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Road Diets: The Seattle Experience




      Pro Walk / Pro Bike: Pro Place
          September 11, 2012
              Brian Dougherty
              Carol McMahan
Where is Seattle?
Complete Streets

• 16% of households do not
  have a car

• Seniors

• Youth

• Safety

• Transit riders

 Ultimately, we all need
 complete streets
Seattle’s Complete Streets Approach
• Vision: Streets that are      • Implementation: Complete
  safe, convenient and            Streets checklist
  accessible for everyone
                                • Outreach: Community
• Plans: Bicycle, Pedestrian,     collaboration
  Transit, Freight
                             • Opportunities: Redesigning
• Funding: Bridging the Gap,   city streets
  state, federal grants
For whom road diets might apply
• ADT < 15,000         OK


• ADT 15,000 - 20,000 Evaluate

• ADT >20,000      Maybe
                            Small Cities   Large Cities
  Towns      Suburbs
Why Road Diets?
Complete Streets Approach
Economic Benefits
Economic Benefits
Why Road Diets? Fewer Collisions

                                                                                                                                                   US Federal Highway Administration Proven Safety
                                                                                                                                                       Measure to reduce all collisions by 29%

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Why Road Diets? Pedestrian Safety
A modest decrease in motor vehicle
speed can dramatically increase
survival in pedestrian crashes



                                     Speed
                                     reduction from
                                     40 to 30
                                     increases
                                     survival rate by
                                     5x
Seattle Road Diet History
14

12

10

8
                                                           Miles
6
                                                           Projects
4

2

0
     1972 -   1979 -   1986 -   1993 -   2000 -   2007 -
      1978     1985     1992     1999     2006     2012
Seattle Road Diet History
• 34 road diets have been
  installed in Seattle since
  1972

• 1972 – 2006: 21 Projects
• 2007 – 2012: 13 Projects
How are Corridors Identified?
• Complete Streets for
  capital projects

• Bicycle Master Plan

• Pedestrian Master Plan

• Community requests for
  neighborhood plan
  implementation                 S Columbian Way
What Factors are Considered?
 Tier 1: Traffic Operations




Before                        After   Nickerson St
What Factors are Considered?
 Tier 2: Safety/Collisions




Before                       After   N 130th St (2010)
What Factors are Considered?
 Tier 3: Livability




Before                    After     7th Ave (2010)
Don’t Forget the Design Details

•Freight
   •Lane width
   •Turning movements

•Transit
   •Lane width
   •Turning movements
   •Stop consolidation
   •Trolley lines
Don’t Forget the Design Details

• Parking
  – Peak hour
  – Utilization
Don’t Forget the Design Details
• Pedestrian crossings
  – Refuge islands
  – Marked crosswalks
Don’t Forget the Design Details
• Signals
  – Detection
  – Optimize corridor
Don’t Forget the Design Details
• Pavement Condition




          Spot repair
Out Reach: Common Concerns
• There will be gridlock!
   – Maintain capacity at signalized intersections
   – Gain efficiency by removing left turns from travel lanes

• People will cut though the neighborhood!
   – Monitor pre and post project implementation
   – Implement traffic calming measures if problems occur

• I’ll be trapped in my driveway by all the traffic!
   – Sight distance is improved for left turns
   – Access from side streets and driveways improved by
       crossing only one travel lane to the two-way left turn lane.
Out Reach: Common Concerns
Street         Before     After      Requests to
               Comments   Comments   remove

NE 125th St       394         7           3

Nickerson St      66          8           0
Pitfalls




Carolina Beach, North Carolina
Before & After Studies
Data needs               Before Study   After Study (>1 year)
ADT                                √               √
Bike and Ped Counts                √               √
Crash Data                         √               √
Speed                              √               √
Transit Operations                 √               √
Turning vehicle counts             √               √
Gap Studies                        √               √
Parking use                        √               √
Side street diversion              √               √
Vehicle Classification             √               √
Resident Satisfaction              √               √
Business Satisfaction              √               √
Case Study: Stone Way N
•   1.2 miles
•   ADT – 13,000
•   Burke-Gilman Trail Access
•   Woodland Park Access
•   Within 5 blocks – 8 schools, 2
    libraries and 5 parks
Stone Way N: Marked Crosswalks

