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T H E  H O R I Z O N  R E P O R T
          2011 EDITION




       The New Media CoNsorTiuM
The 2011 Horizon Report is made possible via a grant from HP


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T H E  H O R I Z O N  R E P O R T
          2011 EDITION




       The New Media CoNsorTiuM
The 2011 Horizon Report is
                                          a collaboration between

                               The New Media CoNsorTiuM
                                                      and the

                                eduCause Learning initiative
                                           an eduCause Program

          Since 2005, the annual Horizon Report has been the most visible aspect of a focused
          collaboration between the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) and the New Media
          Consortium in which the two organizations engage their memberships in both the
          creation and outcomes of the research.
          The New Media Consortium (NMC) is a globally focused not-for-profit consortium
          dedicated to the exploration and use of new media and new technologies. Its hundreds
          of member institutions constitute an elite list of the most highly regarded colleges,
          universities, and museums in the worlds. For nearly 20 years, the consortium and its
          members have dedicated themselves to exploring and developing applications of
          emerging technologies for learning, research, and creative inquiry. For more information
          on the NMC, visit www.nmc.org.
          The ELI is a community of higher education institutions and organizations committed
          to advancing learning through information technology (IT) innovation. ELI is a strategic
          initiative of EDUCAUSE. While EDUCAUSE serves those interested in advancing higher
          education through technology, ELI specifically explores innovative technologies and
          practices that advance learning and promotes innovation in teaching and learning using
          information technology. To learn more about the ELI, visit www.educause.edu/eli.

                                    © 2011, The New Media Consortium.
                                           ISBN 978-0-9828290-5-9

Permission is granted under a Creative Commons Attribution license to replicate, copy, distribute, transmit,
    or adapt this report freely provided that attribution is provided as illustrated in the citation below.

    To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ or send a letter to
             Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


                                                   Citation:
    Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., and Haywood, K., (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report.
                               Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium.

                              Cover photograph, “Kauai’i Solstice,” © 2005, Larry Johnson.
Ta b L e o f C o N T e N T s
executive summary ....................................................................................................................................... 2
         Key Trends
         Critical Challenges
         Technologies to Watch
         The Horizon Project
Time-to-adoption: one Year or Less
      Electronic Books........................................................................................................................................ 8
           Overview
           Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry
           Electronic Books in Practice
           For Further Reading
      Mobiles .................................................................................................................................................... 12
          Overview
          Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry
          Mobiles in Practice
          For Further Reading
Time-to-adoption: Two to Three Years
      Augmented Reality .................................................................................................................................. 16
          Overview
          Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry
          Augmented Reality in Practice
          For Further Reading
      Game-Based Learning ............................................................................................................................ 20
          Overview
          Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry
          Game-Based Learning in Practice
          For Further Reading
Time-to-adoption: four to five Years
      Gesture-Based Computing ...................................................................................................................... 24
           Overview
           Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry
           Gesture-Based Computing in Practice
           For Further Reading
      Learning Analytics ................................................................................................................................... 28
           Overview
           Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry
           Learning Analytics in Practice
           For Further Reading
Methodology ................................................................................................................................................. 31
2011 Horizon Project advisory board ......................................................................................................... 33




                                             T H e            H o r i Z o N                     r e P o r T                   –      2 0 1 1                   1
e Xe Cu TiV e s uM M a rY
The internationally recognized series of Horizon          section of this report.
Reports is part of the New Media Consortium’s
                                                          The report’s format is consistent from year to year
Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture
                                                          and edition to edition, and opens with a discussion of
established in 2002 that identifies and describes
                                                          the trends and challenges identified by the Advisory
emerging technologies likely to have a large impact
                                                          Board as most important for the next five years. The
over the coming five years on a variety of sectors
                                                          format of the main section of this edition closely reflects
around the globe. This volume, the 2011 Horizon
                                                          the focus of the Horizon Project itself, centering on
Report, examines emerging technologies for their
                                                          the applications of emerging technologies in higher
potential impact on and use in teaching, learning,
                                                          education settings. Each section is introduced
and creative inquiry. It is the eighth in the annual
                                                          with an overview that describes what the topic is,
series of reports focused on emerging technology in
                                                          followed by a discussion of the particular relevance
the higher education environment.
                                                          of the topic to teaching, learning, and creative inquiry.
To create the report, the Horizon Project’s Advisory      Several concrete examples of how the technology is
Board, an international body of experts in education,     being used are given. Finally, each section closes
technology, business, and other fields, engaged in        with an annotated list of suggested readings and
a discussion based on a set of research questions         additional examples that expand on the discussion
intended to surface significant trends and challenges     in the report, including a link to the tagged resources
and to identify a broad array of potential technologies   collected during the research process by project
for the report. This dialog was enriched by a wide        staff, the Advisory Board, and others in the global
range of resources, current research, and practice        Horizon Project community.
that drew on the expertise of the NMC community
and the communities of the members of the board.          Key Trends
These interactions among the Advisory Board are           The technologies featured in every edition of the
the focus of the Horizon Report research, and this        Horizon Report are embedded within a contemporary
report details the areas in which these experts were      context that reflects the realities of the time, both in
in strong agreement.                                      the sphere of education and in the world at large.
Each edition of the Horizon Report introduces six         To ensure this context was well understood as the
emerging technologies or practices that are likely to     current report was produced, the Advisory Board
enter mainstream use within three adoption horizons       engaged in an extensive review of current articles,
over the next five years. Key trends and challenges       interviews, papers, and new research to identify
that will affect current practice over the same time      and rank trends that are currently affecting the
frame add context to these discussions. Over the          practices of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry.
course of just a few weeks, the Advisory Board came       Once detailed, the list of trends was then ranked
to a consensus about the six topics that appear           according to how significant each was likely to be for
here in the 2011 Horizon Report. The examples and         learning-focused institutions over the next five years.
readings under each topic area are meant to provide       The highest ranked of those trends had significant
practical models as well as access to more detailed       agreement among the Advisory Board members,
information. Wherever possible, an effort was made        who considered them to be key drivers of educational
to highlight the innovative work going on among           technology adoptions for the period 2011 through
learning-focused institutions. The precise research       2015. They are listed here in the order in which the
methodology employed is detailed in the closing           Advisory Board ranked them.
 The abundance of resources and relationships             will perform their work from multiple locations by
  made easily accessible via the Internet is               2013.
  increasingly challenging us to revisit our roles        The technologies we use are increasingly
  as educators in sense-making, coaching, and
                                                           cloud-based, and our notions of IT support
  credentialing. This multi-year trend was again
                                                           are decentralized. This trend, too, was noted in
  ranked very highly, indicating its continued
                                                           2010 and continues to influence decisions about
  influence. With personal access to the Internet
                                                           emerging technology adoption at educational
  from mobile devices on the rise, the growing set
                                                           institutions. As we turn to mobile applications for
  of resources available as open content, and a
                                                           immediate access to many resources and tasks
  variety of reference and textbooks available
                                                           that once were performed on desktop computers,
  electronically, students’ easy and pervasive
                                                           it makes sense to move data and services into
  access to information outside of formal campus
                                                           the cloud. The challenges of privacy and control
  resources continues to encourage educators to
                                                           continue to affect adoption and deployment, but
  take a careful look at the ways we can best serve
                                                           work continues on resolving the issues raised by
  learners.
                                                           increasingly networked information.
 People expect to be able to work, learn, and
  study whenever and wherever they want.               Critical Challenges
  This highly-ranked trend, also noted last year,      Any discussion of technology adoption must also
  continues to permeate all aspects of daily life.     consider important constraints and challenges,
  Mobiles contribute to this trend, where increased    and the Advisory Board drew deeply from a careful
  availability of the Internet feeds the expectation   analysis of current events, papers, articles, and
  of access. Feelings of frustration are common        similar sources, as well as from personal experience
  when it is not available. Companies are starting     in detailing a long list of challenges institutions face
  to respond to consumer demand for access             in adopting any new technology. Several important
  anywhere; in 2010, programs like Google’s Fiber      challenges are detailed below, but it was clear that
  for Communities sought to expand access to           behind them all was a pervasive sense that individual
  underserved communities, and several airlines
                                                       organizational constraints are likely the most
  began offering wireless network access in the air
                                                       important factor in any decision to adopt — or not to
  during flights.
                                                       adopt — any given technology. While acknowledging
 The world of work is increasingly collaborative,     that local barriers to technology adoptions are
  giving rise to reflection about the way student      many and significant, the Advisory Board focused
  projects are structured. This trend continues        its discussions on challenges that are common to
  from 2010 and is being driven by the increasingly    institutions and the educational community as a
  global and cooperative nature of business            whole.
  interactions facilitated by Internet technologies.
                                                       The highest ranked challenges they identified are
  The days of isolated desk jobs are disappearing,
                                                       listed here, in the order of their rated importance.
  giving way to models in which teams work actively
  together to address issues too far-reaching or          Digital media literacy continues its rise in im-
  complex for a single worker to resolve alone.            portance as a key skill in every discipline and
  Market intelligence firm IDC notes that some             profession. This challenge, first noted in 2008,
  one billion people fit the definition of mobile          reflects universal agreement among those on
  workers already, and projects that fully one-third       the Horizon Project Advisory Board. Although
  of the global workforce — 1.2 billon workers —           there is broad consensus that digital media liter-


                              T H e      H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T           –    2 0 1 1           3
e X e C u T i V e             s u M M a r Y

  acy is vitally important for today’s students, what          ticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to
  skills constitute digital literacy are still not well-       keep up with even a few of the many new tools
  defined nor universally taught. Teacher prepara-             that are released. User-created content is ex-
  tion programs are beginning to include courses               ploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and
  related to digital media literacy, and universities          opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but fol-
  are beginning to fold these literacy skills into             lowing even some of the hundreds of available
  coursework for students, but progress continues              authorities means sifting through a mountain of
  to be slow. The challenge is exacerbated by the              information on a weekly or daily basis. There is
  fact that digital technologies morph and change              a greater need than ever for effective tools and
  quickly at a rate that generally outpaces curricu-           filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and re-
  lum development.                                             trieving the data that is important to us.
 Appropriate metrics of evaluation lag behind             These trends and challenges are a reflection of the
  the emergence of new scholarly forms of au-              impact of technology that is occurring in almost
  thoring, publishing, and researching. Noted first        every aspect of our lives. They are indicative of the
  in 2010, this challenge continues. Electronic            changing nature of the way we communicate, access
  books, blogs, multimedia pieces, networked               information, connect with peers and colleagues,
  presentations, and other kinds of scholarly work         learn, and even socialize. Taken together, they
  can be difficult to evaluate and classify accord-        provided the Advisory Board a frame through
  ing to traditional metrics, but faculty members          which to consider the potential impacts of nearly 50
  are increasingly experimenting with these al-            emerging technologies and related practices that
  ternate forms of expression. At the same time,           were analyzed and discussed for possible inclusion
  reconciling new forms of scholarly activity with         in this edition of the Horizon Report. Six of those
  old standards continues to be difficult, creating        were chosen via successive rounds of ranking; they
  tension and raising questions as to where fac-           are summarized below and detailed in the main body
  ulty energy is best directed.                            of the report.

 Economic pressures and new models of edu-
                                                           Technologies to watch
  cation are presenting unprecedented competi-
                                                           The six technologies featured in the 2011 Horizon
  tion to traditional models of the university. The
                                                           Report are placed along three adoption horizons
  twin challenges of providing high-quality ser-
                                                           that indicate likely time frames for their entrance into
  vices and controlling costs continue to impel in-
                                                           mainstream use for teaching, learning, or creative
  stitutions to seek creative solutions. As a result,
                                                           inquiry. The near-term horizon assumes the likelihood
  innovative institutions are developing new mod-
                                                           of entry into the mainstream for institutions within the
  els to serve students, such as streaming survey
                                                           next twelve months; the mid-term horizon, within two
  courses over the network so students can at-
                                                           to three years; and the far-term, within four to five
  tend from their dorm or other locations to free
                                                           years. It should be noted at the outset that the Horizon
  up lecture space. As these pressures continue,
                                                           Report is not a predictive tool. It is meant, rather, to
  other models will emerge as well.
                                                           highlight emerging technologies with considerable
 Keeping pace with the rapid proliferation of in-         potential for our focus areas of teaching, learning, and
  formation, software tools, and devices is chal-          creative inquiry. Each of the six is already the focus
  lenging for students and teachers alike. New             of attention at a number of innovative organizations
  developments in technology are exciting and              around the world, and the work we showcase here
  their potential for improving quality of life is en-     reveals the promise of a wider impact.
on the near-term horizon — that is, within the next       secured the place of these innovations as the top
12 months — are electronic books and mobiles.             technologies for the mid-term horizon.
Electronic books are moving closer to mainstream              Augmented reality refers to the layering of
adoption for educational institutions, having                 information over a view or representation of
appeared on the mid-term horizon last year. Mobiles           the normal world, offering users the ability to
reappear as well, remaining on the near-term horizon          access place-based information in ways that are
as they become increasingly popular throughout the            compellingly intuitive. Augmented reality brings
world as a primary means of accessing Internet                a significant potential to supplement information
resources. Resistance to the use of mobiles in the            delivered via computers, mobile devices, video,
classroom continues to impede their adoption in               and even the printed book. Much simpler to
many schools, but a growing number of institutions            create and use now than in the past, augmented
are finding ways to take advantage of a technology            reality feels at once fresh and new, yet an easy
that nearly all students, faculty, and staff carry.           extension of existing expectations and practices.
    Electronic books continue to generate strong              Game-based learning has grown in recent
    interest in the consumer sector and are                   years as research continues to demonstrate
    increasingly available on campuses as well.               its effectiveness for learning for students of all
    Modern electronic readers support note-taking             ages. Games for education span the range from
    and research activities, and are beginning                single-player or small-group card and board
    to augment these basic functions with new                 games all the way to massively multiplayer online
    capabilities — from immersive experiences                 games and alternate reality games. Those at the
    to support for social interaction — that are              first end of the spectrum are easy to integrate
    changing our perception of what it means to               with coursework, and in many institutions they
    read.                                                     are already an option; but the greatest potential
    Mobiles enable ubiquitous access to                       of games for learning lies in their ability to foster
    information, social networks, tools for learning          collaboration, problem-solving, and procedural
    and productivity, and much more. Mobile devices           thinking. For a variety of reasons, the realization
    continue to evolve, but it is the increased access        of this potential is still two to three years away.
    to affordable and reliable networks that is driving   Looking to the far-term horizon, four to five years
    this technology now. Mobiles are capable              from now for widespread adoption, are gesture-
    computing devices in their own right — and they       based computing and learning analytics. Both
    are increasingly a user’s first choice for Internet   remain largely speculative and not yet in widespread
    access.                                               usage on campuses, but both are also garnering
The second adoption horizon considers                     significant interest and increasing exposure.
technologies expected to gain widespread usage                Gesture-based computing moves the control
within two to three years, and this year’s candidates         of computers from a mouse and keyboard to the
are augmented reality and game-based learning.                motions of the body via new input devices. De-
Both intersect with practices in mainstream popular           picted in science fiction movies for years, ges-
culture, both have been considered significant tools          ture-based computing is now more grounded in
for education for many years, and both have made              reality thanks to the recent arrival of interface
appearances on a number of campuses already.                  technologies such as Kinect, SixthSense, and
Advances in hardware and software, as well as in              Tamper, which make interactions with computa-
a broader acceptance of new methods in teaching,              tional devices far more intuitive and embodied.


