the opportunity to work toward
becoming better versions of ourselves.
Transcendence
THE HUMAN
PERSON IN HIS /
HER
ENVIRONMENT
APPROACHES TO
UNDERSTANDING THE
RELATIONSHIP OF THE
HUMAN PERSON WITH
THE ENVIRONMENT
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– In the earlier civilization, human
beings understood themselves as
being in harmony with nature.
– The whole world of the cosmos is
one whole system of order of
which we are a part.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– The universe can be understood
as a vast spectrum of energy in
need of constant balance and
harmony.
– In essence, everything is Qi only
in different states and forms.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– Example: the water cycle, there is
condensation, water turning to
ice, Qi forms of Earth. In opposite,
dispersion, water turning to
vapor, Qi forms of Heaven.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– In middle of these two poles is
the human being.
– The natural laws govern the
movement of Qi as Yin and Yang
to create a harmonious balance in
the universe.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– Part of the balance created is the
human being – a reflection of the
balance between heaven and
earth, Yin and Yang.
– If this natural law is skewed
towards one pole, an imbalance is
created.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– The cosmos-centric approach to
understanding our relationship to
the environment shows that
human beings are a microcosm of
the cosmos
– “micro” – small
– “cosmos” - universe
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– It mans that the universe is
reflected in us; we are a small
version of the universe.
– The same cosmic patterns that
govern nature also govern our
being.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– Meaning, when these natural law
and cosmic patterns are tampered
with the resulting imbalance will
also affect the balance within
humans.
– If there is no balance of energies in
nature, the person also feel
imbalance within themselves.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH
– On reverse side, when there is
imbalance within the person,
there would also imbalance in
everything around it.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH
– Theo (God)-centric approach
refers to an understanding
coming from a religious
interpretation.
– This especially applies to the
Judeo-Christian tradition as
specified in the creation story.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH
– The story relates that after creating
the world, and all that is in it,
including man and woman, God said
“Go and multiply; fill the earth and
subdue it.”
– The first man, Adam, was given the
power over the rest of creation
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH
– The creation story tells of how God
entrusted the earth to man and
woman by giving them the role of
stewards of creation.
– To steward over something is to
manage or to put something under
your care.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH
– We have been given the power to
make use of what has been given
us, but with this power comes the
responsibility and duty to take care
of the gift.
– As such, we are not just consumers
of earth’s resources. We are it’s co-
creators.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH
– The Theocentric Approach tells us that
although we may be able to trace the
immediate causes of environmental
degradation through technical and
scientific explanations, but if we forget
to pin down the main factor that is
responsible for it – ourselves, human
beings – then we will never be able to
address this escalating problem of the
destruction of the earth.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH
– It is clear that we are the problem and
we, ourselves, are the solution.
– Pope Francis said: “the human
environment and the natural
environment deteriorate together; we
cannot adequately combat
environmental degradation unless we
attend to causes related to human and
social degradation.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– anthropos (man) + centric
– This approach is like the theocentric
approach that puts the human
person in dominion over the earth,
but de-emphasizes the role of God.
– It started with the rise of
experimental sciences.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– This dominant approach began in
the sixteenth century in Europe and
has become the most widely used
all over the world until today.
– To understand this approach, recall
your lessons in science when you
had to conduct experiments in your
science class.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– Remember the use of “control set-
up” and compare it with an
“experimental set-up.”
– First, control set-up
• Seed planted on a cup of good soil,
placed in an environment with
sufficient light and air, and watered
every other day
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– Second, experimental set-up
• Plant seed in a bad kind of soil
• Plant seed on a good kind of soil but was
placed in the dark
• Plant seed on a cup of soil covered with
plastic
• Plant seed similarly in the control set-up
except it was not watered at all.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– Second, experimental set-up
• Plant seed in a bad kind of soil
• Plant seed on a good kind of soil but was
placed in the dark
• Plant seed on a cup of soil covered with
plastic
• Plant seed similarly in the control set-up
except it was not watered at all.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– In doing the science experiment, you
were able to “extract” nature’s
secrets to know more about it.
– You were also able to “manipulate”
the natural conditions for the growth
of the plat.