• Uncontrolled, marked
  crosswalks at 4
  intersections.
• Crosswalk guidelines
  changed in 2004.
• Marked crosswalks would
  be non-compliant with
  four-lane cross section.
Stone Way N: Bicycle Master Plan


• Adopted in 2007.
• Stone one of the first
  projects completed under
  the plan.
• Recommended climbing
  lane and sharrow.
Stone Way N: 85th Percentile Speed

• Speed limit 30
• 85th percentile was 37
  mph prior to
  rechannelization
• Dropped to 36 mph
  northbound
• Dropped to 34 mph
  soundbound
Stone Way N: Aggressive Speeders
• 3% of vehicles traveled at
  40 mph+ prior to
  rechannelization
• Fewer than 1% traveled
  at 40mph+ after
  rechannelization
• Reducing the number of
  top speeders greatly
  reduces seriousness of
  collisions and injuries.
Stone Way N: Bicycle Volume


• Increased 35%
• Represents almost 15%
  of the peak hour traffic
  volume!
Stone Way N: Motor Vehicle Volume
• ADT Dropped 6%
  (consistent with citywide
  trend between 2006-08)
• Peak Hour volume
  dropped approximately
  5%
• Off-peak volume actually
  increased south of 45th
  Street
Stone Way N: Neighborhood Traffic
• Four non-arterial streets
  commonly mentioned as
  alternatives to Stone
• Volume decreased on all
  four of those streets
• Traffic did not divert after
  rechannelization.
Stone Way N: Collisions
• Total collisions declined
  14%
• Injury collisions declined
  33%
• Angle collisions declined
  56%
• Bicycle collisions no
  change, but rate declined
• Pedestrian collisions
  declined 80%
Stone Way N: Conclusions
• Speed has declined
• Collisions have declined
• Pedestrian crossings are
  safer
• Bicycle volume has
  increased
• Traffic has not diverted to
  neighborhood streets
• Peak hour capacity has
  been maintained
• Strong case for
  implementing road diets
Possible Elements of Future Studies
Study Data:              To Address/Answer:
• Pre and Post survey    • Livability
  of nearby businesses   • Impact to business
  and residents          • Travel time
• Traffic signal LOS     • Diversions to other
• Volume of parallel       arterial streets
  arterials
Follow-up studies and monitoring
• Volume of principal street
  /peak hour capacity

• Speed and collisions

• Traffic signal level of service

• Volume of parallel arterials

• Travel time

• Bicycle volumes
                                    Stone Way
NE 125th St
Factors:
• ADT 16,200
• 4 lanes to 2 lanes
  with TWLTL and bike
  lanes
• Business district
• High bus usage
• High number of
  pedestrian collisions

                               Before
NE 125th Street




Before   After
NE 125th St
Volume


  ADT     AM     PM
  4%      6%     12%
Speed


  85th%   OVER   TOP
   -8%
            30   END
          -12%   -69%
Nickerson St:




Before   After
Nickerson Case Study




Before
Nickerson Case Study




After
Columbian Way Complete Street
• ADT 11,200

• Repave project

• 4 lanes to 2 lanes
  with TWLTL and bike
  lanes

• New sidewalks
Recent Results
Street         ADT      ADT      Collisions   85th % Top end    Travel
               begin    change                       speeders   time

Stone Way      13,000     -6%      - 14%       - 6%    - 80%      N/A

                                                                 + 1.5
NE 125th St    16,200    + 4%       N/A        - 8%    - 69%
                                                                  min

Nickerson St   18,600    - 1%      - 23%       - 21%   - 94%      N/A


Columbian
               11,200    + 20%   No change     - 6%    -50%       N/A
Way
Not the end of the story: Dexter Ave N