                                 T H e      H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T           –    2 0 1 1           5
e X e C u T i V e             s u M M a r Y

    Learning analytics loosely joins a variety of           with the dual goals of understanding how technology
    data-gathering tools and analytic techniques            is being absorbed using a smaller lens, and also
    to study student engagement, performance,               noting the contrasts between technology use in
    and progress in practice, with the goal of using        one area compared to another. To date, companion
    what is learned to revise curricula, teaching, and      editions have been prepared that center on education
    assessment in real time. Building on the kinds          in Australia, New Zealand, and the fourteen countries
    of information generated by Google Analytics            of Iberoamerica; the series will expand to include
    and other similar tools, learning analytics aims        Europe, Singapore, and Africa over the next two years.
    to mobilize the power of data-mining tools
                                                            The flagship Horizon Report, published each
    in the service of learning, and embracing
                                                            January, focuses on higher education globally, and is
    the complexity, diversity, and abundance of
                                                            translated into multiple languages every year. Over
    information that dynamic learning environments
                                                            all editions, the readership of the reports is estimated
    can generate.
                                                            at well over 600,000 worldwide, with readers in more
Each of these technologies is described in detail           than 70 countries.
in the main body of the report, where a discussion
                                                            The Horizon Project Navigator. This edition of
of what the technology is and why it is relevant to
                                                            the Horizon Report kicks off the ninth year of the
teaching, learning, and creative inquiry may also be
                                                            series and a turning point in the NMC’s Emerging
found. Given the practical focus of the report, a listing
                                                            Technologies Initiative, which is dedicated to charting
of examples of the technology in use, especially in
                                                            the landscape of emerging technologies for teaching,
higher education, is a key component of each of the
                                                            learning, and creative inquiry. In each of the preceding
six main topics. Our research indicates that all six
                                                            years, the Horizon Project process has focused
of these technologies, taken together, will have a
                                                            on the creation of a print-based publication (or its
significant impact on learning-focused organizations
                                                            pdf analog), one produced through a collaborative
within the next five years.
                                                            process that leveraged the productive potential of a
                                                            wiki for posting and responding to ideas, RSS feeds
The Horizon Project
                                                            for gathering information dynamically, and tagging
This report is part of a longitudinal research study
                                                            for collecting and sharing references. The decision
of emerging technologies that began in March
                                                            to print the NMC report was based on the fact that
2002. Since that time, under the banner of the
                                                            a physical report remains a powerful tool on many
Horizon Project, the New Media Consortium and
                                                            campuses.
its research partners have held an ongoing series
of conversations and dialogs with hundreds of               However, in its continuing interest in modeling the
technology professionals, campus technologists,             advantages of new technologies, over the course of
faculty leaders from colleges and universities,             2010, and with the generous support of the HP, the
museum professionals, teachers and other school             NMC designed and produced the Horizon Project
professionals, and representatives of leading               Navigator (http://navigator.nmc.org), an online
corporations from more than thirty countries.  These        database that harnesses the power of technology
conversations have been the impetus for a series            and social media to create an information and
of nearly 20 annual reports focused on emerging             resource hub that is made stronger through the
technologies relevant to formal and informal learning       participation of its users.
in colleges, universities, schools, and museums.            The Horizon Project Navigator leverages the
In 2008, the NMC embarked on a new series of                affordances of social media and computation to
regional companion editions of the Horizon Report,          offer users access to the same materials — and
more — used by the Horizon Project Advisory              and analysis of research, articles, papers, blogs,
Board. It is a dynamic, customizable, and powerful       and interviews; discussed existing applications,
tool for individuals who want the ability to chart the   and brainstormed new ones; and ultimately ranked
landscape of emerging technologies for teaching,         the items on the list of candidate technologies for
learning, and creative inquiry through their own set     their potential relevance to teaching, learning, and
of needs and interests. The platform provides a fully    creative inquiry. This work took place entirely online
dynamic online version of the Horizon Report created     and may be reviewed on the project wiki at http://
for the emerging technology professional.                horizon.wiki.nmc.org.
Dynamic reports can be adapted and modified to suit      The effort to produce the report and the findings
the needs of individual users, and Navigator itself      detailed within it began in mid-September 2010 and
provides a space within which anyone can participate     concluded in early January 2011, a period of just
in the gathering, sifting, and sharing of ideas          under four months. Most of the work on the project
related to the trends and challenges of emerging         took place in and is preserved on the wiki. All of the
technologies in the context of formal and informal       interim materials and rankings used to create the
learning. The Horizon Project Navigator includes all     report can be found there, as well as the discussions
the research materials, project information, and other   of the Advisory Board around each topic. The six
ephemera that has been created from the intensive        technologies and applications that emerged at the
and collaborative process used in creating each          top of the final rankings — two per adoption horizon
annual Horizon Report. The 2011 Horizon Report           — are detailed in the chapters that follow.
was the first of the series that was able to draw on     Each of those chapters includes detailed
the resources of the Horizon Project Navigator in its    descriptions, links to active demonstration projects,
creation, and marks a new epoch in the history of        and a wide array of additional resources related to
the project.                                             the six profiled technologies. Those profiles are the
The Horizon Project wiki. The Horizon Project            heart of the 2011 Horizon Report, and will fuel the
uses qualitative research methods to identify the        work of the Horizon Project throughout 2011-12. For
technologies selected for inclusion in each report.      those wanting to know more about the processes
The process begins with a comprehensive survey of        used to generate the Horizon Reports, many of which
the literature, technology news reports, and the work    are ongoing and extend the work in the reports, we
of other organizations. The 43 members of this year’s    refer you to the report’s final section on the research
Advisory Board engaged in a comprehensive review         methodology.




                                T H e      H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T          –    2 0 1 1           7
eLeCTroNiC booKs
Time-to-adoption Horizon: one Year or Less
Now that they are firmly established in the consumer sector, electronic books are beginning to demonstrate
capabilities that challenge the very definition of reading. Audiovisual, interactive, and social elements enhance
the informational content of books and magazines. Social tools extend the reader’s experience into the larger
world, connecting readers with one another and enabling deeper, collaborative explorations of the text. The
content of electronic books and the social activities they enable, rather than the device used to access them,
are the keys to their popularity; nearly everyone carries some device that can function as an electronic reader,
and more people are engaging with electronic books than ever before.

overview
Electronic books have continued to rise in popularity       for the iPad is a rich media cookbook complete with
since their appearance on the mid-term horizon in           reviews, tips, recommendations, and the ability to
the 2010 Horizon Report and that popularity has             add recipes.
won them a place on the near term horizon for 2011.         As the electronic book moves further from a digital
The variety of content available — and the range of         reproduction of a printed piece, some writers are
readers that cater to individual preferences — has          seeing it become something far richer, allowing
grown over that time to the point that electronic           journeys through worlds real and imagined,
books are a viable and easy alternative to printed          undertaken not alone but in company with other
ones. In addition to dedicated electronic readers,          readers. The gestural interfaces of new electronic
multifunction devices like the Apple iPad and the           devices enhance the intellectual experience of
Samsung Galaxy represent a new class of tools               reading with tactile interactions. Electronic books
that merges the utility of electronic book readers          have the potential to transform the way we interact
with web browsing, a wide variety of applications,          with reading material of all kinds, from popular titles
and an expanding set of entertainment options. The          to scholarly works. For three compelling visions of
ready availability of both reading devices and digital      the future promised by the electronic book, see the
content makes it very easy to integrate electronic          five-minute video The Future of the Book produced
books into everyday portable computing.                     by design firm IDEO (http://vimeo.com/15142335).
The most interesting aspect of electronic books,            Standards for the creation of electronic publications
however, is not the devices they are accessed with; it is   are still in development, and those that exist often
not even the texts themselves. What makes electronic        focus on the text and do not include guidelines for
books a potentially transformative technology is            the kinds of interactivity that is possible in electronic
the new kinds of reading experiences that they              books. As more of its media morphs into digital
make possible. Publishers are beginning to explore          forms, the publishing industry is undergoing a shift
richly visual interfaces that include multimedia and        very similar to the one that took place in the music
collaborative elements. The social magazine format          industry in the last decade. New business models
used by Flipboard, for example, turns the browsing          and methods of distribution are appearing as older
of RSS-enabled web content into a serendipitous             ones begin to falter. While there is no clear winner
experience, a dynamic journey that changes every            among the many available and emerging formats,
time it is opened. Magazines like Time, Wired, and          the acceptance and widespread use of electronic
others include interactive graphs, links that extend        books has enabled the industry to see a potential
the reader’s experience, video, and more. Epicurious        path through the times ahead.
relevance for Teaching, Learning,                          and bulk purchases by the institution. For-profit
research, or Creative inquiry                              universities such as the University of Phoenix have
Despite their obvious advantages of size and weight,       begun requiring faculty to assign electronic texts,
electronic books are not as established among              and in 2010, the California State University system
scholarly readers as they are among the general            piloted a similar program. While this reduces student
public. Several obstacles have stood in the way of         choice, it also provides a way for the university to
general adoption among academic institutions:              secure cheaper buying options for students. Course
scarcity of academic titles, lack of necessary             management systems (CMS) are another point of
features in electronic readers to support scholarly        entry to electronic texts; Blackboard has partnered
work, a restrictive publishing model, and digital          with McGraw-Hill and two booksellers to enable
rights management (DRM) issues. Most of these              faculty to assign, and students to buy, electronic
constraints are now vanishing. Still to be solved are      texts within the Blackboard system. CourseSmart,
accessibility issues, as a number of institutions found    a consortium of five publishers, has also developed
with 2010 Kindle textbook programs. Many academic          CMS integration for assigning and purchasing
titles are now available alongside the broad selection     electronic texts.
of consumer titles; reader technology has developed        Scholarly journals are beginning to appear in
to the point that graphs, illustrations, videos, and       electronic form as well. The European-based
interactive elements can easily be included, and           Directory of Open Access Journals lists some 5,500
many enable bookmarking, annotation, commentary,           titles — nearly half of which are searchable online at
dictionary lookup, and other useful functions.             the article level — and a typical university research
Publishers have at last begun to uncouple print and        library will have access to many more. Scholarly
electronic sales of textbooks, making it easier to         journals are not yet common in the mobile space,
choose one or the other as desired. In some parts of       although electronic versions of many consumer
the world, DRM restrictions still impede the adoption      periodicals are already available as custom apps.
of electronic textbooks; titles that are released in one   Pricing models for mobile periodicals vary widely;
country may be unobtainable in another, or available       paper subscribers can sometimes receive mobile
only on certain platforms. Until electronic textbooks      versions free, but others must pay separately per
are divorced from reader-dependent formats,                issue — sometimes at a higher rate than for a paper
broad adoption will continue to be problematic for         subscription.
universities. Nonetheless, the promise offered by          Pricing and DRM issues aside, electronic books have
the technology is such that electronic books are           the potential to truly transform educational practice.
being explored in virtually every discipline. Clear        Currently, most electronic books and journals are
advantages for students (e.g., price and portability)      essentially copies of printed versions that can be
are other factors that make this technology worth          read on a computer or mobile device. Exciting
pursuing.                                                  new examples hint at the possibilities offered by
For those with smart phones, iPads, and similar            more advanced forms of electronic books — self-
devices, subscription-based services are available         directed, interactive experiences; easy exploration;
that allow students to receive textbooks and               collaborative work; multi-modal, immersive activities;
ancillary materials on the devices they already own.       and other deeply engaging approaches to learning.
Some models offer free membership with a pay-              Mobile applications add easy social interaction
per-book feature; others charge on a per-course            around electronic books that could be marshaled in
basis. Business models are emerging that may               support of group study and focused teacher-student
lower costs for students, including textbook rentals       interaction at any point in the text. Electronic texts