– In these, you are seen as
“intervening” with the nature.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– The development of experimental
science has made the human being
aware that he can detach himself
from the ongoing cycle of nature
and thereby control it.
– No longer is the human being
simply vulnerable to the dictates of
nature.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– Natural calamities can be controlled to
some extent.
– The natural aging of the skin, or the
shape of one’s body parts, among
others, can also be altered.
– With the awareness of this ability came
the dissipation of the power of the myth
to take control of our daily lives.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– Modern individuals are aware that
they can be in control of their own
fate.
– They can alter their life directions
based on their own choices.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH
– The downside of the rise of modern
sciences is the swelling of the
human being’s pride over his own
powers to alter and manipulate
nature.
– Unfortunately, this approach seems
to be the most dominant of all three
approaches.
THREE MAIN APPROACHES
– Learning from all these approaches,
we can see that it is possible to put
them together.
– The cosmos-centric approach
emphasizes on the human being as
a balance between heaven and
earth.
A BALANCED APPROACH
– This relates to the anthropocentric
approach which shows how we are
earthly beings in need of resources.
– The theocentric approach that
emphasizes on our heavenly role as
stewards of creation.
– Our goal now is to assess our own
selves and find the right approach in
dealing with nature in order to save
whatever if left of it, before it is too late.
A BALANCED APPROACH
– Negative Freedom if freedom from
coercion (force) or interference
(hindrance) from any block.
– This refers to the absence of
“interference”.”
– By interference, we mean
something that is intentionally
imposed on a person
THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
– It may come in the form of “physical
coercion” such as kidnapping or
imprisonment, or “verbal coercion”
such as issuing of threats to another
person.
– One is free, in the negative sense,
when he/she does not experience
either forms of coercion.
THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
– Positive Freedom, which is a true
freedom, is not just about the
absence of coercion or interference.
– It is a kind of freedom that requires
active effort on the person who is to
be free.
– He/she who is free is the one who
has the “control or mastery of
himself/herself.”
THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
– It is “more than just being let alone
by other.”
– A person who is deemed to be free
in the positive sense is one who is
able to steer so that all may follow a
single direction.
THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
– Freedom is something that is
exercised through our choices.
– When a person exercises his
freedom, he becomes real.
– Freedom is choosing for myself,
choosing to direct my life to what I
want to be which leads to the
consolidation of my personality.
THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
– It is expected that my actions and
small decisions that I make everyday
are aligned to those goals and
aspirations and small decisions that
I have chosen for myself.
– One becomes real self as soon as he
exercises his freedom to direct his
life according to the choices he
makes and becomes consolidated.
THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
– Existentialism is a philosophy that
emphasizes individual existence,
freedom and choice.
– It is the view that human define
their own meaning in life, and try to
make rational decision despite
existing in an irrational universe.
EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom is
exercised through Choices
– It focuses on the question of
human existence, and the
feeling that there is no purpose
or explanation at the core of
existence.
EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom is
exercised through Choices
– It holds that, as there is no God,
or any transcendent force, the
only way to counter this
nothingness is by embracing
existence.
EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom is
exercised through Choices
– Freedom means exercising the
capacity to make decision,
chooses life path and direct the
course of my life through own
steering.
FREEDOM AS CHOOSING FOR
ONESELF THAT LEADS TO
PERSONALITY CONSOLIDATION
– One’s task as a human person
who wants to be real and
authentic is to take care of the
capacity to make choices.
FREEDOM AS CHOOSING FOR
ONESELF THAT LEADS TO
PERSONALITY CONSOLIDATION
Explain freedom means by the use of the
letters of FREEDOM. Make an acrostic
poem.
F
R
E
E
D
O
M
ACTIVITY
392794568-Introduction-to-the-Philosophy-of-a-Human-Person.pptx

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392794568-Introduction-to-the-Philosophy-of-a-Human-Person.pptx

  • 1. Introduction to Philosophy of the Human Person
  • 2. CONTENT DOING PHILOSOPHY • What is philosophy? • What is the difference between knowledge and wisdom?
  • 3. OBJECTIVES 1. Distinguish a holistic perspective from a partial point of view 2. Define philosophy 3. Differentiate knowledge from wisdom
  • 4. DOING PHILOSOPHY Doing philosophy helps us think many things, including those that leave us confused or without an acceptable answer.
