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An estimated 196,370 babies are born to
Filipino teenage mothers every year*
*An estimated 538 babies are born to Filipino teenage mothers every single day
Philippine Statistics Authority, 2017
Monitoring and Evaluation
Comprehensive Sexuality Education
Rea Uy-Epistola
CIP CSE Consultant, CHSI
©CHSI/2019/Cris
Gonzales
Outline
1. General overview of what entails monitoring and
evaluation of the CSE Programme implementation
1. Available tools for M&E
1. Roles and responsibilities of regions, divisions, and
schools in M&E.
CSE MANDATE
“DepEd is committed to implement the
comprehensive sexuality education with
relevant curriculum that protects and
promotes the rights of learners to health
education, information, and care”
CSE IMPLEMENTATION
▪ School settings provide an ideal opportunity to
reach large numbers of young people with
comprehensive sexuality education before they
become sexually active
▪ Preparing teachers to deliver CSE will help ensure
that learners receive accurate and age–appropriate
information
▪ Should also be complemented by parental and
community support
WHY EVALUATE?
▪ Understand the extent to which the program is having or
has had the desired impact in relation to its goals
▪ Use data and evidence to advocate for a comprehensive
approach to sexuality education
▪ Ensure that that a program/curriculum is achieving its
goals
Audience: Decision makers and program implementers
▪ National education sector, government departments,
policymakers, educators
▪ Civil society, multi- & bi-lateral partners, teachers unions
▪ Stakeholders in other sectors
▪ Donors
WHAT DOES EVIDENCE SAY ABOUT CSE?
▪ CSE is crucial in improving health
✔ CSE increases young people’s knowledge and improves their
attitudes related to sexual and reproductive health and behaviors.
✔ Sexuality education – in or out of schools – does not increase sexual
activity, sexual risk-taking behaviour or STI/HIV infection rates.
▪ CSE contributes to gender equality
▪ CSE is a pillar in delivering good quality education
✔ Most effectively delivered in participatory and learner-centered ways
✔ Can develop young people’s critical thinking, communication,
and life skills
✔ Provides a continuum that enables learners to achieve their full
potential
HOW CAN WE MEASURE OUR CSE PROGRAM?
Monitoring indicators can give idea of coverage
– but understanding of delivery is still a
challenge.
CSE & SDG 4
▪ Development of a standardised indicator on
comprehensive sexuality education and its inclusion
in the SDG 4 monitoring framework
SDG thematic indicator 4.7.2: “Percentage of schools
that provide life skills-based HIV and sexuality
education within the previous academic year”
▪ A school is considered to have life skills-based HIV
and sexuality education if 16 essential topics and
at least 6 desirable topics are covered
(list of topics are in the UN International Technical Guidance on
Sexuality Education).
CSE M & E TOOLS
Sexuality Education Review and Assessment Tool
(UNESCO)
Inside & Out
(IPPF and UNESCO)
CSE M&E Tools
CSE M & E TOOLS
Sexuality
Education
Review
and
Assessment
Tool
CSE M & E TOOLS
Sexuality
Education
Review
and
Assessment
Tool
DEP ED STRATEGY FOR CSE M & E
▪ Develop Monitoring and Evaluation Framework
▪ Build monitoring and evaluation into the CSE program
▪ Assess key characteristics of CSE programme quality and comprehensiveness
▪ Develop and/or adopt monitoring and documenting tools
Curriculum Design Curriculum Content
Curriculum
Implementation
Formative evaluation Process evaluation Outcome evaluation
Build monitoring and evaluation into the
CSE program
(1) identify what needs to happen
Formative
evaluation
Process
evaluation
Outcome
evaluation
(2) examine whether and how well
CSE activities are being carried out
(3) demonstrate programme
effectiveness
M & E Objectives:
Assess key characteristics of CSE
programme quality and comprehensiveness
Curriculum Design Curriculum Content
Curriculum
Implementation
▪ duration and session
frequency
Measure: “exposure” or
“dosage”
✔ number of sessions
implemented
✔ length of each session or the
frequency with which
program methodologies were
implemented
✔ amount of materials received.