                                 T H e       H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T          –   2 0 1 1           9
o N e      Y e a r        o r      L e s s

can be linked to a myriad of supporting materials that    Constellation
can extend and enrich them.                               https://content.ashford.edu/horizon
                                                              Created and maintained by Ashford University,
A sampling of applications of electronic books across
                                                              Constellation is an electronic textbook series
disciplines includes the following:
                                                              developed expressly for Ashford courses by
   biology. Raven Biology, an electronic text from           faculty and special editorial boards. Students
    publisher Inkling, brings the study of this science       may use textbooks on their computers or mobile
    to life with detailed illustrations and animations,       devices, print them, or store them locally, as
    in-line keyword definitions, and interactive              they wish.
    quizzes embedded in each chapter.                     Cooliris releases a wikipedia Magazine
   business. Students in Business Computing              experience for iPad
                                                          http://www.padgadget.com/2010/07/27/cooliris-
    at RMIT University participated in an electronic
                                                          releases-a-wikipedia-magazine-experience-for-
    book pilot using custom course material
                                                          ipad
    developed from the traditional textbook.
                                                              The Cooliris Wikipedia application draws
    Students using the electronic books were able             in content from the online encyclopedia,
    to delve more deeply into the material, access            transforming it into a visually rich, magazine-like
    related information beyond what the instructor            display that invites browsing and exploration.
    provided, and use the device’s highlighting and
                                                          Page2Pub
    annotation tools to take notes in the digital text.
                                                          http://opl.rit.edu/projects/page2pub/
   education. At Ball State University, a grant-             Rochester Institute of Technology’s Open
    funded project provided Kindles to students in            Publishing Lab has developed a system for
    Studies in Educational Technology. While using            collecting different types of digital content that
    the readers for their own study, the future teach-        can then be published to the open epub format
    ers also experienced firsthand how electronic             for use on a variety of different electronic
    books can be used in teaching and learning.               readers.
                                                          The Pedlar Lady of Gushing Cross
electronic books in Practice                              http://www.moving-tales.com
The following links provide examples of how                   This interactive, immersive retelling of a classic
electronic books are being used in higher education           story with animation, audio, and rich graphics is
settings.                                                     designed for the iPad.
                                                          stanford university Medical school issues iPads
amazon to Launch “Kindle singles”
                                                          to students, Potentially replacing Textbooks
http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.
                                                          http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2010/september/
zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1481538
                                                          ipads-0913.html
    In the fall of 2010, Amazon announced the
                                                              The Stanford University School of Medicine
    launch of “Kindle Singles,” short texts of                provides students with iPads containing course
    between 10,000 and 50,000 words. The service              materials and interactive study aids. Students
    is designed to provide a market for pieces longer         find that the iPad reduces the number of
    than a magazine article but shorter than a novel,         textbooks they must carry between classes and
    such as academic articles, thought pieces, and            appreciate having content in a variety of forms,
    research papers.                                          including video and interactive graphics.
for further reading                                      Making disposable dynamic displays with
The following articles and resources are                 electronic ink on real Paper
recommended for those who wish to learn more             http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/11/making-
about electronic books.                                  disposable-dynamic-displays-with-electronic-
                                                         ink-on-real-paper/
2009 Librarian ebook survey
                                                             (Tim Carmody, Wired Gadget Lab, 23 November
http://www.apo.org.au/research/2009-librarian-
                                                             2010.) Electrowetting allows electronic ink to be
ebook-survey
                                                             embedded in real paper, merging analog and
    (Michael Newman, HighWire-Stanford Univer-
                                                             digital media to create inexpensive displays.
    sity, 26 March 2010.) This comprehensive report
                                                             This article describes a prototype project that is
    analyzes how electronic books are being used
                                                             exploring the possibilities.
    in libraries in 13 countries.
                                                         what Publishers Can and should Learn from
Delicious: electronic books
                                                         “The elements”
http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+ebooks
                                                         http://radar.oreilly.com/2010/08/what-publishers-
    Follow this link to find additional resources
                                                         can-and-should.html
    tagged for this topic and this edition of the
                                                             (Mac Slocum, O’Reilly Radar, 12 August 2010.)
    Horizon Report, including the ones listed here.
                                                             This article interviews Theodore Gray, author
    To add to this list, simply tag resources with
                                                             of The Elements, and discusses how the digital
    “hz11” and “ebooks” when you save them to
                                                             version pushes the envelope of electronic book
    Delicious.
                                                             publishing.
Handheld e-book readers and scholarship:
                                                         Yes, People still read, but Now it’s social
report and reader survey
                                                         http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/
http://www.humanitiesebook.org/heb-
                                                         business/20unbox.html
whitepaper-3.html
                                                             (Steven Johnson, The New York Times, 18
    (Nina Gielen, American Council of Learned
                                                             June 2010.) Writer Steven Johnson argues that
    Societies (ACLS) Humanities E-Book, 18
                                                             electronic books will transform reading into a
    August 2010.) This report describes an
                                                             more social experience.
    experiment and reader survey conducted by
    the ACLS Humanities E-Book in 2009-10 to
    assess the effectiveness of electronic scholarly
    monographs.
a Magazine Meant for Mobile
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/11/business/
media/11nomad.html
    (Tanzina Vega, The New York Times, 10 August
    2010.) This article discusses a new online
    publication for mobile devices. Nomad Editions,
    written by freelance journalists, will appear on a
    subscriber’s mobile device as a monthly mini-
    magazine tailored to his or her interests.




                                T H e      H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T          –   2 0 1 1         11
MobiLes
Time-to-adoption Horizon: one Year or Less
According to a recent report from mobile manufacturer Ericsson, studies show that by 2015, 80% of people
accessing the Internet will be doing so from mobile devices. Perhaps more important for education, Internet-
capable mobile devices will outnumber computers within the next year. In Japan, over 75% of Internet users
already use a mobile as their first choice for access. This shift in the means of connecting to the Internet is
being enabled by the convergence of three trends: the growing number of Internet-capable mobile devices,
increasingly flexible web content, and continued development of the networks that support connectivity.

overview
Mobiles continue to merit close attention as an          tablet provides just enough extra space to enable
emerging technology for teaching and learning. The       comfortable use over longer periods of time.
devices available today are multi-functional and
                                                         For most people in the developed world, a mobile
robust, but the story of mobiles is no longer solely
                                                         is always close at hand and available with speedy
about the devices we carry. Mobiles — be they
                                                         Internet access whenever it is needed. Mobiles are
phones, iPads, or similar “always-connected” devices
                                                         easy to use for web browsing; much of the available
— are doorways to the content and social tapestries
                                                         content seamlessly adjusts for optimal display on
of the network, and they open with just a touch. The
                                                         whichever device is used to access it. Mobile and
2010 Horizon Report placed mobile computing on
                                                         wireless data networks continue to evolve, supporting
the near term horizon, with an emphasis on the wide
                                                         faster connections and higher bandwidth throughput;
range of activities that are now possible using mobile
                                                         the forthcoming 4G network promises the highest
devices. This year, mobiles are here because so many
                                                         speeds yet, and 4G devices are already beginning to
people use them as their first choice for accessing
                                                         appear on the market.
networked resources. The impact of mobiles is being
felt in every part of the globe and by more people       As more people choose to reach for a mobile rather
than ever before. Active mobile accounts continue to     than sitting at a desk to access the Internet, our
grow dramatically, and the supporting infrastructure     views and behaviors about that access are shifting.
continues to expand both in urban and remote areas.      Specialized applications are available that, for many,
                                                         replace a standard web browser for mobile access.
The number of mobile devices produced and
                                                         It is not unusual to use several different applications
purchased each year continues to grow, and the
                                                         to access online financial information, read and
new devices like the iPad and its counterparts are
                                                         contribute to social networking sites, check email,
expanding our notions of portability. With increased
                                                         browse and upload media, and so on. Tasks that
screen real estate, battery life, and input options,
                                                         once were gathered into a single piece of software
these new mobile devices have rapidly become
                                                         — the web browser — are now distributed among
a viable alternative to heavier, more expensive
                                                         many specialized (and optimized) applications.
laptop computers. It is not uncommon to find that
someone carries both a smart phone and a tablet;         Easy mobile access also means that the full range of
when a quick glance at email, social networks, or        networked information and applications accompany us
other tools is needed, the smart phone fills the bill.   wherever we go. The Internet is no longer something
For more involved web browsing, reading, watching        that is piped into homes and offices via a cable
videos, or to use any of the tens of thousands of        anchored to the wall; it is a pervasive, ever-present
Internet productivity and lifestyle applications, the    entity, accessible from anywhere there is a cell signal.
relevance for Teaching, Learning,                          Anywhere, turns mobiles into personal response
research, or Creative inquiry                              systems, enabling teachers to quiz students,
Mobiles embody the convergence of several                  assess their understanding before, during, and
technologies that lend themselves to educational           after a lesson, and reveal patterns of thinking in the
use, including electronic book readers, annotation         classroom. Any mobile will work for these purposes;
tools, applications for creation and composition,          all that is required is the ability to send text (SMS)
and social networking tools. GPS and compasses             messages. At Abilene Christian University, attendees
allow sophisticated location and positioning,              at a recent performance of Othello were asked not
accelerometers and motion sensors enable the               to turn their phones off during the performance, but
device to be used in completely new ways, digital          instead to use them to receive messages throughout
capture and editing bring rich tools for video, audio,     the performance. Cast members behind the scenes
and imaging — more and more, mobiles encompass             sent messages to clarify Shakespearean language,
it all, and innovation in mobile device development        share scene summaries, and interact with the
continues at an unprecedented pace.                        audience through a live blog.
The potential of mobile computing is already               The increasing availability of network access
being demonstrated in hundreds of projects                 means that the growing capabilities of mobiles are
at higher education institutions. At Ball State            available to more students in more locations each
University, computer science students can study            year. Educational institutions around the world are
mobile applications programming, creating usable           investing in the infrastructure that supports mobile
applications in a single semester; recent examples         access, sponsoring programs that provide devices
include games, a reference tool for birdwatchers,          to students who do not already have them, and
and an English-Spanish tutoring program. At Oberlin        commissioning custom mobile applications to
College, faculty may borrow iPads to evaluate their        serve their communities. Mobiles are recognized
potential use in courses. Countless applications are       as advantageous tools for learning and study, and
available for self-study, reference, drill and practice,   mobile offerings are quickly becoming a selling point
fieldwork, and research in hundreds of disciplines.        for prospective students considering educational
Cultural heritage organizations and museums are            options.
also turning to mobiles to educate and connect with
                                                           The unprecedented evolution of these devices
audiences. The Museum of Science in Boston, for
                                                           continues to generate great interest. They are
example, collaborating with researchers from Tufts
                                                           increasingly capable tools for learning that schools
University, has created Firefly Watch, a mobile
                                                           often do not have to buy or maintain: virtually 100%
application for visitors and native Bostonians that
                                                           of university students worldwide come equipped
allows them to serve as local “citizen scientists” to
                                                           with mobiles. The sheer power of these devices is
aid real scientists in a large regional study of firefly
                                                           what makes them interesting, and that power derives
populations.
                                                           from their ubiquity, their portability, the wide range of
Mobiles allow very simple tools to be easily integrated    things that can be done with them, and their ability to
into classroom activities with no need for involvement     access the Internet nearly anywhere.
of IT or support staff. Twitter, a short-message micro-
                                                           A sampling of applications of mobiles across
blogging service that is very easy to use on phones,
                                                           disciplines includes the following:
is a good example, finding ever more common use
as an in-class discussion tool. Students participate          Chemistry. Reference applications assist
by sending messages to ask and answer questions                students studying chemical formulae, allowing
or expand on thoughts. Another simple tool, Poll               them to review and take notes on what they learn,


                                 T H e       H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T           –    2 0 1 1          13
o N e      Y e a r       o r     L e s s

    visualize 3D structures, see the reactions taking   Cupids 400
    place — and then test their understanding.          http://www.cupids400.com/english/education/
   History. Mobile applications using location-        iphone.php
    based data and augmented reality help students          This application, designed for the iPhone and
    discover historical information about places they       iPod Touch, is used to explore the 1610 English
    visit on field trips.                                   Canadian settlement at what is now Cupids,
                                                            Canada. The application includes an interactive
   Journalism. A team of sixteen faculty and stu-
                                                            map, details about the settlement of the area,
    dents across three academic departments at
                                                            and historical information in a variety of media.
    Abilene Christian University collaborated to
                                                            Visitors to Cupids using the application can use
    produce the first university student newspaper
                                                            the map to explore real-world locations of the
    designed expressly for the iPad.
                                                            original settlement.