  • 5. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person Philosophy is a bunch of crap that people do when they want to make money but don’t want to work. Philosophy is trying to answer questions through observation and thought. It could be a formula to life, or an informed way of life
  • 6. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person Philosophy is the different people’s views on life, death, and after-life. Philosophy is wanting to know more than the obvious; clarifying (using reason and logic) answers to questions-arguing.
  • 7. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person Philosophy is how a person thinks Philosophy is sitting around, smoking cigarettes, and getting into deep discussions about life’s little quirks. Philosophy is a rational inquiry into the nature of the universe, both physical and metaphysical
  • 8. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person Philosophy is an in-depth reasoning about literary works (analyzing) Philosophy is a search for truth through the contemplation to reach a higher sense of self or self- actualization
  • 9. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person Philosophy comes from the Greek work “philosophia” which means "love of wisdom," is a science where reason and logic are used to understand reality and answer questions of knowledge, morality, and human nature. It can be described as either a body of knowledge or an intellectual activity.
  • 10. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person • Philosophy as a body of knowledge provides methodologies and insights on how societal questions, such as moral dilemmas of euthanasia or same-sex marriage, can be answered.
  • 11. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person • On the other hand, philosophy as an intellectual activity is an analytic procedure of addressing individual thought processes such as resolving conflict and confusion, testing positions, and analyzing beliefs. • In all instances, doing philosophy is prescribed by logic, reason, and ethics leading to wisdom.
  • 12. The Meaning of Philosophy and Philosophy of the Human Person • Philosophy as applied to human experience or everyday life denotes the use of philosophy as an intellectual activity. • Also known as philosophy in life, this concept is important because it serves as the guiding principle on how one ought to live life.
  • 13. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom KNOWLEDGE Quantitative: accumulation of knowledge and information Discovery of new truths Descriptive knowledge How to do certain things Mastery of the outside world through liberation from outside forces Change of reality Striving for certainty, regularity, and predictability to plan for the future Knowing how to deal with the expected WISDOM Qualitative: deeper understanding of salient phenomena and events Rediscovery of the significance of old truths Interpretative knowledge Should I do certain things Mastery of the inner world through liberation from inner forces Acceptance of reality Acceptance of uncertainty, irregularity, unpredictability, and impermanence Knowing how to deal with the unexpected and the unknown GOALS
  • 14. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom KNOWLEDGE Scientific Theoretical Abstract, detached Separation of form from content Distinction between subject and object Linear: final stage of formal operations logos impersonal WISDOM Spiritual Applied Concrete, involved Integration of form and content Synthesis of subject and object Dialectic: beyond formal operations mythos Personal: intrapersonal and interpersonal APPROACH
  • 15. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom KNOWLEDGE time-bound: subject to political and historical fluctuations narrow: particularistic Limited, domain-related Fragmented, specialized, selective WISDOM timeless: independent of political and historical fluctuations broad, holistic Unlimited, universal Comprehensive, integrated RANGE
  • 16. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom KNOWLEDGE Intelligence/cognition Detached experience, i.e., studying books, listen to lectures, conducting experiments, objective observations Manipulation and control of phenomena and events WISDOM Combination of cognition and self-reflection Personal life experiences together with self- awareness, determination, and constancy to transcend subjectivity and projections Openness to experience including the experience of negativity, irregularity, unpredictability, contradictions, and ambiguity through the development of equanimity ACQUISITION
  • 17. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom KNOWLEDGE Reversed U-shaped pattern Influenced by cognitive decline May become outdated and obsolete with time WISDOM Potentially positive Influenced by openness to experience, self-reflection, self-awareness, determination, and constancy Important at all stages of the life course RELATION TO AGING
  • 18. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom By: Fountain Hendricks (Proverbs 4:7) (Hosea 4:6) Many people believe that Wisdom & Knowledge is the same thing but it’s not. The COMPLIMENT one another but DO NOT have the same value. Knowledge is beneficial but Wisdom is important.