Before               After
Not the end of the story: Dexter Ave N

Before                After
Just Completed: S Othello Street

Before                 After
Additional Resources
• Nickerson Street Before and After Study
    –   http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/nickerson.htm



• Stone Way Before and After Study
    – http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/docs/StoneWaybeforeafterFINAL.pdf



• FHWA: Proven Safety Countermeasures
    –   http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/index.htm



• NACTO Guides
    –   http://nacto.org/


• National Complete Streets Coalition
    –   http://www.completestreets.org/




•

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#27 Road Diets – Improving Safety for Everyone - Dougherty

  • 1. Road Diets: The Seattle Experience Pro Walk / Pro Bike: Pro Place September 11, 2012 Brian Dougherty Carol McMahan
  • 3. Complete Streets • 16% of households do not have a car • Seniors • Youth • Safety • Transit riders Ultimately, we all need complete streets
  • 4. Seattle’s Complete Streets Approach • Vision: Streets that are • Implementation: Complete safe, convenient and Streets checklist accessible for everyone • Outreach: Community • Plans: Bicycle, Pedestrian, collaboration Transit, Freight • Opportunities: Redesigning • Funding: Bridging the Gap, city streets state, federal grants
  • 5. For whom road diets might apply • ADT < 15,000 OK • ADT 15,000 - 20,000 Evaluate • ADT >20,000 Maybe Small Cities Large Cities Towns Suburbs
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 13. Why Road Diets? Fewer Collisions US Federal Highway Administration Proven Safety Measure to reduce all collisions by 29% The image cannot be display ed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupted. Restart y our computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and then insert it again.
  • 14. Why Road Diets? Pedestrian Safety A modest decrease in motor vehicle speed can dramatically increase survival in pedestrian crashes Speed reduction from 40 to 30 increases survival rate by 5x
  • 15. Seattle Road Diet History 14 12 10 8 Miles 6 Projects 4 2 0 1972 - 1979 - 1986 - 1993 - 2000 - 2007 - 1978 1985 1992 1999 2006 2012
  • 16. Seattle Road Diet History • 34 road diets have been installed in Seattle since 1972 • 1972 – 2006: 21 Projects • 2007 – 2012: 13 Projects
  • 17. How are Corridors Identified? • Complete Streets for capital projects • Bicycle Master Plan • Pedestrian Master Plan • Community requests for neighborhood plan implementation S Columbian Way
  • 18. What Factors are Considered? Tier 1: Traffic Operations Before After Nickerson St
  • 19. What Factors are Considered? Tier 2: Safety/Collisions Before After N 130th St (2010)
  • 20. What Factors are Considered? Tier 3: Livability Before After 7th Ave (2010)
  • 21. Don’t Forget the Design Details •Freight •Lane width •Turning movements •Transit •Lane width •Turning movements •Stop consolidation •Trolley lines
  • 22. Don’t Forget the Design Details • Parking – Peak hour – Utilization
  • 23. Don’t Forget the Design Details • Pedestrian crossings – Refuge islands – Marked crosswalks
  • 24. Don’t Forget the Design Details • Signals – Detection – Optimize corridor
  • 25. Don’t Forget the Design Details • Pavement Condition Spot repair
  • 26. Out Reach: Common Concerns • There will be gridlock! – Maintain capacity at signalized intersections – Gain efficiency by removing left turns from travel lanes • People will cut though the neighborhood! – Monitor pre and post project implementation – Implement traffic calming measures if problems occur • I’ll be trapped in my driveway by all the traffic! – Sight distance is improved for left turns – Access from side streets and driveways improved by crossing only one travel lane to the two-way left turn lane.
  • 27. Out Reach: Common Concerns Street Before After Requests to Comments Comments remove NE 125th St 394 7 3 Nickerson St 66 8 0