Mobiles in Practice                                     Liu brooklyn Campus extends iPad Program
The following links provide examples of how mobiles     http://campustechnology.com/articles/2010/
are being used in higher education settings.            10 / 0 4 / l i u - b ro o k l y n - c a m p u s - ex te n d s - i p a d -
                                                        program.aspx
100 Most educational iPhone apps
                                                              Following a successful pilot in which freshmen
http://www.accreditedonlinecolleges.com/
                                                              were issued iPads, Long Island University’s
blog/2009/100-most-educational-iphone-apps
                                                              Brooklyn Campus has improved the campus
    This is a comprehensive list of mobile
                                                              wireless network and committed to subsidizing
    applications that can be used for study in a wide
                                                              iPad purchases for its 11,000 students.
    variety of disciplines.
aCu business students integrate iPads into              Mobile devices as emerging educational Tools
innovative study abroad experience                      http://emergingmediainitiative.com/project/
http://www.acu.edu/news/2010/100611_                    mobile-education
iPadinOxford.html                                           Computer science faculty members at Ball State
    Abilene Christian University business students          University are developing mobile applications
    studying in Oxford are using iPads to deploy            for political science, computer science, and
    research plans, present product concepts,               chemistry. Once the applications are deployed,
    and conduct market research. As part of the             the faculty plan to conduct longitudinal testing to
    program, the students will evaluate the use of          evaluate the effectiveness of mobiles as a study
    the devices for education and research.                 tool.

bucks County Community College
                                                        for further reading
http://buckslib.wordpress.com/2010/05/24/bucks-
                                                        The following articles and resources are
unveils-first-mobile-app
                                                        recommended for those who wish to learn more
    Bucks County Community College has
                                                        about mobiles.
    developed a mobile application for the campus
    community. Early features focus on library use,     abilene Christian university’s 2009-2010 Mobile
    allowing users to browse the library collections,   Learning report
    map a route to BCCC campus locations, and           http://www.acu.edu/promise/innovative/
    communicate with library staff. The application     mlreport2009-10.html
    will be expanded to include course offerings and        (Abilene Christian University, 2010.) Two years
    other campus resources.                                 after launching an innovative pilot program to is-
sue mobiles to every student, Abilene Christian       Pew internet research report: Mobile access 2010
    University has published a comprehensive report       http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Mobile-
    detailing the program and its impact on campus.       Access-2010.aspx
                                                              In this article drawn from his 2005 Clair Maple
adMob Mobile Metrics Highlights 2010
                                                              Memorial Address at the Seminars on Academic
http://metrics.admob.com/2010/06/may-2010-
                                                              Computing, MIT President Emeritus Charles
mobile-metrics-report
                                                              Vest discusses open content and outlines the
    (AdMob Metrics, 30 June 2010.) This report
                                                              promise and opportunity that drove the creation
    analyzes data captured by AdMob, a mobile
                                                              of MIT OpenCourseWare.
    research unit owned by Google, to discern
    trends about mobile uptake and use.                   smartphones Give You wings: Pedagogical
                                                          affordance of Mobile web 2.0
Delicious: Mobiles
                                                          http://www.apo.org.au/research/smartphones-
http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+mobiles
                                                          give-you-wings-pedagogical-affordance-mobile-
    Follow this link to find additional resources
                                                          web-20
    tagged for this topic and this edition of the
                                                              (Thomas      Cochrane,     Roger      Bateman,
    Horizon Report, including the ones listed here.
                                                              Australasian Journal of Educational Technology,
    To add to this list, simply tag resources with
                                                              7 June 2010.) This paper examines how mobile
    “hz11” and “mobiles” when you save them to
                                                              Web 2.0 tools can be used in higher education.
    Delicious.
                                                          The state of Mobile apps 2010
designing mLearning: Tapping into the Mobile
                                                          http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_
revolution for organizational Performance
                                                          mobile/the-state-of-mobile-apps
http://www.designingmlearning.com/
                                                              (The Nielsen Company, Nielsen Wire, 1 June
    (Clark Quinn, Pfiiffer, February 2011) This new
                                                              2010.) This report identifies global usage patterns
    book offers a comprehensive guide for designing
                                                              for mobile applications by mobile device type.
    learning for the mobile platform.
                                                          world’s Largest open university Goes Mobile
Global Mobile statistics 2010
                                                          http://www.pr-inside.com/world-s-largest-open-
http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/
                                                          university-goes-r1553595.htm
latest-mobile-stats
                                                              (Press release, PR-inside.com, 29 October
     (MobiThinking, October 2010.) This compilation
                                                              2009.) The Indira Gandhi National Open
     of independent research on mobile uptake and
                                                              University, in partnership with Ericsson, offers
     usage includes global statistics related to mobile
                                                              courses on mobile phones to more than 2.5
     use. Of special interest is a section of reports
                                                              million students.
     about the ‘mobile-only generation,’ or those
     consumers who only use a mobile device to
     access the Internet.




                                 T H e      H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T          –    2 0 1 1         15
au G M e N T e d r e a L i T Y
Time-to-adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
Augmented reality, a capability that has been around for decades, is shifting from what was once seen as a
gimmick to a bonafide game-changer. The layering of information over 3D space produces a new experience
of the world, sometimes referred to as “blended reality, and is fueling the broader migration of computing
                                                         ”
from the desktop to the mobile device, bringing with it new expectations regarding access to information and
new opportunities for learning. While the most prevalent uses of augmented reality so far have been in the
consumer sector (for marketing, social engagement, amusement, or location-based information), new uses
seem to emerge almost daily, as tools for creating new applications become ever easier to use.

overview
Augmented reality (AR) refers to the addition of a        The first mode relies on a visual metaphor and
computer-assisted contextual layer of information         the second relies on spatial positioning. In the first
over the real world, creating a reality that is           method, the position of “markers,” which are visual
enhanced or augmented. AR was on the mid-term             cues, are “seen” by a camera on a computer or
horizon for 2010, and throughout the year, enjoyed        mobile device. The marker is interpreted by software
widespread attention in conferences and industry          that brings up information in response to physical
showcases internationally. The Augmented Reality          reference points. These points (markers) are used to
Event in June 2010, for example, featured keynotes        interpret the device’s precise location and the nature
by Bruce Sterling and Will Wright, which suggests         of objects in their field of view. As marker-based
the technology’s growing cultural significance.           systems continue to develop, many are beginning to
Augmented reality was the Advisory Board’s highest-       recognize common real-world objects as markers,
rated topic for 2011, which is a testament to its         or even special gestures, increasing their flexibility
increasing importance within higher education.            dramatically.
Various forms of augmented reality, starting with early   Position-based applications are called “gravimetric,”
head-mounted displays, have been around for more          and make use of a mobile device’s GPS and compass
than 30 years. Over that time, increased bandwidth        information, and then use the device’s location and
and smart phone adoption, as well as a proliferation of   position to discern what objects are nearby. Some
AR browser applications, have helped AR evolve from       applications also use image recognition, in which
a family of cool gadgets on the periphery of graphics     input to the camera is compared against a library
and visualization technologies to an increasingly         of images to find a match; more recent applications
central player in the technology landscape. Further,      can detect and interpret gestures and postures as
the powerful significance of the concept of “blending”    commands to perform certain functions.
information and the real world in an increasingly
experiential environment has pushed AR to the forefront   relevance for Teaching, Learning,
in the realms of business, technology, entertainment,     research, or Creative inquiry
branding, and education. Companies are developing         One of the most promising aspects of augmented
augmented reality brochures, packaging, and kiosks,       reality is that it can be used for visual and highly
while game developers are using augmented reality to      interactive forms of learning, allowing the overlay
create new kinds of entertainment.                        of data onto the real world as easily as it simulates
Augmented reality is often described with reference to    dynamic processes. A second key characteristic of
its two predominant modes of gathering information.       augmented reality is its ability to respond to user
input. This interactivity confers significant potential    moving around the actual space of the museum.
for learning and assessment. Augmented reality is          Embedding AR within video and merging these two
an active, not a passive technology; students can          media forms is a novel use of this technology.
use it to construct new understanding based on
                                                           One of the most prevalent uses of augmented reality
interactions with virtual objects that bring underlying
                                                           is to annotate existing spaces with an overlay of
data to life. Dynamic processes, extensive datasets,
                                                           information. The Museum of London, for example,
and objects too large or too small to be manipulated
                                                           released a free iPhone app called StreetMuseum
can be brought into a student’s personal space at a
                                                           that uses GPS positioning and geo-tagging to allow
scale and in a form easy to understand and work with.
                                                           users as they travel around the city of London to
In a broader context of education, augmented reality       view information and 3D historical images overlaid
is appealing because it aligns with situated learning.     on contemporary buildings and sites. Similarly, a
Students find connections between their lives and          project call iTacitus (Intelligent Tourism and Cultural
their education through the addition of a contextual       Information Through Ubiquitous Services) allows
layer. The ability to transfer learning from one           users to visit historical locations, such as the
context to another is a significant skill, one that AR     Coliseum, pan with their mobile device, and witness
can facilitate in its overt use of context and layering.   an event from the past.
Finally, AR that relies on mobile devices leverages
                                                           Augmented books are also gaining traction.
an increasingly ubiquitous tool, not for social
interactions but for learning, blurring the boundaries     Developers at the Gwangju Institute of Science
between formal and informal learning, which can in         and Technology have created a format that allows
turn contribute to the evolution of a learning ecology     3D characters to emerge from the pages of books,
that transcends educational institutions. Indeed, the      but the technology requires the use of goggles.
potential for just-in-time learning and exploration,       Tony DiTerlizzi’s book The Search for WondLA
without special goggles or other equipment, is a           incorporates “WondLA Vision,” which gives readers
deeply compelling aspect of this technology.               an AR experience by having them hold the book and
                                                           several special images up to a webcam. While much
A tremendous market is emerging for network-aware
                                                           of the early exploration of this area has centered
applications that convey information about specific
                                                           on children’s books, the use of AR for textbooks in
places or objects. These applications have great
                                                           higher education holds great promise.
promise for learning. This market is being explored
in especially compelling ways by museums. The              Creating projects using augmented reality is becoming
J. Paul Getty Museum, for example, has made                far more prevalent in media design programs across
available an AR complement for the Augsburg                the U.S. For example, Georgia Institute of Technology
Display Cabinet, a 17th century collector’s cabinet        is home to the Augmented Reality Lab, where Iulian
of wonders, often described as the precursor to the        Radu and Blair MacIntyre recently developed
contemporary museum. Both Web-based and on                 “Augmented Reality Scratch,” an augmented reality
view in the museum, the presentation offers users          programming environment for children. Ball State
the opportunity to explore the cabinet without actually    University’s Department of Emerging Technologies
touching the delicate objects within. London’s Natural     and Media Design, in partnership with augmented
History Museum is also using AR with a recent              reality developer Total Immersion, offers students an
project called Who Do You Think You Really Are? that       opportunity to develop a range of augmented reality
gives museum visitors handheld screens featuring an        applications. And at New York University’s Interactive
interactive video that allows users to learn about the     Telecommunications Program, as part of a class
evolution of dinosaurs, which are seen in the video        assignment, students Craig Kapp and Nisma Zaman


                                 T H e       H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T          –    2 0 1 1         17
T w o          T o        T H r e e              Y e a r s

created an interactive AR memory matching game                              MiT Teacher education Program
designed for children in rehabilitation at the Rusk                         http://education.mit.edu/drupal/ar
Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine.                                           This is a description of augmented reality
                                                                                simulations created by the MIT Teacher
Continued experimentation in the development of AR
                                                                                Education Program, in conjunction with The
simulations, games, texts, and situated information
                                                                                Education Arcade, to enhance student learning.
bode well for the expansion of AR in higher education
learning in the coming year.                                                Powerhouse Museum augmented reality
                                                                            application
A sampling of applications of augmented reality
                                                                            http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/layar/
across disciplines includes the following:
                                                                                The Powerhouse Museum has developed
    Chemistry. Using handheld devices, students                                an augmented reality application that allows
     explore a physical space to uncover clues and                              visitors to use their mobile phones to see
     receive data related to a simulated environmental                          Sydney, Australia, as it appeared one hundred
     disaster detailed in a game-based scenario                                 years ago.
     using AR simulations.
                                                                            radford outdoor augmented reality (roar) Project
    Geography. Students study an augmented                                 http://gameslab.radford.edu/ROAR.html
     globe in a textbook, and gain both a better                                ROAR is an augmented reality game developed
     representation of the cartographic information                             by researchers in the Games, Animation,
     and greater options for interaction and                                    Modeling and Simulation (GAMeS) Lab at
     comprehension.                                                             Radford University. The project uses AR to
    History. Visiting actual locations tagged                                  help teach K-12 students more about Native
     with information, students view images and                                 American history and teamwork through a game
     information from the past in situ, enhancing their                         called Buffalo Hunt. The project was done in
     comprehension.                                                             collaboration with HP Labs and MIT.
                                                                            skidmore Campus Map
augmented reality in Practice                                               http://academics.skidmore.edu/blogs/
The following links provide examples of how                                 onlocation/2010/10/21/augmenting-reality/
augmented reality is being used in higher education                             The Skidmore GIS Center used augmented
settings.                                                                       reality to create the Skidmore Campus Map.
augmented reality, blogs and Geo-Tagging to                                 Text spaces in augmented reality
Connect students with their environment abroad                              http://blogs.ubc.ca/etec540courseproj/course-
http://blogs.dickinson.edu/edtech/2010/11/23/                               assignment-major-project/
a u g m e n te d - re a l i t y - b l o g s - ge o - t a g g i n g - to -       Text Spaces in Augmented Reality is a project
connect-students-with-their-environment-abroad/                                 at the University of British Columbia using AR
     Study Abroad students from Dickinson                                       in conjunction with text. The project gives many
     College visiting Japan were assigned the                                   examples and a list of references related to the
     task of documenting their surroundings using                               subject.
     augmented reality. They built a simple AR
     layer that was complemented with geo-tagged                            for further reading
     photographs and blog entries. The project’s                            The following articles and resources are
     goal was to help better familiarize students with                      recommended for those who wish to learn more
     the new surroundings.                                                  about augmented reality.
augmented reality - its future in education              How The New York Times, others are
http://www.publictechnology.net/sector/                  experimenting with augmented reality
augmented-reality-its-future-education                   http://www.poynter.org/how-tos/digital-
    (Mark Smith, publictechnology.net, 15 November       strategies/e-media-tidbits/99162/how-the-new-
    2010.) This post offers a look at how augmented      york-times-others-are-experimenting-with-
    reality can have an impact on education.             augmented-reality/
                                                              (Dorian Benkoil, poynter.org, 30 October 2009.)
blended reality: superstructing reality,
                                                              This post discusses how The New York Times
superstructing selves
                                                              and other publishers are exploring the use and
http://www.iftf.org/node/2598
                                                              application of augmented reality. The author also
    (Kathi Vian, Institute for the Future, 4 March
                                                              suggests how AR can be used in conjunction
    2009.) This in-depth report looks at the impact of
                                                              with other technologies such as the semantic
    augmented reality as it is increasingly integrated
                                                              web and smart objects.
    into technology and society, focusing specifically
    on the transformation of sensory perception and
    its implications culturally.
Collaborative augmented reality in schools
http://ltee.org/uploads/cscl2009/paper236.pdf
    (Lyn Pemberton, Marcus Winter, University
    of Brighton, 2009.) This brief research paper
    discusses the use of augmented reality for
    collaboration and learning, and describes a
    specific collaborative project deploying three AR
    prototypes.
Delicious: augmented reality
http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+augmentedreality
    Follow this link to find additional resources
    tagged for this topic and this edition of the
    Horizon Report, including the ones listed here.
    To add to this list, simply tag resources with
    “hz11” and “augmentedreality” when you save
    them to Delicious.
How augmented reality apps Can Catch on
http://radar.oreilly.com/2010/10/two-ways-
augmented-reality-app.html
    (Mac Slocum, O’Reilly Radar, 13 October
    2010.) This article discusses standards for
    development of AR applications.