Measure: “adherence” and
“pedagogy”
✔ range of topics taught
✔ teaching methods or strategies
used
▪ what is taught?
▪ how is the content taught?
▪ Teacher training
▪ Resources and support
▪ School environment
▪ learners
Develop and/or adopt monitoring and
documenting tools
✔ Assess quality of strategies and activities being implemented and
numbers of learners reached.
✔ Document best practices
✔ Conduct mid-year and year-end review on the inputs, processes,
and program results across all levels
✔ Revisit existing M&E processes and tools especially that the
teaching and learning landscape has shifted to virtual/online
ROLES OF REGION/DIVISION/SCHOOLS
IN CSE M & E
▪ CSE Monitoring and Evaluation Team
▪ M&E activities that can be done by regional and division level
a. Conduct/support formative research on target groups and on policies and programmes
Methods will include policy and programme scans, operations research or coverage exercises, review of
existing data sets and documents, classroom observation, examination of actual reach of programmes, and
interviews with key informants; surveys may also be utilized.
b. Conduct regular programme monitoring
Methods involve regular review of programme monitoring data (e.g., number of participants per programme
venue, demographics of participants) and accessing documentation on teachers training. It also includes
sample classroom observations, and observation and interviews to gather data on the safety of the learning
environment.
According to DepEd Department Order No. 31, a CSE Monitoring and Evaluation Team will be
formed composed of the following:
▪ DepEd Central Office team shall be chaired by the Undersecretary for Curriculum and
Instruction together with its Bureau Directors and the Undersecretary for Legal Affairs Services
as members;
▪ The Regional Office team shall be chaired by the Regional Director/Assistant Regional
Director with the Chiefs of all functional divisions as members;
▪ The Division Office team shall be chaired by Schools Division Superintendent/ Assistant
Schools Division Superintendent with the Chiefs of the Curriculum Implementation Division and
School Governance and Operations Division as members;
▪ The School level Team shall be chaired by the School Head with the School Governing
Council and representative from the Supreme Students and /Pupil Government as members;
and
▪ The Learning Centers shall be chaired by the Public Schools District Supervisors and Division
Alternative Learning System (ALS) Coordinator with the Education Program Specialist-
Alternative Learning System (EPS-ALS) and the representative from the Barangay Council for
the Protection of Children (BCPC) as members.
CSE Monitoring and Evaluation Team
▪ M&E activities that can be done by region/division/school level
a. Conduct/support formative research on target groups and on policies and programmes
Methods will include policy and programme scans, operations research or coverage exercises, review of existing data
sets and documents, classroom observation, examination of actual reach of programmes, and interviews with key
informants; surveys may also be utilized.
b. Conduct regular programme monitoring
Methods involve regular review of programme monitoring data (e.g., number of participants per programme venue,
demographics of participants) and accessing documentation on teachers training. It also includes sample classroom
observations, and observation and interviews to gather data on the safety of the learning environment.
ROLES OF REGION/DIVISION/SCHOOLS
IN CSE M & E
▪ Methods: review of data sets and documents, classroom observation, and interviews with key
informants; surveys may also be utilized
▪ Utilize findings: to inform programme design and priorities; highlight gaps in content and
methods; expose inequalities of access; mobilize and engage stakeholders and partners; and
develop policy advocacy
Conduct formative research
Questions to ask:
• Who is being reached? – disaggregated by age, gender, ethnic group, grade and schooling status
• What content is delivered in classrooms and other learning spaces?
• What is the quality of CSE curricula and training for teachers (with attention to gender issues and
learner-centred pedagogy)?
• Learners’ perceptions and experiences of danger in the learning environment
• Degree of awareness among education policymakers of the evidence for gender-focused CSE
• The presence, or lack, of education policies that incorporate CSE, including related policies on
such as safety at school, allowing pregnant girls to continue their education, and provisions for
young people who are displaced
• National initiatives – including youth-led efforts – to advance gender equality, rights and sexual
health.
▪ Methods: Regular review of programme monitoring data and accessing documentation on
teachers training. It also includes sample classroom observations, and observation and
interviews to gather data on the safety of the learning environment.