  • 19. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom KNOWLEDGE Belief that knowledge is potentially limitless Tendency to believe in existing knowledge if it is scientifically arrived Increased self-centeredness because one believes that one knows Pride and a feeling of superiority towards people with less intellectual knowledge Concerned about individualistic and particularistic issues Negative feelings is manipulation and control fails WISDOM Acceptance of the limits of knowledge for human beings Tendency to doubt existing beliefs, values, knowledge, and information Diminished self-centeredness because one knows that one does not know Sympathy and compassion for others Concerned about collective and universal issues Satisfaction and peacefulness in spite of life’s vicissitudes and uncertainties EFFECTS ON THE KNOWER
  • 20. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom Having knowledge will open your eyes, having wisdom will open your mind. Having knowledge will expand your options, having wisdom will expand your understanding. Having knowledge will strengthen your intellect but having wisdom will exalt you. Having knowledge will increase your awareness but having wisdom will increase your discernment.
  • 21. Difference Between Knowledge and Wisdom Being knowledgeable will empower you but being wise will make you powerful. Wisdom and Knowledge are like brothers and sisters, they are related but they have two different personalities
  • 22. DO WE NEED BOTH??? It is possible to have Knowledge WITHOUT Wisdom and vice versa but it NOT healthy, More people have more Knowledge than Wisdom why??? Because Knowledge can be obtained easier that Wisdom.
  • 23. DO WE NEED BOTH??? In order to gain Knowledge about something the only thing you must be willing to do is to HEAR what is being said but in order to gain Wisdom you must be willing to LISTEN.
  • 24. DO WE NEED BOTH??? The difference between hearing & listening is that HEARING IS EXTERNAL & LISTENING IS INTERNAL. BEING KNOWLEDGEABLE IS SIMPLY STRENGTHENING YOUR SENSES TO KNOW WHAT IS AROUND YOU.
  • 25. DO WE NEED BOTH??? Being wise is a little more complicated than being knowledgeable … why??? Because you have to learn how to ALLOW information to ENTER INTO YOU and not just be part of you.
  • 26. DO WE NEED BOTH??? In order to become wise, remember the biblical principal.. “THE ONLY THINGS THAT CHANGES YOU IS WHAT ENTERS YOU” Knowledge does not change people, Wisdom does.
  • 27. DO WE NEED BOTH??? Example: Millions of people have knowledge about the importance of obeying the law … but still see millions of people breaking the law
  • 28. DO WE NEED BOTH??? Example: Many people have the knowledge about how important it is to raise their kids … But unfortunately many parents do not participate in the growth of their children.
  • 29. DO WE NEED BOTH??? WISDOM CHANGES YOU!!! When people receive Wisdom they become empowered to be powerful which gives them the ability TO DO THE RIGHT THING. IT IS IMPORTANT TO GAIN WISDOM AND KNOWLEDGE SO THAT YOU WON’T BECOME AN EDUCATED FOOL
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  • 32. THE PRIMARY DIFFERENCE KNOWLEDGE IS REVELATION BUT WISDOM IS DIRECTION. If you do not have revelation you will be blinded and a blind person will always perish because they lack the ability to SEE what is going on around them.
  • 33. THE PRIMARY DIFFERENCE HAVING A SENSE OF DIRECTION IS THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IN LIFE. Knowing what to do WITHOUT knowing how to get it done will create massive frustration. Knowing where to go but NOT KNOWING how to get there will create tremendous stress.
  • 34. Knowledge INFORMS you that you need a destination while Wisdom shows you HOW to get to your destination
  • 35. PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT Philosophy is a system of beliefs about reality. It is one’s integrated view of the world. It includes an understanding of the nature of existence, man, and his role in the world. It is a necessary product of man’s rational mind.
  • 36. PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT Concepts are of central importance to an overall theory of cognition and the mind. Our thoughts, especially those that express or involve propositions, are analyzed and distinguished from one another by appeal to various facts involving concepts and our grasp of them.
  • 37. PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT Similarly, our linguistic utterances that express propositions also express concepts, since concepts are normally thought to be closely related to, or even identified with, the meanings of entities like predicates, adjectives, and the like. Our understanding and interaction with the world also involves concepts and our grasp of them.
  • 38. PHILOSOPHY AS A CONCEPT Our understanding that a given thing is a member of a given category is at least partly in virtue of our grasp of concepts, and so are our acts of categorizing. Such capacities involve our knowledge in an essential way, and thus such philosophical issues regarding our epistemic capacities are tied to issues about concepts and their nature.