                                T H e      H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T          –   2 0 1 1         19
GaMe-based LearNiNG
Time-to-adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years
Game-based learning has gained considerable traction since 2003, when James Gee began to describe
the impact of game play on cognitive development. Since then, research — and interest in — the potential of
gaming on learning has exploded, as has the diversity of games themselves, with the emergence of serious
games as a genre, the proliferation of gaming platforms, and the evolution of games on mobile devices.
Developers and researchers are working in every area of game-based learning, including games that are
goal-oriented; social game environments; non-digital games that are easy to construct and play; games
developed expressly for education; and commercial games that lend themselves to refining team and group
skills. Role-playing, collaborative problem solving, and other forms of simulated experiences constitute topics
for further research, but are recognized for having broad applicability across a wide range of disciplines.

overview
Proponents of game-based learning in higher                games that make them especially engaging and
education point to its role in supporting collaboration,   appealing to players of various ages and of both
problem-solving, and communication, the 21st               genders: the feeling of working toward a goal; the
century competencies needed by American students           possibility of attaining spectacular successes; the
outlined by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan             ability to problem-solve, collaborate with others,
in late 2010 in the National Education Technology          and socialize; an interesting story line; and other
Plan. Advocates also underscore the productive             characteristics. These qualities are replicable,
role of play, which allows for experimentation, the        though they can be difficult to design well, and they
exploration of identities, and even failure. Gaming        can transfer to games featuring educational content.
also contributes to the development of a particular        More recently, the Serious Games movement
disposition well-suited to an information-based            responded to the desire to unite significant content
culture and rapid change.                                  with play. The games within this genre layer social
Gaming is an expansive category, ranging from simple       issues or problems with game play, helping players
paper-and-pencil games such as word searches all           gain a new perspective through active engagement.
the way up to complex, massively multiplayer online        While some criticize these games as being too
(MMO) and role-playing games. Educational games            serious, and therefore lacking the fun aspects
can be broadly grouped into three categories: games        that can increase engagement, research shows
that are not digital; games that are digital, but that     that players readily connect with learning material
are not collaborative; and collaborative digital games.    when doing so will help them achieve personally
The first category includes many games already             meaningful goals.
common in classrooms as supplemental learning              A few years further out, but increasingly interesting,
tools. Digital games include games designed for            is the creation of massively multiplayer online (MMO)
computers, for console systems like the Nintendo           games designed for learning. Like their entertainment-
Wii, and online games accessed either through a
                                                           or training-focused counterparts (World of Warcraft,
special game client (like IBM’s Power Up) or through
                                                           Everquest, Lord of the Rings Online, America’s
a web interface (like Whyville).
                                                           Army, and others), games of this type bring many
Research into games for educational purposes               players together to work on activities that require
reveals some interesting trends. Early studies of          collaborative problem-solving. Games like these are
consumer games helped to identify the aspects of           complex, and include solo as well as group content
and goals that are collaborative as well as some          experiment with leadership. In MMO games, the
that are competitive. They are often goal-oriented in     “conceptual blending” required in navigating the real
ways that tie to a storyline or theme, but the highest    world and virtual spaces simultaneously in game play
levels of interaction and play require outside learning   similarly contributes a valuable skill. Finally, gaining
and discovery. What makes MMO games especially            an understanding of the “procedural logic” or meta
compelling and effective is the variety of sub-games      level of game design is also useful, helping students
or paths of engagement that are available to players      garner a deeper understanding of the systems that
— there are social aspects, large and small goals to      drive contemporary culture. In these ways, gaming
work towards, often an interesting back story that sets   as an activity contributes to learning broadly.
the context, and more. Players dedicate enormous          In the second direction, gaming related specifically to
amounts of time on task pursuing the goals of these       course content helps student gain a fresh perspective
games. The problem that needs to be solved, and           on material and can potentially engage them in
which is being tackled on many fronts today, is that of   that content in more complex and nuanced ways.
embedding educational content in such a way that it       Alternate reality games (ARGs), in which players
becomes a natural part of playing the game.               find clues and solve puzzles in experiences that blur
One area in which there is currently a great deal of      the boundary between the game and real life, offer
development is social games, especially those that        a clear example in which course content and game
can be taken along and played anywhere at all using       play can overlap. Recent examples of large-scale
a mobile device. With social games, players are           ARGs include the educational games World Without
never far from a game environment, whether it be a        Oil, a collaborative and social imagining of the first
mobile in a pocket, a desktop or laptop computer, or a    32 weeks of a global oil crisis, and Superstruct, in
networked gaming console. With this kind of ubiquity,     which players imagined themselves 10 years in the
games are becoming a pervasive part of everyday           future, in a world facing daunting environmental,
life, and our notions of what constitutes a game are      political, and health challenges. The Tower of Babel,
changing as fast as the games themselves.                 an ARG designed by the European ARGuing Project,
                                                          was used in schools as well as by learners of all ages
relevance for Teaching, Learning,                         for learning languages other than their own.
research, or Creative inquiry                             Online games for single users are also popular,
Considering the relevance of gaming within higher         although they may be used more in informal than
education can take one of two admittedly overlapping      formal learning contexts. Examples of single-player
paths. In the first, gaming is deemed significant as      online games useful in an educational context
a conceptual practice with outcomes that enable           include those developed by Persuasive Games,
students to gain skills needed specifically in an         which explores advocacy issues in a format intended
information-based culture. The second path finds          to engage players in serious questions related to
relevance in specific gaming content, which can           health, policy, and contemporary topics. Similarly, the
overlap with course content, helping students learn       Italian design collective Molleindustrial uses gaming
material in an innovative way.                            to address pressing social needs. The Free Culture
In the first direction, advocates support the act of      Game, for example, is described as “a playable
gaming. They see value, for example, in creating          theory” and deals with copyright and free culture,
a disposition or stance that enhances skills in           while Oligarchy considers international oil drilling.
decision-making, innovation, and problem-solving.         The premise behind these games is that while
The ability to identify with experts as one adopts        students may read about social issues in a given
differing identities in games can allow students to       college course, actively playing through the topics


                                 T H e      H o r i Z o N         r e P o r T           –    2 0 1 1         21
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
Horizon report 2011
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Horizon report 2011

