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Philosophy module 1 - The Meaning and Method of Doing Philosophy

Philosophy Module 1: The Meaning and Method of Doing Philosophy of Rey An C. Castro, LPT., was created as a tool for teaching Philosophy in senior high school students. The author aims to help educators and students in teaching and learning Philosophy.

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Philosophy module 1 - The Meaning and Method of Doing Philosophy
The study of this subject is an initiation to the activity and
process of philosophical reflection as a search for a synoptic
vision of life. At the end of the course, you should be able to
reflect on their daily experiences from a holistic point of view,
acquire critical and analytical thinking skills and should be able to
apply this critical and analytical thinking skills to the affairs of
daily life become truthful, environmental-friendly and service-
oriented. Actively committed to the development of a more
humane society and articulate their own philosophy of life.
WHAT I KNOW
In the answer sheet provided on your portfolio, answer the
following questions below.
“What words come to your mind when you hear the word
Philosophy?
Why do we need to study Philosophy?”
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
• Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental
questions about existence , knowledge, values, reason,
and language.
WHAT’S IN
• Philosophy in a simple words is a way of thinking about
the world, the universe, and society. It works by asking
very basic questions about the nature and human
thought, the nature of the universe, and the connections
between them. The ideas in philosophy are often
• The word philosophy comes from two Greek words:
philos (love) and sophia (wisdom). The ancient Greeks
used this term to refer to “love of wisdom” and they soon
applied to the study of discipline that uses human reason
to investigate the ultimate causes, reasons, and
principles which govern all things.
WHAT’S IN
WHAT’S NEW
Do you know of
some Greek
Philosophers?
Philosophers – are
people who engage in
philosophy.

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Philosophy module 1 - The Meaning and Method of Doing Philosophy