  • 39. PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS It is an engagement in the search for the meaning of life, its value and relevance. It is a process for finding significance in existence.
  • 40. PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS Process philosophy is a longstanding philosophical tradition that emphasizes becoming and changing over static being. Process philosophy is characterized by an attempt to reconcile the diverse intuitions found in human experience (such as religious, scientific, and aesthetic) into a coherent holistic scheme.
  • 41. PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS Process philosophy seeks a return to a neo-classical realism that avoids subjectivism. This reconciliation of the intuitions of objectivity and subjectivity, with a concern for scientific findings, produces the explicitly metaphysical speculation that the world, at its most fundamental level, is made up of momentary events of experience rather than enduring material substances.
  • 42. PHILOSOPHY AS A PROCESS Process philosophy speculates that these momentary events, called “actual occasions” or “actual entities,” are essentially self-determining, experiential, and internally related to each other. The human person is a society of billions of these occasions (that is, the body), which is organized and coordinated by a single dominant occasion (that is, the mind).
  • 43. THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRIES 1.COMMON SENSE – A basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge things that are shared by (common to) nearly all people without need for debate
  • 44. THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRIES 2. SCIENTIFIC – Based on or characterized by the methods and principles of science
  • 45. THREE LEVELS OF INQUIRIES 3. PHILOSOPHICAL – Relating or devoted to the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence
  • 46. THE HUMAN PERSON AS AN EMBODIED SPIRIT
  • 47. THE HUMAN PERSON AS AN EMBODIED SPIRIT KEY TERMS: Man – the general term commonly used to refer to the entire human race Human – refers to man as a species Human being – used to distinguish man from other animals
  • 48. THE HUMAN PERSON AS AN EMBODIED SPIRIT Person – refers to a human being granted recognition of certain rights, protection, responsibilities, and dignity above all. It is the totality of an individual, possessing awareness, self- determination, and the capacity to interact with others and with himself/herself. Personhood – refers to the state of being a person
  • 49. THE HUMAN PERSON AS AN EMBODIED SPIRIT Human nature – refers to the characteristics (like thinking, feeling and acting) that distinguish humans from all other creatures. These traits are considered to form the essence of humanity, and without them, an individual may not be considered a human person.
  • 50. WHAT IS HUMAN PERSON? Person Has awareness of self Has self determination Is able to reach out and interact with other Has dignity
  • 51. Refers to the person having a clear perception of oneself, including his thoughts, emotions, identity and actions This awareness goes beyond perception and reaction to the environment. We have deeper awareness that is driven by rationality or human thought. A person is aware of both his surroundings and himself. He knows that he is living an experience and is an active participant in this experience. SELF - AWARENESS
  • 52. This awareness gives rise to the notion of the “self” which the philosophers describe as the person who is actively aware that he is perceiving and experiencing reality. This awareness of the self also enables us to experience an “inner world” that is defined by our personal thoughts and ideas. We experience interiority, that is, the quality of being focused on one’s inner life and identity. This interiority enables us to practice creativity. SELF - AWARENESS
  • 53. Creativity also means that a person can create within himself what is not yet existing outside. Having an inner world allows a person to create goals, dreams and plans which may be realized through activity. SELF - AWARENESS
  • 54. I am a person. I am alive. I exist. I am here. I am present. I am living at this very moment. TRY SAYING THESE
  • 55. This refers to the capability of persons to make choices and decisions based on their own preferences, monitor and regulate their actions, and be goal-oriented and self- directed. We are persons because we act and we are aware of our actions. Our free will enables us to do actions whenever we want to and make various alternatives. The existence of free will enables a person to act willfully, control his actions, and recognize himself as the source of action. SELF - DETERMINATION
  • 56. Consequence is the result or effect of an action or condition. Philosophers believe that a person acts freely and with due regard for the consequences of his actions. Morality is the goodness or ‘badness’ of an act. SELF - DETERMINATION
  • 57. Human action is such an important aspect of the person that many philosophers consider human action as a way to reveal a person’s true nature. Human acts complete the person, as it is through his actions that his inner self is revealed to others, and it is through action that a person is able to explore and fulfill his potential. SELF - DETERMINATION