  • 1. T H E  H O R I Z O N  R E P O R T 2011 EDITION The New Media CoNsorTiuM
  • 2. The 2011 Horizon Report is made possible via a grant from HP businesses, governments and society. HP’s Office for Global Social Innovation applies HP’s global reach, broad portfolio of products and services, and the expertise of its employees to support initiatives in education, healthcare and communities around the world.As the world’s largest technology company, HP brings together a portfolio that spans printing, personal computing, software, services and IT infrastructure to solve customer problems. More information about HP is available at http://www.hp.com.
  • 3. T H E  H O R I Z O N  R E P O R T 2011 EDITION The New Media CoNsorTiuM
  • 4. The 2011 Horizon Report is a collaboration between The New Media CoNsorTiuM and the eduCause Learning initiative an eduCause Program Since 2005, the annual Horizon Report has been the most visible aspect of a focused collaboration between the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative (ELI) and the New Media Consortium in which the two organizations engage their memberships in both the creation and outcomes of the research. The New Media Consortium (NMC) is a globally focused not-for-profit consortium dedicated to the exploration and use of new media and new technologies. Its hundreds of member institutions constitute an elite list of the most highly regarded colleges, universities, and museums in the worlds. For nearly 20 years, the consortium and its members have dedicated themselves to exploring and developing applications of emerging technologies for learning, research, and creative inquiry. For more information on the NMC, visit www.nmc.org. The ELI is a community of higher education institutions and organizations committed to advancing learning through information technology (IT) innovation. ELI is a strategic initiative of EDUCAUSE. While EDUCAUSE serves those interested in advancing higher education through technology, ELI specifically explores innovative technologies and practices that advance learning and promotes innovation in teaching and learning using information technology. To learn more about the ELI, visit www.educause.edu/eli. © 2011, The New Media Consortium. ISBN 978-0-9828290-5-9 Permission is granted under a Creative Commons Attribution license to replicate, copy, distribute, transmit, or adapt this report freely provided that attribution is provided as illustrated in the citation below. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. Citation: Johnson, L., Smith, R., Willis, H., Levine, A., and Haywood, K., (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium. Cover photograph, “Kauai’i Solstice,” © 2005, Larry Johnson.
  • 5. Ta b L e o f C o N T e N T s executive summary ....................................................................................................................................... 2  Key Trends  Critical Challenges  Technologies to Watch  The Horizon Project Time-to-adoption: one Year or Less Electronic Books........................................................................................................................................ 8  Overview  Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry  Electronic Books in Practice  For Further Reading Mobiles .................................................................................................................................................... 12  Overview  Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry  Mobiles in Practice  For Further Reading Time-to-adoption: Two to Three Years Augmented Reality .................................................................................................................................. 16  Overview  Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry  Augmented Reality in Practice  For Further Reading Game-Based Learning ............................................................................................................................ 20  Overview  Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry  Game-Based Learning in Practice  For Further Reading Time-to-adoption: four to five Years Gesture-Based Computing ...................................................................................................................... 24  Overview  Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry  Gesture-Based Computing in Practice  For Further Reading Learning Analytics ................................................................................................................................... 28  Overview  Relevance for Teaching, Learning, Research, or Creative Inquiry  Learning Analytics in Practice  For Further Reading Methodology ................................................................................................................................................. 31 2011 Horizon Project advisory board ......................................................................................................... 33 T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 1
  • 6. e Xe Cu TiV e s uM M a rY The internationally recognized series of Horizon section of this report. Reports is part of the New Media Consortium’s The report’s format is consistent from year to year Horizon Project, a comprehensive research venture and edition to edition, and opens with a discussion of established in 2002 that identifies and describes the trends and challenges identified by the Advisory emerging technologies likely to have a large impact Board as most important for the next five years. The over the coming five years on a variety of sectors format of the main section of this edition closely reflects around the globe. This volume, the 2011 Horizon the focus of the Horizon Project itself, centering on Report, examines emerging technologies for their the applications of emerging technologies in higher potential impact on and use in teaching, learning, education settings. Each section is introduced and creative inquiry. It is the eighth in the annual with an overview that describes what the topic is, series of reports focused on emerging technology in followed by a discussion of the particular relevance the higher education environment. of the topic to teaching, learning, and creative inquiry. To create the report, the Horizon Project’s Advisory Several concrete examples of how the technology is Board, an international body of experts in education, being used are given. Finally, each section closes technology, business, and other fields, engaged in with an annotated list of suggested readings and a discussion based on a set of research questions additional examples that expand on the discussion intended to surface significant trends and challenges in the report, including a link to the tagged resources and to identify a broad array of potential technologies collected during the research process by project for the report. This dialog was enriched by a wide staff, the Advisory Board, and others in the global range of resources, current research, and practice Horizon Project community. that drew on the expertise of the NMC community and the communities of the members of the board. Key Trends These interactions among the Advisory Board are The technologies featured in every edition of the the focus of the Horizon Report research, and this Horizon Report are embedded within a contemporary report details the areas in which these experts were context that reflects the realities of the time, both in in strong agreement. the sphere of education and in the world at large. Each edition of the Horizon Report introduces six To ensure this context was well understood as the emerging technologies or practices that are likely to current report was produced, the Advisory Board enter mainstream use within three adoption horizons engaged in an extensive review of current articles, over the next five years. Key trends and challenges interviews, papers, and new research to identify that will affect current practice over the same time and rank trends that are currently affecting the frame add context to these discussions. Over the practices of teaching, learning, and creative inquiry. course of just a few weeks, the Advisory Board came Once detailed, the list of trends was then ranked to a consensus about the six topics that appear according to how significant each was likely to be for here in the 2011 Horizon Report. The examples and learning-focused institutions over the next five years. readings under each topic area are meant to provide The highest ranked of those trends had significant practical models as well as access to more detailed agreement among the Advisory Board members, information. Wherever possible, an effort was made who considered them to be key drivers of educational to highlight the innovative work going on among technology adoptions for the period 2011 through learning-focused institutions. The precise research 2015. They are listed here in the order in which the methodology employed is detailed in the closing Advisory Board ranked them.
  • 7.  The abundance of resources and relationships will perform their work from multiple locations by made easily accessible via the Internet is 2013. increasingly challenging us to revisit our roles  The technologies we use are increasingly as educators in sense-making, coaching, and cloud-based, and our notions of IT support credentialing. This multi-year trend was again are decentralized. This trend, too, was noted in ranked very highly, indicating its continued 2010 and continues to influence decisions about influence. With personal access to the Internet emerging technology adoption at educational from mobile devices on the rise, the growing set institutions. As we turn to mobile applications for of resources available as open content, and a immediate access to many resources and tasks variety of reference and textbooks available that once were performed on desktop computers, electronically, students’ easy and pervasive it makes sense to move data and services into access to information outside of formal campus the cloud. The challenges of privacy and control resources continues to encourage educators to continue to affect adoption and deployment, but take a careful look at the ways we can best serve work continues on resolving the issues raised by learners. increasingly networked information.  People expect to be able to work, learn, and study whenever and wherever they want. Critical Challenges This highly-ranked trend, also noted last year, Any discussion of technology adoption must also continues to permeate all aspects of daily life. consider important constraints and challenges, Mobiles contribute to this trend, where increased and the Advisory Board drew deeply from a careful availability of the Internet feeds the expectation analysis of current events, papers, articles, and of access. Feelings of frustration are common similar sources, as well as from personal experience when it is not available. Companies are starting in detailing a long list of challenges institutions face to respond to consumer demand for access in adopting any new technology. Several important anywhere; in 2010, programs like Google’s Fiber challenges are detailed below, but it was clear that for Communities sought to expand access to behind them all was a pervasive sense that individual underserved communities, and several airlines organizational constraints are likely the most began offering wireless network access in the air important factor in any decision to adopt — or not to during flights. adopt — any given technology. While acknowledging  The world of work is increasingly collaborative, that local barriers to technology adoptions are giving rise to reflection about the way student many and significant, the Advisory Board focused projects are structured. This trend continues its discussions on challenges that are common to from 2010 and is being driven by the increasingly institutions and the educational community as a global and cooperative nature of business whole. interactions facilitated by Internet technologies. The highest ranked challenges they identified are The days of isolated desk jobs are disappearing, listed here, in the order of their rated importance. giving way to models in which teams work actively together to address issues too far-reaching or  Digital media literacy continues its rise in im- complex for a single worker to resolve alone. portance as a key skill in every discipline and Market intelligence firm IDC notes that some profession. This challenge, first noted in 2008, one billion people fit the definition of mobile reflects universal agreement among those on workers already, and projects that fully one-third the Horizon Project Advisory Board. Although of the global workforce — 1.2 billon workers — there is broad consensus that digital media liter- T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 3
  • 8. e X e C u T i V e s u M M a r Y acy is vitally important for today’s students, what ticing, but it can be overwhelming to attempt to skills constitute digital literacy are still not well- keep up with even a few of the many new tools defined nor universally taught. Teacher prepara- that are released. User-created content is ex- tion programs are beginning to include courses ploding, giving rise to information, ideas, and related to digital media literacy, and universities opinions on all sorts of interesting topics, but fol- are beginning to fold these literacy skills into lowing even some of the hundreds of available coursework for students, but progress continues authorities means sifting through a mountain of to be slow. The challenge is exacerbated by the information on a weekly or daily basis. There is fact that digital technologies morph and change a greater need than ever for effective tools and quickly at a rate that generally outpaces curricu- filters for finding, interpreting, organizing, and re- lum development. trieving the data that is important to us.  Appropriate metrics of evaluation lag behind These trends and challenges are a reflection of the the emergence of new scholarly forms of au- impact of technology that is occurring in almost thoring, publishing, and researching. Noted first every aspect of our lives. They are indicative of the in 2010, this challenge continues. Electronic changing nature of the way we communicate, access books, blogs, multimedia pieces, networked information, connect with peers and colleagues, presentations, and other kinds of scholarly work learn, and even socialize. Taken together, they can be difficult to evaluate and classify accord- provided the Advisory Board a frame through ing to traditional metrics, but faculty members which to consider the potential impacts of nearly 50 are increasingly experimenting with these al- emerging technologies and related practices that ternate forms of expression. At the same time, were analyzed and discussed for possible inclusion reconciling new forms of scholarly activity with in this edition of the Horizon Report. Six of those old standards continues to be difficult, creating were chosen via successive rounds of ranking; they tension and raising questions as to where fac- are summarized below and detailed in the main body ulty energy is best directed. of the report.  Economic pressures and new models of edu- Technologies to watch cation are presenting unprecedented competi- The six technologies featured in the 2011 Horizon tion to traditional models of the university. The Report are placed along three adoption horizons twin challenges of providing high-quality ser- that indicate likely time frames for their entrance into vices and controlling costs continue to impel in- mainstream use for teaching, learning, or creative stitutions to seek creative solutions. As a result, inquiry. The near-term horizon assumes the likelihood innovative institutions are developing new mod- of entry into the mainstream for institutions within the els to serve students, such as streaming survey next twelve months; the mid-term horizon, within two courses over the network so students can at- to three years; and the far-term, within four to five tend from their dorm or other locations to free years. It should be noted at the outset that the Horizon up lecture space. As these pressures continue, Report is not a predictive tool. It is meant, rather, to other models will emerge as well. highlight emerging technologies with considerable  Keeping pace with the rapid proliferation of in- potential for our focus areas of teaching, learning, and formation, software tools, and devices is chal- creative inquiry. Each of the six is already the focus lenging for students and teachers alike. New of attention at a number of innovative organizations developments in technology are exciting and around the world, and the work we showcase here their potential for improving quality of life is en- reveals the promise of a wider impact.
  • 9. on the near-term horizon — that is, within the next secured the place of these innovations as the top 12 months — are electronic books and mobiles. technologies for the mid-term horizon. Electronic books are moving closer to mainstream Augmented reality refers to the layering of adoption for educational institutions, having information over a view or representation of appeared on the mid-term horizon last year. Mobiles the normal world, offering users the ability to reappear as well, remaining on the near-term horizon access place-based information in ways that are as they become increasingly popular throughout the compellingly intuitive. Augmented reality brings world as a primary means of accessing Internet a significant potential to supplement information resources. Resistance to the use of mobiles in the delivered via computers, mobile devices, video, classroom continues to impede their adoption in and even the printed book. Much simpler to many schools, but a growing number of institutions create and use now than in the past, augmented are finding ways to take advantage of a technology reality feels at once fresh and new, yet an easy that nearly all students, faculty, and staff carry. extension of existing expectations and practices. Electronic books continue to generate strong Game-based learning has grown in recent interest in the consumer sector and are years as research continues to demonstrate increasingly available on campuses as well. its effectiveness for learning for students of all Modern electronic readers support note-taking ages. Games for education span the range from and research activities, and are beginning single-player or small-group card and board to augment these basic functions with new games all the way to massively multiplayer online capabilities — from immersive experiences games and alternate reality games. Those at the to support for social interaction — that are first end of the spectrum are easy to integrate changing our perception of what it means to with coursework, and in many institutions they read. are already an option; but the greatest potential Mobiles enable ubiquitous access to of games for learning lies in their ability to foster information, social networks, tools for learning collaboration, problem-solving, and procedural and productivity, and much more. Mobile devices thinking. For a variety of reasons, the realization continue to evolve, but it is the increased access of this potential is still two to three years away. to affordable and reliable networks that is driving Looking to the far-term horizon, four to five years this technology now. Mobiles are capable from now for widespread adoption, are gesture- computing devices in their own right — and they based computing and learning analytics. Both are increasingly a user’s first choice for Internet remain largely speculative and not yet in widespread access. usage on campuses, but both are also garnering The second adoption horizon considers significant interest and increasing exposure. technologies expected to gain widespread usage Gesture-based computing moves the control within two to three years, and this year’s candidates of computers from a mouse and keyboard to the are augmented reality and game-based learning. motions of the body via new input devices. De- Both intersect with practices in mainstream popular picted in science fiction movies for years, ges- culture, both have been considered significant tools ture-based computing is now more grounded in for education for many years, and both have made reality thanks to the recent arrival of interface appearances on a number of campuses already. technologies such as Kinect, SixthSense, and Advances in hardware and software, as well as in Tamper, which make interactions with computa- a broader acceptance of new methods in teaching, tional devices far more intuitive and embodied. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 5