▪ Utilize monitoring data: make programme improvements and document evidences for
developing good practice.
CSE program monitoring
Indicators for routine monitoring:
• Number of young people participating in CSE
• Curriculum and supporting materials are
comprehensive:
- Gender-sensitive
- Human rights-based
- Scientifically accurate
- Foster critical thinking
- Available to all educators in the programme
• Training courses for staff/educators include:
- Comprehensive content
- Participatory learner-centred approaches
- Classroom safety
• Number of programme staff who have participated in
training
• Number of teachers who have participated in training
• Deployment of staff/teachers, including in more
marginalized and underserved communities or regions
• Percentage of programme educators who teach the
content accurately
• Percentage of programme educators who utilize
participatory/learner-centred methods
• Quality of the teaching/facilitation observed
• Prevalence of gender discrimination, sexual
harassment or homophobic bullying in the learning
environment
CSE program monitoring tools
Pre-Tests
Source: http://www.ccbh.net/s/2014-2015Outcomesreport-Final-0fo6.pdf
CSE program monitoring tools
Source: https://advocatesforyouth.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Classroom_Teacher_and_Non-Classroom_Personnel_Observation_Form.pdf
Teacher
Observations
CSE program monitoring tools
Post-Tests
WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME IN M&E?
It is important for education stakeholders from different
governance levels, most importantly the implementers, to
participate in these policy processes because indicators
have the power to shape and redefine our country’s
education agenda and education system, in this case as it
pertains to comprehensive sexuality education. Your
involvement ensures that the voice of the education
workforce and your perspectives on quality CSE are
reflected and taken into account.
WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME IN M&E?
Source: https://www.rutgers.international/sites/rutgersorg/files/PDF/knowledgefiles/20181218_knowledge%20file_CSE.pdf
1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). “Program 1308 Guidance: Supporting State and Local Education Agencies to Reduce Adolescent Sexual Risk
Behaviors and Adverse Health Outcomes Associated with HIV, Other STD, and Teen Pregnancy”.
https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/fundedprograms/1807/resources/PS18-1807-GUIDANCE508.pdf
2. Ine Vanwesenbeeck, Judith Westeneng, Thilly de Boer, Jo Reinders & Ruth van Zorge (2015). “Lessons learned from a decade implementing Comprehensive
Sexuality Education in resource poor settings: The World Starts With Me, Sex Education”. DOI: 10.1080/14681811.2015.1111203
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14681811.2015.1111203
3. IPPF (2017). “DELIVER+ENABLE TOOLKIT: Scaling-up comprehensive sexuality education (CSE)”
https://www.ippf.org/sites/default/files/2018-03/IPPF%20Deliver%20and%20Enable%20-%20CSE%20Toolkit.pdf
4. Rutgers. (2018). “Comprehensive Sexuality Education”.
https://www.rutgers.international/sites/rutgersorg/files/PDF/knowledgefiles/20181218_knowledge%20file_CSE.pdf
5. UNESCO (2013). “Measuring the Education Sector Response to HIV and AIDS: Guidelines for the Construction and Use of Core Indicators”.
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002230/223028E.pdf.
6. UNESCO (2015). “Emerging Evidence, Lessons and Practice in Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Global Review”.
http://www.unesco.org/open-access/terms-use-ccbysa-en.
7. UNESCO (2018). Review of the Evidence on Sexuality Education: A Report to inform the update of the UNESCO International Technical Guidance on Sexuality
Education.
https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000264649_eng
8. UNESCO (2018). International technical guidance on sexuality education (Revised edition).
https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/ITGSE_en.pdf
9. UNESCO (2019). “Facing the facts: the case for comprehensive sexuality education”. Policy Paper No. 39 in the Global Education Monitoring Report.
https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/sites/gem-report/ files/CSE_references.pdf
10. UNFPA (2014). “Operational Guidance for Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Focus on Human Rights and Gender”.
https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/UNFPA%20Operational%20Guidance%20for%20CSE%20-Final%20WEB%20Version.pdf
11. UNFPA (2015). The Evaluation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programmes: A Focus on the Gender and Empowerment Outcomes
https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/UNFPAEvaluationWEB4.pdf
References
THANK YOU!