  • 2. The study of this subject is an initiation to the activity and process of philosophical reflection as a search for a synoptic vision of life. At the end of the course, you should be able to reflect on their daily experiences from a holistic point of view, acquire critical and analytical thinking skills and should be able to apply this critical and analytical thinking skills to the affairs of daily life become truthful, environmental-friendly and service- oriented. Actively committed to the development of a more humane society and articulate their own philosophy of life.
  • 3. WHAT I KNOW In the answer sheet provided on your portfolio, answer the following questions below. “What words come to your mind when you hear the word Philosophy? Why do we need to study Philosophy?” ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________
  • 4. • Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental questions about existence , knowledge, values, reason, and language. WHAT’S IN • Philosophy in a simple words is a way of thinking about the world, the universe, and society. It works by asking very basic questions about the nature and human thought, the nature of the universe, and the connections between them. The ideas in philosophy are often
  • 5. • The word philosophy comes from two Greek words: philos (love) and sophia (wisdom). The ancient Greeks used this term to refer to “love of wisdom” and they soon applied to the study of discipline that uses human reason to investigate the ultimate causes, reasons, and principles which govern all things. WHAT’S IN
  • 6. WHAT’S NEW Do you know of some Greek Philosophers? Philosophers – are people who engage in philosophy.
  • 7. • Philosophy is the study of humans and the world by thinking and asking questions. It is a science and an art. Philosophy try to answer important questions by coming up with answers about real things and asking “why?” WHAT’S IN
  • 8. WHAT’S NEW Identify the person in the picture below. Write your answer in the answer sheet 2 in your portfolio.
  • 9. WHAT IS IT? The most notable ancient Greek Philosopher are:  Pythagoras (570 BCE to 495 BCE) – A mathematician and scientist, he was credited with formulating the Pythagorean Theorem.  Heraclitus (535 BCE to 475 BCE) – He proposed that everything that exists are based on a higher order or plan which he called logos.  Democritus (460BCE to 370 BCE) – He devoted himself to the study of the causes of natural phenomena.
  • 10. WHAT IS IT?  Diogenes of Sinope (412 BCE to 323 BCE) – He was a known advocate of living a simple and virtuous life.  Epicurus (341 BCE to 270 BCE) – He believed that philosophy could enable man to live a life of happiness.
  • 11. WHAT IS IT?  Socrates (470 BCE to 399 BCE) – He was considered the foremost philosopher of ancient times. He was credited with formulating the Socrates Method – means examining a topic by devising a series of questions that let the learner examine and analyze his knowledge and views regarding the topic.  Plato (427 BCE to 347 BCE) – A student of Socrates, he wrote down his mentor’s teaching and incorporated some of his own ideas into them. Plato’s most significant ideas included his Theory of Forms, which proposes that everything that exist is based on an idea or template than can only be perceived in the mind. Plato is also known for his dialect – a method of injury where two opposing ideas are discussed in an attempt to arrive at new knowledge. Plato’s lasting contribution to learning was his founding of the Academy, an institution of higher learning.
  • 12. WHAT IS IT?  Aristotle (384 BCE to 322 BCE) – He attended the Academy, and was the prominent student of Plato. For him, all ideas and views are based on perception and our reality is based on what we can sense and perceive. His studies in logic led to the formulation of a formal process of analyzing reasoning which specific statements are analyzed to reach a conclusion or generalization.
  • 14. We have already discussed the meaning of Philosophy from our previous lesson. Now, let us proceed to another topic.  Holistic thinking refers to a perspective that considers large-scale patterns in systems. A holistic perspective requires an individual to have an open mindset and ability to get the general sense or impression regarding a situation.  Partial thinking focuses on specific aspects of situation. The partial view is an important component of analytical thinking, as an individual focuses on certain areas or aspects of a problem in order to understand.
  • 15. WHAT I KNOW In the answer sheet provided on your portfolio, give a brief answer to the following question below. 1. Give a situation where you are adopted a holistic view in looking at a problem or situation. 2. How can having a holistic view help us become better individual.
  • 16. • The term “holistic thinking” refers to a big picture mentality in which a person recognizes the interconnectedness of various elements that form larger systems, patterns and objects. Thinking holistically is the opposite of analyzing something, which involves breaking down a larger system into its details. WHAT’S IN
  • 17. • People tend to apply an analytical perspective when looking at problems or situations. A holistic view give rise to a more appreciative perspective about life, as we are able to look at life in totality. WHAT’S IN
  • 18. • In philosophy, point of view describes the perception of an event or phenomenon and how exactly it is viewed. Point of view often is shaped by individual’s belief or experiences. Though partial thinking is useful, philosophy utilizes holistic thinking in making sense of problems and issues related to the human experience. WHAT’S IN
  • 19. • Holistic medicine is a prominent example of holistic thinking. A medical professional who believes in holistic care considers relationship between the mind, body and spirit. For example, holistic doctors don’t just provide patient with medications. Instead, they look at ways to improve life balance and eradicate health problems from their root source, such as high stress or bad nutrition. WHAT’S IN
  • 22. Why do we philosophize ? We all have the potential to philosophize since we have the tendency to wonder and doubt.A philosopher is a good communicator who can clearly and adequate present his or her ideas. Doing philosophy can be applied in day-to-day activities and life perspectives. Because it involves an evaluated process, doing philosophy allows a person to make better decisions and act accordingly to situations with the help of various philosophical skills. On life perspectives, philosophy enables reflective thinking which greatly influences a person’s view of life, challenges and relationship. In doing philosophy, a holistic perspective on the subject is always require. Failure to do so or only using a partial point of view may lead to illogical or incorrect conclusions.
  • 23. WHAT I KNOW Give a brief answer to the following question. 1. How can a person benefit from philosophizing? 2. What are the reason that compel a person to engage in philosophical thinking?
  • 24. WHAT I KNOW Plato traced man’s need to philosophize to his sense of wonder. Whenever we are confronted with an experience, we always wonder how it came about. French philosopher Rene Decartes traced the need of philosophize to doubt. In life, we will be faced with several ideas and arguments which present themselves as “truth”. A critical and questioning perspective is necessary to determine if needed these ideas or views are correct or true.
  • 25. WHAT I KNOW Swiss-German philosopher Karl Jasper saw the need to philosophize because of experience. These experiences limit situation, philosophy provides us a means to understand adverse or challenging conditions, and to rise above them and gain new knowledge and perspective. The need to philosophize is driven by the love of wisdom. To love wisdom is to have an insatiable desire for truth. Philosophy itself is a distinct area of knowledge with its own goals, concerns, and ways of doing things.
  • 26. Direction: Identify the branches of Philosophy. Philosophy MetaphysicsEpistemolog y Phil of Mind Phil of Religio n Universals Ontology Causalit y Skepticism Dogmatism History of Philosophy Axiology Ideas People Logic Mathematical Predicat e Propositional Cartegorical Ethics Aesthetics Politics
  • 27. WHAT IT IS? Aesthetics is the branch of Philosophy which deals with beauty and makes things “beautiful. Logic is branch of Philosophy which deals with correct reasoning. Epistemology discusses the nature of knowledge and knowing. Political Philosophy studies governments and deals with question of justice, power and the rights and obligations of citizens. Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy which deals with questions regarding reality and existence. Philosophy of the Human Person is an area in Philosophy that understand the human person from a philosophical perspective.
  • 29. Reflection requires a person to be willing to examines one thought, feelings, and action to learn more about one’s life and experiences Human Self-Reflection is the capacity of humans to experience introspection and to attempt to learn more about their fundamental nature essence. Philosophy has an important place in our daily lives. Engaging in Philosophical reflection leads to the development of beneficial skills that individuals can apply in everyday situation.
  • 30. WHAT I KNOW Give a brief answer to the following questions. 1. Have you ever had an experience where reflecting on your actions benefitted you? 2. Has reflection ever helped you avoid making a bad decision?
  • 31. WHAT IT IS? Reflection is vital in ensuring that our actions and decisions are well thought out and are done with due regard for their implications and consequences on ourselves, others, and our surroundings. When we reflect, we can judge whether our actions or decisions are reasonable or not. Doing Philosophy enables a person to engage in critical analysis and interpretation of concept, definitions, arguments and problems. Doing Philosophy also improves problem-solving and decision making. The ability to analyze a problem or dilemma, identify the significant aspects, and come up with alternative solutions is an important skills learned through Philosophy.
  • 32. In the process of doing Philosophy, it is critical to have a holistic point of view- the perception of looking all aspects of a situation before making a conclusion. Wisdom as it refers to a persons’ ability to apply knowledge to daily life particularly in the making the sound choices and judgment is the intended product of philosophizing. Finally, knowledge of Philosophy can contribute to self-development.
  • 33. Examples of Activities that Emanated from a Deliberate Reflection  Learning from your previous mistakes and not repeating them again  Evaluating and knowing the best choice from a set of options  Gaining a holistic point of view first before making any conclusions