  • 10. e X e C u T i V e s u M M a r Y Learning analytics loosely joins a variety of with the dual goals of understanding how technology data-gathering tools and analytic techniques is being absorbed using a smaller lens, and also to study student engagement, performance, noting the contrasts between technology use in and progress in practice, with the goal of using one area compared to another. To date, companion what is learned to revise curricula, teaching, and editions have been prepared that center on education assessment in real time. Building on the kinds in Australia, New Zealand, and the fourteen countries of information generated by Google Analytics of Iberoamerica; the series will expand to include and other similar tools, learning analytics aims Europe, Singapore, and Africa over the next two years. to mobilize the power of data-mining tools The flagship Horizon Report, published each in the service of learning, and embracing January, focuses on higher education globally, and is the complexity, diversity, and abundance of translated into multiple languages every year. Over information that dynamic learning environments all editions, the readership of the reports is estimated can generate. at well over 600,000 worldwide, with readers in more Each of these technologies is described in detail than 70 countries. in the main body of the report, where a discussion The Horizon Project Navigator. This edition of of what the technology is and why it is relevant to the Horizon Report kicks off the ninth year of the teaching, learning, and creative inquiry may also be series and a turning point in the NMC’s Emerging found. Given the practical focus of the report, a listing Technologies Initiative, which is dedicated to charting of examples of the technology in use, especially in the landscape of emerging technologies for teaching, higher education, is a key component of each of the learning, and creative inquiry. In each of the preceding six main topics. Our research indicates that all six years, the Horizon Project process has focused of these technologies, taken together, will have a on the creation of a print-based publication (or its significant impact on learning-focused organizations pdf analog), one produced through a collaborative within the next five years. process that leveraged the productive potential of a wiki for posting and responding to ideas, RSS feeds The Horizon Project for gathering information dynamically, and tagging This report is part of a longitudinal research study for collecting and sharing references. The decision of emerging technologies that began in March to print the NMC report was based on the fact that 2002. Since that time, under the banner of the a physical report remains a powerful tool on many Horizon Project, the New Media Consortium and campuses. its research partners have held an ongoing series of conversations and dialogs with hundreds of However, in its continuing interest in modeling the technology professionals, campus technologists, advantages of new technologies, over the course of faculty leaders from colleges and universities, 2010, and with the generous support of the HP, the museum professionals, teachers and other school NMC designed and produced the Horizon Project professionals, and representatives of leading Navigator (http://navigator.nmc.org), an online corporations from more than thirty countries.  These database that harnesses the power of technology conversations have been the impetus for a series and social media to create an information and of nearly 20 annual reports focused on emerging resource hub that is made stronger through the technologies relevant to formal and informal learning participation of its users. in colleges, universities, schools, and museums. The Horizon Project Navigator leverages the In 2008, the NMC embarked on a new series of affordances of social media and computation to regional companion editions of the Horizon Report, offer users access to the same materials — and
  • 11. more — used by the Horizon Project Advisory and analysis of research, articles, papers, blogs, Board. It is a dynamic, customizable, and powerful and interviews; discussed existing applications, tool for individuals who want the ability to chart the and brainstormed new ones; and ultimately ranked landscape of emerging technologies for teaching, the items on the list of candidate technologies for learning, and creative inquiry through their own set their potential relevance to teaching, learning, and of needs and interests. The platform provides a fully creative inquiry. This work took place entirely online dynamic online version of the Horizon Report created and may be reviewed on the project wiki at http:// for the emerging technology professional. horizon.wiki.nmc.org. Dynamic reports can be adapted and modified to suit The effort to produce the report and the findings the needs of individual users, and Navigator itself detailed within it began in mid-September 2010 and provides a space within which anyone can participate concluded in early January 2011, a period of just in the gathering, sifting, and sharing of ideas under four months. Most of the work on the project related to the trends and challenges of emerging took place in and is preserved on the wiki. All of the technologies in the context of formal and informal interim materials and rankings used to create the learning. The Horizon Project Navigator includes all report can be found there, as well as the discussions the research materials, project information, and other of the Advisory Board around each topic. The six ephemera that has been created from the intensive technologies and applications that emerged at the and collaborative process used in creating each top of the final rankings — two per adoption horizon annual Horizon Report. The 2011 Horizon Report — are detailed in the chapters that follow. was the first of the series that was able to draw on Each of those chapters includes detailed the resources of the Horizon Project Navigator in its descriptions, links to active demonstration projects, creation, and marks a new epoch in the history of and a wide array of additional resources related to the project. the six profiled technologies. Those profiles are the The Horizon Project wiki. The Horizon Project heart of the 2011 Horizon Report, and will fuel the uses qualitative research methods to identify the work of the Horizon Project throughout 2011-12. For technologies selected for inclusion in each report. those wanting to know more about the processes The process begins with a comprehensive survey of used to generate the Horizon Reports, many of which the literature, technology news reports, and the work are ongoing and extend the work in the reports, we of other organizations. The 43 members of this year’s refer you to the report’s final section on the research Advisory Board engaged in a comprehensive review methodology. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 7
  • 12. eLeCTroNiC booKs Time-to-adoption Horizon: one Year or Less Now that they are firmly established in the consumer sector, electronic books are beginning to demonstrate capabilities that challenge the very definition of reading. Audiovisual, interactive, and social elements enhance the informational content of books and magazines. Social tools extend the reader’s experience into the larger world, connecting readers with one another and enabling deeper, collaborative explorations of the text. The content of electronic books and the social activities they enable, rather than the device used to access them, are the keys to their popularity; nearly everyone carries some device that can function as an electronic reader, and more people are engaging with electronic books than ever before. overview Electronic books have continued to rise in popularity for the iPad is a rich media cookbook complete with since their appearance on the mid-term horizon in reviews, tips, recommendations, and the ability to the 2010 Horizon Report and that popularity has add recipes. won them a place on the near term horizon for 2011. As the electronic book moves further from a digital The variety of content available — and the range of reproduction of a printed piece, some writers are readers that cater to individual preferences — has seeing it become something far richer, allowing grown over that time to the point that electronic journeys through worlds real and imagined, books are a viable and easy alternative to printed undertaken not alone but in company with other ones. In addition to dedicated electronic readers, readers. The gestural interfaces of new electronic multifunction devices like the Apple iPad and the devices enhance the intellectual experience of Samsung Galaxy represent a new class of tools reading with tactile interactions. Electronic books that merges the utility of electronic book readers have the potential to transform the way we interact with web browsing, a wide variety of applications, with reading material of all kinds, from popular titles and an expanding set of entertainment options. The to scholarly works. For three compelling visions of ready availability of both reading devices and digital the future promised by the electronic book, see the content makes it very easy to integrate electronic five-minute video The Future of the Book produced books into everyday portable computing. by design firm IDEO (http://vimeo.com/15142335). The most interesting aspect of electronic books, Standards for the creation of electronic publications however, is not the devices they are accessed with; it is are still in development, and those that exist often not even the texts themselves. What makes electronic focus on the text and do not include guidelines for books a potentially transformative technology is the kinds of interactivity that is possible in electronic the new kinds of reading experiences that they books. As more of its media morphs into digital make possible. Publishers are beginning to explore forms, the publishing industry is undergoing a shift richly visual interfaces that include multimedia and very similar to the one that took place in the music collaborative elements. The social magazine format industry in the last decade. New business models used by Flipboard, for example, turns the browsing and methods of distribution are appearing as older of RSS-enabled web content into a serendipitous ones begin to falter. While there is no clear winner experience, a dynamic journey that changes every among the many available and emerging formats, time it is opened. Magazines like Time, Wired, and the acceptance and widespread use of electronic others include interactive graphs, links that extend books has enabled the industry to see a potential the reader’s experience, video, and more. Epicurious path through the times ahead.
  • 13. relevance for Teaching, Learning, and bulk purchases by the institution. For-profit research, or Creative inquiry universities such as the University of Phoenix have Despite their obvious advantages of size and weight, begun requiring faculty to assign electronic texts, electronic books are not as established among and in 2010, the California State University system scholarly readers as they are among the general piloted a similar program. While this reduces student public. Several obstacles have stood in the way of choice, it also provides a way for the university to general adoption among academic institutions: secure cheaper buying options for students. Course scarcity of academic titles, lack of necessary management systems (CMS) are another point of features in electronic readers to support scholarly entry to electronic texts; Blackboard has partnered work, a restrictive publishing model, and digital with McGraw-Hill and two booksellers to enable rights management (DRM) issues. Most of these faculty to assign, and students to buy, electronic constraints are now vanishing. Still to be solved are texts within the Blackboard system. CourseSmart, accessibility issues, as a number of institutions found a consortium of five publishers, has also developed with 2010 Kindle textbook programs. Many academic CMS integration for assigning and purchasing titles are now available alongside the broad selection electronic texts. of consumer titles; reader technology has developed Scholarly journals are beginning to appear in to the point that graphs, illustrations, videos, and electronic form as well. The European-based interactive elements can easily be included, and Directory of Open Access Journals lists some 5,500 many enable bookmarking, annotation, commentary, titles — nearly half of which are searchable online at dictionary lookup, and other useful functions. the article level — and a typical university research Publishers have at last begun to uncouple print and library will have access to many more. Scholarly electronic sales of textbooks, making it easier to journals are not yet common in the mobile space, choose one or the other as desired. In some parts of although electronic versions of many consumer the world, DRM restrictions still impede the adoption periodicals are already available as custom apps. of electronic textbooks; titles that are released in one Pricing models for mobile periodicals vary widely; country may be unobtainable in another, or available paper subscribers can sometimes receive mobile only on certain platforms. Until electronic textbooks versions free, but others must pay separately per are divorced from reader-dependent formats, issue — sometimes at a higher rate than for a paper broad adoption will continue to be problematic for subscription. universities. Nonetheless, the promise offered by Pricing and DRM issues aside, electronic books have the technology is such that electronic books are the potential to truly transform educational practice. being explored in virtually every discipline. Clear Currently, most electronic books and journals are advantages for students (e.g., price and portability) essentially copies of printed versions that can be are other factors that make this technology worth read on a computer or mobile device. Exciting pursuing. new examples hint at the possibilities offered by For those with smart phones, iPads, and similar more advanced forms of electronic books — self- devices, subscription-based services are available directed, interactive experiences; easy exploration; that allow students to receive textbooks and collaborative work; multi-modal, immersive activities; ancillary materials on the devices they already own. and other deeply engaging approaches to learning. Some models offer free membership with a pay- Mobile applications add easy social interaction per-book feature; others charge on a per-course around electronic books that could be marshaled in basis. Business models are emerging that may support of group study and focused teacher-student lower costs for students, including textbook rentals interaction at any point in the text. Electronic texts T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 9
  • 14. o N e Y e a r o r L e s s can be linked to a myriad of supporting materials that Constellation can extend and enrich them. https://content.ashford.edu/horizon Created and maintained by Ashford University, A sampling of applications of electronic books across Constellation is an electronic textbook series disciplines includes the following: developed expressly for Ashford courses by  biology. Raven Biology, an electronic text from faculty and special editorial boards. Students publisher Inkling, brings the study of this science may use textbooks on their computers or mobile to life with detailed illustrations and animations, devices, print them, or store them locally, as in-line keyword definitions, and interactive they wish. quizzes embedded in each chapter. Cooliris releases a wikipedia Magazine  business. Students in Business Computing experience for iPad http://www.padgadget.com/2010/07/27/cooliris- at RMIT University participated in an electronic releases-a-wikipedia-magazine-experience-for- book pilot using custom course material ipad developed from the traditional textbook. The Cooliris Wikipedia application draws Students using the electronic books were able in content from the online encyclopedia, to delve more deeply into the material, access transforming it into a visually rich, magazine-like related information beyond what the instructor display that invites browsing and exploration. provided, and use the device’s highlighting and Page2Pub annotation tools to take notes in the digital text. http://opl.rit.edu/projects/page2pub/  education. At Ball State University, a grant- Rochester Institute of Technology’s Open funded project provided Kindles to students in Publishing Lab has developed a system for Studies in Educational Technology. While using collecting different types of digital content that the readers for their own study, the future teach- can then be published to the open epub format ers also experienced firsthand how electronic for use on a variety of different electronic books can be used in teaching and learning. readers. The Pedlar Lady of Gushing Cross electronic books in Practice http://www.moving-tales.com The following links provide examples of how This interactive, immersive retelling of a classic electronic books are being used in higher education story with animation, audio, and rich graphics is settings. designed for the iPad. stanford university Medical school issues iPads amazon to Launch “Kindle singles” to students, Potentially replacing Textbooks http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix. http://med.stanford.edu/ism/2010/september/ zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1481538 ipads-0913.html In the fall of 2010, Amazon announced the The Stanford University School of Medicine launch of “Kindle Singles,” short texts of provides students with iPads containing course between 10,000 and 50,000 words. The service materials and interactive study aids. Students is designed to provide a market for pieces longer find that the iPad reduces the number of than a magazine article but shorter than a novel, textbooks they must carry between classes and such as academic articles, thought pieces, and appreciate having content in a variety of forms, research papers. including video and interactive graphics.
  • 15. for further reading Making disposable dynamic displays with The following articles and resources are electronic ink on real Paper recommended for those who wish to learn more http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2010/11/making- about electronic books. disposable-dynamic-displays-with-electronic- ink-on-real-paper/ 2009 Librarian ebook survey (Tim Carmody, Wired Gadget Lab, 23 November http://www.apo.org.au/research/2009-librarian- 2010.) Electrowetting allows electronic ink to be ebook-survey embedded in real paper, merging analog and (Michael Newman, HighWire-Stanford Univer- digital media to create inexpensive displays. sity, 26 March 2010.) This comprehensive report This article describes a prototype project that is analyzes how electronic books are being used exploring the possibilities. in libraries in 13 countries. what Publishers Can and should Learn from Delicious: electronic books “The elements” http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+ebooks http://radar.oreilly.com/2010/08/what-publishers- Follow this link to find additional resources can-and-should.html tagged for this topic and this edition of the (Mac Slocum, O’Reilly Radar, 12 August 2010.) Horizon Report, including the ones listed here. This article interviews Theodore Gray, author To add to this list, simply tag resources with of The Elements, and discusses how the digital “hz11” and “ebooks” when you save them to version pushes the envelope of electronic book Delicious. publishing. Handheld e-book readers and scholarship: Yes, People still read, but Now it’s social report and reader survey http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/ http://www.humanitiesebook.org/heb- business/20unbox.html whitepaper-3.html (Steven Johnson, The New York Times, 18 (Nina Gielen, American Council of Learned June 2010.) Writer Steven Johnson argues that Societies (ACLS) Humanities E-Book, 18 electronic books will transform reading into a August 2010.) This report describes an more social experience. experiment and reader survey conducted by the ACLS Humanities E-Book in 2009-10 to assess the effectiveness of electronic scholarly monographs. a Magazine Meant for Mobile http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/11/business/ media/11nomad.html (Tanzina Vega, The New York Times, 10 August 2010.) This article discusses a new online publication for mobile devices. Nomad Editions, written by freelance journalists, will appear on a subscriber’s mobile device as a monthly mini- magazine tailored to his or her interests. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 11