  • 58. I am a person. My actions are my very own and are made freely. I know that I am the cause of my actions. I know that my actions have consequences. TRY SAYING THESE
  • 59. This refers to the capability of a person to reach out and interact with others and the world. The realization that we are not alone and that there are indeed other people around us enables us to reach out and establish meaningful relationships with others. Externality
  • 60. Philosophers consider man as a social being and that a person never exist in isolation. Man has the natural tendency to seek out fellow human beings, and the relationships established by this interaction is a vital component for survival. Our interactions with others define our existence as persons. We grow and develop not only through our thoughts and actions, but also through the influence of other people in our lives, and the individuals we meet and interact with. Externality
  • 61. I am a person. I value others. I interact with others in meaningful ways. I value my relationships with others. I have grown as a person because I’ve had meaningful interactions with people I’ve met in my life. TRY SAYING THESE
  • 62. This refers to the innate right to be valued and respected. Philosophers consider all humans as having an inherent worth or value. “You’re worthless!” is an insult since it attacks the very notion of a person having value or worth. Dignity
  • 63. Each person is worth the same as another person in the sense that every person is priceless, unique, unrepeatable and irreplaceable. No person is dispensable or interchangeable. This is the reason why separation from the people we love and value is a difficult and painful experience. Dignity
  • 64. Human dignity is rooted in the nature of the human being, meaning, a person has dignity simply because of the fact that he is human. Dignity is not defined by outside factors like intelligence, beauty, skills, etc. A person retains his dignity in spite of his actions or behavior. Dignity
  • 65. Dignity also drives us to seek what is good. Doing good deeds upholds and promotes dignity of the human person. This recognition of dignity is also the basis for the recognition of human rights. Dignity
  • 66. I am a person. I am a person with dignity. I recognize that others have dignity, as well. I must uphold human dignity in my thoughts and actions. TRY SAYING THESE
  • 67. Aside from the physical characteristics, another aspect of the human that defines us as persons is the spirit. This intangible element enables us to exercise thought, possess awareness, interiority, and the capacity to reach out to the outside world and other persons. What is in our human nature that enables us to become persons?
  • 68. Philosophers consider the human person as defined by the union of the body and the spirit. THE HUMAN PERSON IS AN EMBODIED SPIRIT. The body and the spirit are not only united, but they are integrated with each other. Embodiment enables us to do and experience all the things that make us human persons. How are the body and spirit related?
  • 69. Science: Love is a result of various biological reactions associated with an increase in hormones, which may have certain effects on the body. Philosophy: Human persons do not love just with the heart nor the brain. We love another person with our entire being. Embodiment is the one thing that enables us to feel love and love others. How are the body and spirit related?
  • 70. The human body stands as the mediator between the material world and the spiritual world. Being an embodied spirit, the person is able to encounter the world of objects (and other personal subjects) in a manner that transcends the physical. This feature allows him to form intimate relationship with those outside him. Human embodiment allows persons to attach certain feelings or ideas not only to people but also to objects. (pair of shoes as a present from a loved one) Embodiment
  • 71. With human embodiment, physical acts are no longer purely physical acts, because the body conveys something from a person’s inner world. A pat on the shoulder from your idol, a smile from your crush, a kiss from your partner will create intense emotional reaction in you. These examples show that it is through embodiment that a person in able to have a very unique relationship with the world. And it is this unique relationship that defines us as humans. Embodiment
  • 72. Human nature still has limits despite being an embodied spirit. It can be said that the person is very biologically deficient being. We do not have the natural ability to fly. We cannot breathe underwater without using breathing apparatus. We cannot survive in certain environments like other animals. How does my human nature enable me to explore my limits?
  • 73. Despite this limitations, we have used out intellect to devise means to achieve several feats. The ability to surpass limits is called transcendence, and it is also one important trait that distinguishes the human person from other beings in existence. How does my human nature enable me to explore my limits?