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ME-CSE-Programs.pptx

  • 1. An estimated 196,370 babies are born to Filipino teenage mothers every year* *An estimated 538 babies are born to Filipino teenage mothers every single day Philippine Statistics Authority, 2017
  • 2. Monitoring and Evaluation Comprehensive Sexuality Education Rea Uy-Epistola CIP CSE Consultant, CHSI ©CHSI/2019/Cris Gonzales
  • 3. Outline 1. General overview of what entails monitoring and evaluation of the CSE Programme implementation 1. Available tools for M&E 1. Roles and responsibilities of regions, divisions, and schools in M&E.
  • 4. CSE MANDATE “DepEd is committed to implement the comprehensive sexuality education with relevant curriculum that protects and promotes the rights of learners to health education, information, and care”
  • 5. CSE IMPLEMENTATION ▪ School settings provide an ideal opportunity to reach large numbers of young people with comprehensive sexuality education before they become sexually active ▪ Preparing teachers to deliver CSE will help ensure that learners receive accurate and age–appropriate information ▪ Should also be complemented by parental and community support
  • 6. WHY EVALUATE? ▪ Understand the extent to which the program is having or has had the desired impact in relation to its goals ▪ Use data and evidence to advocate for a comprehensive approach to sexuality education ▪ Ensure that that a program/curriculum is achieving its goals Audience: Decision makers and program implementers ▪ National education sector, government departments, policymakers, educators ▪ Civil society, multi- & bi-lateral partners, teachers unions ▪ Stakeholders in other sectors ▪ Donors
  • 7. WHAT DOES EVIDENCE SAY ABOUT CSE? ▪ CSE is crucial in improving health ✔ CSE increases young people’s knowledge and improves their attitudes related to sexual and reproductive health and behaviors. ✔ Sexuality education – in or out of schools – does not increase sexual activity, sexual risk-taking behaviour or STI/HIV infection rates. ▪ CSE contributes to gender equality ▪ CSE is a pillar in delivering good quality education ✔ Most effectively delivered in participatory and learner-centered ways ✔ Can develop young people’s critical thinking, communication, and life skills ✔ Provides a continuum that enables learners to achieve their full potential
  • 8. HOW CAN WE MEASURE OUR CSE PROGRAM? Monitoring indicators can give idea of coverage – but understanding of delivery is still a challenge.
  • 9. CSE & SDG 4 ▪ Development of a standardised indicator on comprehensive sexuality education and its inclusion in the SDG 4 monitoring framework SDG thematic indicator 4.7.2: “Percentage of schools that provide life skills-based HIV and sexuality education within the previous academic year” ▪ A school is considered to have life skills-based HIV and sexuality education if 16 essential topics and at least 6 desirable topics are covered (list of topics are in the UN International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education).
  • 10. CSE M & E TOOLS Sexuality Education Review and Assessment Tool (UNESCO) Inside & Out (IPPF and UNESCO) CSE M&E Tools
  • 11. CSE M & E TOOLS Sexuality Education Review and Assessment Tool
  • 12. CSE M & E TOOLS Sexuality Education Review and Assessment Tool
  • 13. DEP ED STRATEGY FOR CSE M & E ▪ Develop Monitoring and Evaluation Framework ▪ Build monitoring and evaluation into the CSE program ▪ Assess key characteristics of CSE programme quality and comprehensiveness ▪ Develop and/or adopt monitoring and documenting tools Curriculum Design Curriculum Content Curriculum Implementation Formative evaluation Process evaluation Outcome evaluation
  • 14. Build monitoring and evaluation into the CSE program (1) identify what needs to happen Formative evaluation Process evaluation Outcome evaluation (2) examine whether and how well CSE activities are being carried out (3) demonstrate programme effectiveness M & E Objectives:
  • 15. Assess key characteristics of CSE programme quality and comprehensiveness Curriculum Design Curriculum Content Curriculum Implementation ▪ duration and session frequency Measure: “exposure” or “dosage” ✔ number of sessions implemented ✔ length of each session or the frequency with which program methodologies were implemented ✔ amount of materials received. Measure: “adherence” and “pedagogy” ✔ range of topics taught ✔ teaching methods or strategies used ▪ what is taught? ▪ how is the content taught? ▪ Teacher training ▪ Resources and support ▪ School environment ▪ learners
  • 16.