  • 29. Before & After Studies Data needs Before Study After Study (>1 year) ADT √ √ Bike and Ped Counts √ √ Crash Data √ √ Speed √ √ Transit Operations √ √ Turning vehicle counts √ √ Gap Studies √ √ Parking use √ √ Side street diversion √ √ Vehicle Classification √ √ Resident Satisfaction √ √ Business Satisfaction √ √
  • 30. Case Study: Stone Way N • 1.2 miles • ADT – 13,000 • Burke-Gilman Trail Access • Woodland Park Access • Within 5 blocks – 8 schools, 2 libraries and 5 parks
  • 31. Stone Way N: Marked Crosswalks • Uncontrolled, marked crosswalks at 4 intersections. • Crosswalk guidelines changed in 2004. • Marked crosswalks would be non-compliant with four-lane cross section.
  • 32. Stone Way N: Bicycle Master Plan • Adopted in 2007. • Stone one of the first projects completed under the plan. • Recommended climbing lane and sharrow.
  • 33. Stone Way N: 85th Percentile Speed • Speed limit 30 • 85th percentile was 37 mph prior to rechannelization • Dropped to 36 mph northbound • Dropped to 34 mph soundbound
  • 34. Stone Way N: Aggressive Speeders • 3% of vehicles traveled at 40 mph+ prior to rechannelization • Fewer than 1% traveled at 40mph+ after rechannelization • Reducing the number of top speeders greatly reduces seriousness of collisions and injuries.
  • 35. Stone Way N: Bicycle Volume • Increased 35% • Represents almost 15% of the peak hour traffic volume!
  • 36. Stone Way N: Motor Vehicle Volume • ADT Dropped 6% (consistent with citywide trend between 2006-08) • Peak Hour volume dropped approximately 5% • Off-peak volume actually increased south of 45th Street
  • 37. Stone Way N: Neighborhood Traffic • Four non-arterial streets commonly mentioned as alternatives to Stone • Volume decreased on all four of those streets • Traffic did not divert after rechannelization.
  • 38. Stone Way N: Collisions • Total collisions declined 14% • Injury collisions declined 33% • Angle collisions declined 56% • Bicycle collisions no change, but rate declined • Pedestrian collisions declined 80%
  • 39. Stone Way N: Conclusions • Speed has declined • Collisions have declined • Pedestrian crossings are safer • Bicycle volume has increased • Traffic has not diverted to neighborhood streets • Peak hour capacity has been maintained • Strong case for implementing road diets
  • 40. Possible Elements of Future Studies Study Data: To Address/Answer: • Pre and Post survey • Livability of nearby businesses • Impact to business and residents • Travel time • Traffic signal LOS • Diversions to other • Volume of parallel arterial streets arterials
  • 41. Follow-up studies and monitoring • Volume of principal street /peak hour capacity • Speed and collisions • Traffic signal level of service • Volume of parallel arterials • Travel time • Bicycle volumes Stone Way
  • 42. NE 125th St Factors: • ADT 16,200 • 4 lanes to 2 lanes with TWLTL and bike lanes • Business district • High bus usage • High number of pedestrian collisions Before
  • 44. NE 125th St Volume ADT AM PM 4% 6% 12% Speed 85th% OVER TOP -8% 30 END -12% -69%
  • 48. Columbian Way Complete Street • ADT 11,200 • Repave project • 4 lanes to 2 lanes with TWLTL and bike lanes • New sidewalks
  • 49. Recent Results Street ADT ADT Collisions 85th % Top end Travel begin change speeders time Stone Way 13,000 -6% - 14% - 6% - 80% N/A + 1.5 NE 125th St 16,200 + 4% N/A - 8% - 69% min Nickerson St 18,600 - 1% - 23% - 21% - 94% N/A Columbian 11,200 + 20% No change - 6% -50% N/A Way
  • 50. Not the end of the story: Dexter Ave N Before After
  • 51. Not the end of the story: Dexter Ave N Before After
  • 52. Just Completed: S Othello Street Before After
  • 53. Additional Resources • Nickerson Street Before and After Study – http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/nickerson.htm • Stone Way Before and After Study – http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/docs/StoneWaybeforeafterFINAL.pdf • FHWA: Proven Safety Countermeasures – http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/index.htm • NACTO Guides – http://nacto.org/ • National Complete Streets Coalition – http://www.completestreets.org/ •