  • 74. Our mind is an important tool that allows us to go beyond many of our physical limits. Although we have these physical limitations, we can transcend them because of our spiritual dimension. Transcendence
  • 75. As human persons, we have natural tendencies or inclinations. Some of these are felt bodily functions like hunger, fatigue, etc. transcendence means overcoming oneself or being in control even if the body reminds us of certain tendencies. Although these tendencies are felt, the person can govern them and ensure that they are exercised within the bounds of reason. Transcendence
  • 76. Each individual carries within himself the possibility of transcending his limits by exerting enough effort and perseverance. Philosophy gives us useful tools to explore our limits and possibilities. The essence of transcendence is to acknowledge our limitations, identify possibilities for development and change ourselves for the better. Transcendence
  • 77. Opening yourself to new experiences and ideas is another aspect of transcendence. Our capacity for transcendence gives us the opportunity to work toward becoming better versions of ourselves. Transcendence
  • 78. THE HUMAN PERSON IN HIS / HER ENVIRONMENT
  • 79. APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE HUMAN PERSON WITH THE ENVIRONMENT
  • 80. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – In the earlier civilization, human beings understood themselves as being in harmony with nature. – The whole world of the cosmos is one whole system of order of which we are a part. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 81. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – The universe can be understood as a vast spectrum of energy in need of constant balance and harmony. – In essence, everything is Qi only in different states and forms. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 82. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – Example: the water cycle, there is condensation, water turning to ice, Qi forms of Earth. In opposite, dispersion, water turning to vapor, Qi forms of Heaven. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 83. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – In middle of these two poles is the human being. – The natural laws govern the movement of Qi as Yin and Yang to create a harmonious balance in the universe. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 84. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – Part of the balance created is the human being – a reflection of the balance between heaven and earth, Yin and Yang. – If this natural law is skewed towards one pole, an imbalance is created. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 85. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – The cosmos-centric approach to understanding our relationship to the environment shows that human beings are a microcosm of the cosmos – “micro” – small – “cosmos” - universe THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 86. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – It mans that the universe is reflected in us; we are a small version of the universe. – The same cosmic patterns that govern nature also govern our being. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 87. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – Meaning, when these natural law and cosmic patterns are tampered with the resulting imbalance will also affect the balance within humans. – If there is no balance of energies in nature, the person also feel imbalance within themselves. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 88. 1. COSMOS – CENTRIC APPROACH – On reverse side, when there is imbalance within the person, there would also imbalance in everything around it. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 89. 2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH – Theo (God)-centric approach refers to an understanding coming from a religious interpretation. – This especially applies to the Judeo-Christian tradition as specified in the creation story. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 90. 2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH – The story relates that after creating the world, and all that is in it, including man and woman, God said “Go and multiply; fill the earth and subdue it.” – The first man, Adam, was given the power over the rest of creation THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 91. 2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH – The creation story tells of how God entrusted the earth to man and woman by giving them the role of stewards of creation. – To steward over something is to manage or to put something under your care. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 92. 2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH – We have been given the power to make use of what has been given us, but with this power comes the responsibility and duty to take care of the gift. – As such, we are not just consumers of earth’s resources. We are it’s co- creators. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 93. 2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH – The Theocentric Approach tells us that although we may be able to trace the immediate causes of environmental degradation through technical and scientific explanations, but if we forget to pin down the main factor that is responsible for it – ourselves, human beings – then we will never be able to address this escalating problem of the destruction of the earth. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 94. 2. THEOCENTRIC APPROACH – It is clear that we are the problem and we, ourselves, are the solution. – Pope Francis said: “the human environment and the natural environment deteriorate together; we cannot adequately combat environmental degradation unless we attend to causes related to human and social degradation. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 95. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – anthropos (man) + centric – This approach is like the theocentric approach that puts the human person in dominion over the earth, but de-emphasizes the role of God. – It started with the rise of experimental sciences. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 96. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – This dominant approach began in the sixteenth century in Europe and has become the most widely used all over the world until today. – To understand this approach, recall your lessons in science when you had to conduct experiments in your science class. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 97. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – Remember the use of “control set- up” and compare it with an “experimental set-up.” – First, control set-up • Seed planted on a cup of good soil, placed in an environment with sufficient light and air, and watered every other day THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 98. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – Second, experimental set-up • Plant seed in a bad kind of soil • Plant seed on a good kind of soil but was placed in the dark • Plant seed on a cup of soil covered with plastic • Plant seed similarly in the control set-up except it was not watered at all. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 99. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – Second, experimental set-up • Plant seed in a bad kind of soil • Plant seed on a good kind of soil but was placed in the dark • Plant seed on a cup of soil covered with plastic • Plant seed similarly in the control set-up except it was not watered at all. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 100. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – In doing the science experiment, you were able to “extract” nature’s secrets to know more about it. – You were also able to “manipulate” the natural conditions for the growth of the plat. – In these, you are seen as “intervening” with the nature. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 101. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – The development of experimental science has made the human being aware that he can detach himself from the ongoing cycle of nature and thereby control it. – No longer is the human being simply vulnerable to the dictates of nature. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 102. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – Natural calamities can be controlled to some extent. – The natural aging of the skin, or the shape of one’s body parts, among others, can also be altered. – With the awareness of this ability came the dissipation of the power of the myth to take control of our daily lives. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 103. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – Modern individuals are aware that they can be in control of their own fate. – They can alter their life directions based on their own choices. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 104. 3. ANTHROPOCENTRIC APPROACH – The downside of the rise of modern sciences is the swelling of the human being’s pride over his own powers to alter and manipulate nature. – Unfortunately, this approach seems to be the most dominant of all three approaches. THREE MAIN APPROACHES
  • 105. – Learning from all these approaches, we can see that it is possible to put them together. – The cosmos-centric approach emphasizes on the human being as a balance between heaven and earth. A BALANCED APPROACH
  • 106. – This relates to the anthropocentric approach which shows how we are earthly beings in need of resources. – The theocentric approach that emphasizes on our heavenly role as stewards of creation. – Our goal now is to assess our own selves and find the right approach in dealing with nature in order to save whatever if left of it, before it is too late. A BALANCED APPROACH
  • 107. – Negative Freedom if freedom from coercion (force) or interference (hindrance) from any block. – This refers to the absence of “interference”.” – By interference, we mean something that is intentionally imposed on a person THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
  • 108. – It may come in the form of “physical coercion” such as kidnapping or imprisonment, or “verbal coercion” such as issuing of threats to another person. – One is free, in the negative sense, when he/she does not experience either forms of coercion. THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
  • 109. – Positive Freedom, which is a true freedom, is not just about the absence of coercion or interference. – It is a kind of freedom that requires active effort on the person who is to be free. – He/she who is free is the one who has the “control or mastery of himself/herself.” THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
  • 110. – It is “more than just being let alone by other.” – A person who is deemed to be free in the positive sense is one who is able to steer so that all may follow a single direction. THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
  • 111. – Freedom is something that is exercised through our choices. – When a person exercises his freedom, he becomes real. – Freedom is choosing for myself, choosing to direct my life to what I want to be which leads to the consolidation of my personality. THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
  • 112. – It is expected that my actions and small decisions that I make everyday are aligned to those goals and aspirations and small decisions that I have chosen for myself. – One becomes real self as soon as he exercises his freedom to direct his life according to the choices he makes and becomes consolidated. THE MEANING OF FREEDOM
  • 113. – Existentialism is a philosophy that emphasizes individual existence, freedom and choice. – It is the view that human define their own meaning in life, and try to make rational decision despite existing in an irrational universe. EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom is exercised through Choices
  • 114. – It focuses on the question of human existence, and the feeling that there is no purpose or explanation at the core of existence. EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom is exercised through Choices
  • 115. – It holds that, as there is no God, or any transcendent force, the only way to counter this nothingness is by embracing existence. EXISTENTIALISM: Freedom is exercised through Choices
  • 116. – Freedom means exercising the capacity to make decision, chooses life path and direct the course of my life through own steering. FREEDOM AS CHOOSING FOR ONESELF THAT LEADS TO PERSONALITY CONSOLIDATION
  • 117. – One’s task as a human person who wants to be real and authentic is to take care of the capacity to make choices. FREEDOM AS CHOOSING FOR ONESELF THAT LEADS TO PERSONALITY CONSOLIDATION
  • 118. Explain freedom means by the use of the letters of FREEDOM. Make an acrostic poem. F R E E D O M ACTIVITY