  • 17. Develop and/or adopt monitoring and documenting tools ✔ Assess quality of strategies and activities being implemented and numbers of learners reached. ✔ Document best practices ✔ Conduct mid-year and year-end review on the inputs, processes, and program results across all levels ✔ Revisit existing M&E processes and tools especially that the teaching and learning landscape has shifted to virtual/online
  • 18. ROLES OF REGION/DIVISION/SCHOOLS IN CSE M & E ▪ CSE Monitoring and Evaluation Team ▪ M&E activities that can be done by regional and division level a. Conduct/support formative research on target groups and on policies and programmes Methods will include policy and programme scans, operations research or coverage exercises, review of existing data sets and documents, classroom observation, examination of actual reach of programmes, and interviews with key informants; surveys may also be utilized. b. Conduct regular programme monitoring Methods involve regular review of programme monitoring data (e.g., number of participants per programme venue, demographics of participants) and accessing documentation on teachers training. It also includes sample classroom observations, and observation and interviews to gather data on the safety of the learning environment.
  • 19. According to DepEd Department Order No. 31, a CSE Monitoring and Evaluation Team will be formed composed of the following: ▪ DepEd Central Office team shall be chaired by the Undersecretary for Curriculum and Instruction together with its Bureau Directors and the Undersecretary for Legal Affairs Services as members; ▪ The Regional Office team shall be chaired by the Regional Director/Assistant Regional Director with the Chiefs of all functional divisions as members; ▪ The Division Office team shall be chaired by Schools Division Superintendent/ Assistant Schools Division Superintendent with the Chiefs of the Curriculum Implementation Division and School Governance and Operations Division as members; ▪ The School level Team shall be chaired by the School Head with the School Governing Council and representative from the Supreme Students and /Pupil Government as members; and ▪ The Learning Centers shall be chaired by the Public Schools District Supervisors and Division Alternative Learning System (ALS) Coordinator with the Education Program Specialist- Alternative Learning System (EPS-ALS) and the representative from the Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) as members. CSE Monitoring and Evaluation Team
  • 20. ▪ M&E activities that can be done by region/division/school level a. Conduct/support formative research on target groups and on policies and programmes Methods will include policy and programme scans, operations research or coverage exercises, review of existing data sets and documents, classroom observation, examination of actual reach of programmes, and interviews with key informants; surveys may also be utilized. b. Conduct regular programme monitoring Methods involve regular review of programme monitoring data (e.g., number of participants per programme venue, demographics of participants) and accessing documentation on teachers training. It also includes sample classroom observations, and observation and interviews to gather data on the safety of the learning environment. ROLES OF REGION/DIVISION/SCHOOLS IN CSE M & E
  • 21. ▪ Methods: review of data sets and documents, classroom observation, and interviews with key informants; surveys may also be utilized ▪ Utilize findings: to inform programme design and priorities; highlight gaps in content and methods; expose inequalities of access; mobilize and engage stakeholders and partners; and develop policy advocacy Conduct formative research Questions to ask: • Who is being reached? – disaggregated by age, gender, ethnic group, grade and schooling status • What content is delivered in classrooms and other learning spaces? • What is the quality of CSE curricula and training for teachers (with attention to gender issues and learner-centred pedagogy)? • Learners’ perceptions and experiences of danger in the learning environment • Degree of awareness among education policymakers of the evidence for gender-focused CSE • The presence, or lack, of education policies that incorporate CSE, including related policies on such as safety at school, allowing pregnant girls to continue their education, and provisions for young people who are displaced • National initiatives – including youth-led efforts – to advance gender equality, rights and sexual health.
  • 22. ▪ Methods: Regular review of programme monitoring data and accessing documentation on teachers training. It also includes sample classroom observations, and observation and interviews to gather data on the safety of the learning environment. ▪ Utilize monitoring data: make programme improvements and document evidences for developing good practice. CSE program monitoring Indicators for routine monitoring: • Number of young people participating in CSE • Curriculum and supporting materials are comprehensive: - Gender-sensitive - Human rights-based - Scientifically accurate - Foster critical thinking - Available to all educators in the programme • Training courses for staff/educators include: - Comprehensive content - Participatory learner-centred approaches - Classroom safety • Number of programme staff who have participated in training • Number of teachers who have participated in training • Deployment of staff/teachers, including in more marginalized and underserved communities or regions • Percentage of programme educators who teach the content accurately • Percentage of programme educators who utilize participatory/learner-centred methods • Quality of the teaching/facilitation observed • Prevalence of gender discrimination, sexual harassment or homophobic bullying in the learning environment
  • 23. CSE program monitoring tools Pre-Tests Source: http://www.ccbh.net/s/2014-2015Outcomesreport-Final-0fo6.pdf
  • 24. CSE program monitoring tools Source: https://advocatesforyouth.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/Classroom_Teacher_and_Non-Classroom_Personnel_Observation_Form.pdf Teacher Observations
  • 25.
  • 26. CSE program monitoring tools Post-Tests
  • 27.
  • 28. WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME IN M&E? It is important for education stakeholders from different governance levels, most importantly the implementers, to participate in these policy processes because indicators have the power to shape and redefine our country’s education agenda and education system, in this case as it pertains to comprehensive sexuality education. Your involvement ensures that the voice of the education workforce and your perspectives on quality CSE are reflected and taken into account.
  • 29. WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME IN M&E? Source: https://www.rutgers.international/sites/rutgersorg/files/PDF/knowledgefiles/20181218_knowledge%20file_CSE.pdf
  • 30. 1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2014). “Program 1308 Guidance: Supporting State and Local Education Agencies to Reduce Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and Adverse Health Outcomes Associated with HIV, Other STD, and Teen Pregnancy”. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/fundedprograms/1807/resources/PS18-1807-GUIDANCE508.pdf 2. Ine Vanwesenbeeck, Judith Westeneng, Thilly de Boer, Jo Reinders & Ruth van Zorge (2015). “Lessons learned from a decade implementing Comprehensive Sexuality Education in resource poor settings: The World Starts With Me, Sex Education”. DOI: 10.1080/14681811.2015.1111203 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14681811.2015.1111203 3. IPPF (2017). “DELIVER+ENABLE TOOLKIT: Scaling-up comprehensive sexuality education (CSE)” https://www.ippf.org/sites/default/files/2018-03/IPPF%20Deliver%20and%20Enable%20-%20CSE%20Toolkit.pdf 4. Rutgers. (2018). “Comprehensive Sexuality Education”. https://www.rutgers.international/sites/rutgersorg/files/PDF/knowledgefiles/20181218_knowledge%20file_CSE.pdf 5. UNESCO (2013). “Measuring the Education Sector Response to HIV and AIDS: Guidelines for the Construction and Use of Core Indicators”. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002230/223028E.pdf. 6. UNESCO (2015). “Emerging Evidence, Lessons and Practice in Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Global Review”. http://www.unesco.org/open-access/terms-use-ccbysa-en. 7. UNESCO (2018). Review of the Evidence on Sexuality Education: A Report to inform the update of the UNESCO International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education. https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000264649_eng 8. UNESCO (2018). International technical guidance on sexuality education (Revised edition). https://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/ITGSE_en.pdf 9. UNESCO (2019). “Facing the facts: the case for comprehensive sexuality education”. Policy Paper No. 39 in the Global Education Monitoring Report. https://en.unesco.org/gem-report/sites/gem-report/ files/CSE_references.pdf 10. UNFPA (2014). “Operational Guidance for Comprehensive Sexuality Education: A Focus on Human Rights and Gender”. https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/UNFPA%20Operational%20Guidance%20for%20CSE%20-Final%20WEB%20Version.pdf 11. UNFPA (2015). The Evaluation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programmes: A Focus on the Gender and Empowerment Outcomes https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/UNFPAEvaluationWEB4.pdf References