  • 16. MobiLes Time-to-adoption Horizon: one Year or Less According to a recent report from mobile manufacturer Ericsson, studies show that by 2015, 80% of people accessing the Internet will be doing so from mobile devices. Perhaps more important for education, Internet- capable mobile devices will outnumber computers within the next year. In Japan, over 75% of Internet users already use a mobile as their first choice for access. This shift in the means of connecting to the Internet is being enabled by the convergence of three trends: the growing number of Internet-capable mobile devices, increasingly flexible web content, and continued development of the networks that support connectivity. overview Mobiles continue to merit close attention as an tablet provides just enough extra space to enable emerging technology for teaching and learning. The comfortable use over longer periods of time. devices available today are multi-functional and For most people in the developed world, a mobile robust, but the story of mobiles is no longer solely is always close at hand and available with speedy about the devices we carry. Mobiles — be they Internet access whenever it is needed. Mobiles are phones, iPads, or similar “always-connected” devices easy to use for web browsing; much of the available — are doorways to the content and social tapestries content seamlessly adjusts for optimal display on of the network, and they open with just a touch. The whichever device is used to access it. Mobile and 2010 Horizon Report placed mobile computing on wireless data networks continue to evolve, supporting the near term horizon, with an emphasis on the wide faster connections and higher bandwidth throughput; range of activities that are now possible using mobile the forthcoming 4G network promises the highest devices. This year, mobiles are here because so many speeds yet, and 4G devices are already beginning to people use them as their first choice for accessing appear on the market. networked resources. The impact of mobiles is being felt in every part of the globe and by more people As more people choose to reach for a mobile rather than ever before. Active mobile accounts continue to than sitting at a desk to access the Internet, our grow dramatically, and the supporting infrastructure views and behaviors about that access are shifting. continues to expand both in urban and remote areas. Specialized applications are available that, for many, replace a standard web browser for mobile access. The number of mobile devices produced and It is not unusual to use several different applications purchased each year continues to grow, and the to access online financial information, read and new devices like the iPad and its counterparts are contribute to social networking sites, check email, expanding our notions of portability. With increased browse and upload media, and so on. Tasks that screen real estate, battery life, and input options, once were gathered into a single piece of software these new mobile devices have rapidly become — the web browser — are now distributed among a viable alternative to heavier, more expensive many specialized (and optimized) applications. laptop computers. It is not uncommon to find that someone carries both a smart phone and a tablet; Easy mobile access also means that the full range of when a quick glance at email, social networks, or networked information and applications accompany us other tools is needed, the smart phone fills the bill. wherever we go. The Internet is no longer something For more involved web browsing, reading, watching that is piped into homes and offices via a cable videos, or to use any of the tens of thousands of anchored to the wall; it is a pervasive, ever-present Internet productivity and lifestyle applications, the entity, accessible from anywhere there is a cell signal.
  • 17. relevance for Teaching, Learning, Anywhere, turns mobiles into personal response research, or Creative inquiry systems, enabling teachers to quiz students, Mobiles embody the convergence of several assess their understanding before, during, and technologies that lend themselves to educational after a lesson, and reveal patterns of thinking in the use, including electronic book readers, annotation classroom. Any mobile will work for these purposes; tools, applications for creation and composition, all that is required is the ability to send text (SMS) and social networking tools. GPS and compasses messages. At Abilene Christian University, attendees allow sophisticated location and positioning, at a recent performance of Othello were asked not accelerometers and motion sensors enable the to turn their phones off during the performance, but device to be used in completely new ways, digital instead to use them to receive messages throughout capture and editing bring rich tools for video, audio, the performance. Cast members behind the scenes and imaging — more and more, mobiles encompass sent messages to clarify Shakespearean language, it all, and innovation in mobile device development share scene summaries, and interact with the continues at an unprecedented pace. audience through a live blog. The potential of mobile computing is already The increasing availability of network access being demonstrated in hundreds of projects means that the growing capabilities of mobiles are at higher education institutions. At Ball State available to more students in more locations each University, computer science students can study year. Educational institutions around the world are mobile applications programming, creating usable investing in the infrastructure that supports mobile applications in a single semester; recent examples access, sponsoring programs that provide devices include games, a reference tool for birdwatchers, to students who do not already have them, and and an English-Spanish tutoring program. At Oberlin commissioning custom mobile applications to College, faculty may borrow iPads to evaluate their serve their communities. Mobiles are recognized potential use in courses. Countless applications are as advantageous tools for learning and study, and available for self-study, reference, drill and practice, mobile offerings are quickly becoming a selling point fieldwork, and research in hundreds of disciplines. for prospective students considering educational Cultural heritage organizations and museums are options. also turning to mobiles to educate and connect with The unprecedented evolution of these devices audiences. The Museum of Science in Boston, for continues to generate great interest. They are example, collaborating with researchers from Tufts increasingly capable tools for learning that schools University, has created Firefly Watch, a mobile often do not have to buy or maintain: virtually 100% application for visitors and native Bostonians that of university students worldwide come equipped allows them to serve as local “citizen scientists” to with mobiles. The sheer power of these devices is aid real scientists in a large regional study of firefly what makes them interesting, and that power derives populations. from their ubiquity, their portability, the wide range of Mobiles allow very simple tools to be easily integrated things that can be done with them, and their ability to into classroom activities with no need for involvement access the Internet nearly anywhere. of IT or support staff. Twitter, a short-message micro- A sampling of applications of mobiles across blogging service that is very easy to use on phones, disciplines includes the following: is a good example, finding ever more common use as an in-class discussion tool. Students participate  Chemistry. Reference applications assist by sending messages to ask and answer questions students studying chemical formulae, allowing or expand on thoughts. Another simple tool, Poll them to review and take notes on what they learn, T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 13
  • 18. o N e Y e a r o r L e s s visualize 3D structures, see the reactions taking Cupids 400 place — and then test their understanding. http://www.cupids400.com/english/education/  History. Mobile applications using location- iphone.php based data and augmented reality help students This application, designed for the iPhone and discover historical information about places they iPod Touch, is used to explore the 1610 English visit on field trips. Canadian settlement at what is now Cupids, Canada. The application includes an interactive  Journalism. A team of sixteen faculty and stu- map, details about the settlement of the area, dents across three academic departments at and historical information in a variety of media. Abilene Christian University collaborated to Visitors to Cupids using the application can use produce the first university student newspaper the map to explore real-world locations of the designed expressly for the iPad. original settlement. Mobiles in Practice Liu brooklyn Campus extends iPad Program The following links provide examples of how mobiles http://campustechnology.com/articles/2010/ are being used in higher education settings. 10 / 0 4 / l i u - b ro o k l y n - c a m p u s - ex te n d s - i p a d - program.aspx 100 Most educational iPhone apps Following a successful pilot in which freshmen http://www.accreditedonlinecolleges.com/ were issued iPads, Long Island University’s blog/2009/100-most-educational-iphone-apps Brooklyn Campus has improved the campus This is a comprehensive list of mobile wireless network and committed to subsidizing applications that can be used for study in a wide iPad purchases for its 11,000 students. variety of disciplines. aCu business students integrate iPads into Mobile devices as emerging educational Tools innovative study abroad experience http://emergingmediainitiative.com/project/ http://www.acu.edu/news/2010/100611_ mobile-education iPadinOxford.html Computer science faculty members at Ball State Abilene Christian University business students University are developing mobile applications studying in Oxford are using iPads to deploy for political science, computer science, and research plans, present product concepts, chemistry. Once the applications are deployed, and conduct market research. As part of the the faculty plan to conduct longitudinal testing to program, the students will evaluate the use of evaluate the effectiveness of mobiles as a study the devices for education and research. tool. bucks County Community College for further reading http://buckslib.wordpress.com/2010/05/24/bucks- The following articles and resources are unveils-first-mobile-app recommended for those who wish to learn more Bucks County Community College has about mobiles. developed a mobile application for the campus community. Early features focus on library use, abilene Christian university’s 2009-2010 Mobile allowing users to browse the library collections, Learning report map a route to BCCC campus locations, and http://www.acu.edu/promise/innovative/ communicate with library staff. The application mlreport2009-10.html will be expanded to include course offerings and (Abilene Christian University, 2010.) Two years other campus resources. after launching an innovative pilot program to is-
  • 19. sue mobiles to every student, Abilene Christian Pew internet research report: Mobile access 2010 University has published a comprehensive report http://pewinternet.org/Reports/2010/Mobile- detailing the program and its impact on campus. Access-2010.aspx In this article drawn from his 2005 Clair Maple adMob Mobile Metrics Highlights 2010 Memorial Address at the Seminars on Academic http://metrics.admob.com/2010/06/may-2010- Computing, MIT President Emeritus Charles mobile-metrics-report Vest discusses open content and outlines the (AdMob Metrics, 30 June 2010.) This report promise and opportunity that drove the creation analyzes data captured by AdMob, a mobile of MIT OpenCourseWare. research unit owned by Google, to discern trends about mobile uptake and use. smartphones Give You wings: Pedagogical affordance of Mobile web 2.0 Delicious: Mobiles http://www.apo.org.au/research/smartphones- http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+mobiles give-you-wings-pedagogical-affordance-mobile- Follow this link to find additional resources web-20 tagged for this topic and this edition of the (Thomas Cochrane, Roger Bateman, Horizon Report, including the ones listed here. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, To add to this list, simply tag resources with 7 June 2010.) This paper examines how mobile “hz11” and “mobiles” when you save them to Web 2.0 tools can be used in higher education. Delicious. The state of Mobile apps 2010 designing mLearning: Tapping into the Mobile http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_ revolution for organizational Performance mobile/the-state-of-mobile-apps http://www.designingmlearning.com/ (The Nielsen Company, Nielsen Wire, 1 June (Clark Quinn, Pfiiffer, February 2011) This new 2010.) This report identifies global usage patterns book offers a comprehensive guide for designing for mobile applications by mobile device type. learning for the mobile platform. world’s Largest open university Goes Mobile Global Mobile statistics 2010 http://www.pr-inside.com/world-s-largest-open- http://mobithinking.com/mobile-marketing-tools/ university-goes-r1553595.htm latest-mobile-stats (Press release, PR-inside.com, 29 October (MobiThinking, October 2010.) This compilation 2009.) The Indira Gandhi National Open of independent research on mobile uptake and University, in partnership with Ericsson, offers usage includes global statistics related to mobile courses on mobile phones to more than 2.5 use. Of special interest is a section of reports million students. about the ‘mobile-only generation,’ or those consumers who only use a mobile device to access the Internet. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 15
  • 20. au G M e N T e d r e a L i T Y Time-to-adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years Augmented reality, a capability that has been around for decades, is shifting from what was once seen as a gimmick to a bonafide game-changer. The layering of information over 3D space produces a new experience of the world, sometimes referred to as “blended reality, and is fueling the broader migration of computing ” from the desktop to the mobile device, bringing with it new expectations regarding access to information and new opportunities for learning. While the most prevalent uses of augmented reality so far have been in the consumer sector (for marketing, social engagement, amusement, or location-based information), new uses seem to emerge almost daily, as tools for creating new applications become ever easier to use. overview Augmented reality (AR) refers to the addition of a The first mode relies on a visual metaphor and computer-assisted contextual layer of information the second relies on spatial positioning. In the first over the real world, creating a reality that is method, the position of “markers,” which are visual enhanced or augmented. AR was on the mid-term cues, are “seen” by a camera on a computer or horizon for 2010, and throughout the year, enjoyed mobile device. The marker is interpreted by software widespread attention in conferences and industry that brings up information in response to physical showcases internationally. The Augmented Reality reference points. These points (markers) are used to Event in June 2010, for example, featured keynotes interpret the device’s precise location and the nature by Bruce Sterling and Will Wright, which suggests of objects in their field of view. As marker-based the technology’s growing cultural significance. systems continue to develop, many are beginning to Augmented reality was the Advisory Board’s highest- recognize common real-world objects as markers, rated topic for 2011, which is a testament to its or even special gestures, increasing their flexibility increasing importance within higher education. dramatically. Various forms of augmented reality, starting with early Position-based applications are called “gravimetric,” head-mounted displays, have been around for more and make use of a mobile device’s GPS and compass than 30 years. Over that time, increased bandwidth information, and then use the device’s location and and smart phone adoption, as well as a proliferation of position to discern what objects are nearby. Some AR browser applications, have helped AR evolve from applications also use image recognition, in which a family of cool gadgets on the periphery of graphics input to the camera is compared against a library and visualization technologies to an increasingly of images to find a match; more recent applications central player in the technology landscape. Further, can detect and interpret gestures and postures as the powerful significance of the concept of “blending” commands to perform certain functions. information and the real world in an increasingly experiential environment has pushed AR to the forefront relevance for Teaching, Learning, in the realms of business, technology, entertainment, research, or Creative inquiry branding, and education. Companies are developing One of the most promising aspects of augmented augmented reality brochures, packaging, and kiosks, reality is that it can be used for visual and highly while game developers are using augmented reality to interactive forms of learning, allowing the overlay create new kinds of entertainment. of data onto the real world as easily as it simulates Augmented reality is often described with reference to dynamic processes. A second key characteristic of its two predominant modes of gathering information. augmented reality is its ability to respond to user
  • 21. input. This interactivity confers significant potential moving around the actual space of the museum. for learning and assessment. Augmented reality is Embedding AR within video and merging these two an active, not a passive technology; students can media forms is a novel use of this technology. use it to construct new understanding based on One of the most prevalent uses of augmented reality interactions with virtual objects that bring underlying is to annotate existing spaces with an overlay of data to life. Dynamic processes, extensive datasets, information. The Museum of London, for example, and objects too large or too small to be manipulated released a free iPhone app called StreetMuseum can be brought into a student’s personal space at a that uses GPS positioning and geo-tagging to allow scale and in a form easy to understand and work with. users as they travel around the city of London to In a broader context of education, augmented reality view information and 3D historical images overlaid is appealing because it aligns with situated learning. on contemporary buildings and sites. Similarly, a Students find connections between their lives and project call iTacitus (Intelligent Tourism and Cultural their education through the addition of a contextual Information Through Ubiquitous Services) allows layer. The ability to transfer learning from one users to visit historical locations, such as the context to another is a significant skill, one that AR Coliseum, pan with their mobile device, and witness can facilitate in its overt use of context and layering. an event from the past. Finally, AR that relies on mobile devices leverages Augmented books are also gaining traction. an increasingly ubiquitous tool, not for social interactions but for learning, blurring the boundaries Developers at the Gwangju Institute of Science between formal and informal learning, which can in and Technology have created a format that allows turn contribute to the evolution of a learning ecology 3D characters to emerge from the pages of books, that transcends educational institutions. Indeed, the but the technology requires the use of goggles. potential for just-in-time learning and exploration, Tony DiTerlizzi’s book The Search for WondLA without special goggles or other equipment, is a incorporates “WondLA Vision,” which gives readers deeply compelling aspect of this technology. an AR experience by having them hold the book and several special images up to a webcam. While much A tremendous market is emerging for network-aware of the early exploration of this area has centered applications that convey information about specific on children’s books, the use of AR for textbooks in places or objects. These applications have great higher education holds great promise. promise for learning. This market is being explored in especially compelling ways by museums. The Creating projects using augmented reality is becoming J. Paul Getty Museum, for example, has made far more prevalent in media design programs across available an AR complement for the Augsburg the U.S. For example, Georgia Institute of Technology Display Cabinet, a 17th century collector’s cabinet is home to the Augmented Reality Lab, where Iulian of wonders, often described as the precursor to the Radu and Blair MacIntyre recently developed contemporary museum. Both Web-based and on “Augmented Reality Scratch,” an augmented reality view in the museum, the presentation offers users programming environment for children. Ball State the opportunity to explore the cabinet without actually University’s Department of Emerging Technologies touching the delicate objects within. London’s Natural and Media Design, in partnership with augmented History Museum is also using AR with a recent reality developer Total Immersion, offers students an project called Who Do You Think You Really Are? that opportunity to develop a range of augmented reality gives museum visitors handheld screens featuring an applications. And at New York University’s Interactive interactive video that allows users to learn about the Telecommunications Program, as part of a class evolution of dinosaurs, which are seen in the video assignment, students Craig Kapp and Nisma Zaman T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 17
  • 22. T w o T o T H r e e Y e a r s created an interactive AR memory matching game MiT Teacher education Program designed for children in rehabilitation at the Rusk http://education.mit.edu/drupal/ar Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine. This is a description of augmented reality simulations created by the MIT Teacher Continued experimentation in the development of AR Education Program, in conjunction with The simulations, games, texts, and situated information Education Arcade, to enhance student learning. bode well for the expansion of AR in higher education learning in the coming year. Powerhouse Museum augmented reality application A sampling of applications of augmented reality http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/layar/ across disciplines includes the following: The Powerhouse Museum has developed  Chemistry. Using handheld devices, students an augmented reality application that allows explore a physical space to uncover clues and visitors to use their mobile phones to see receive data related to a simulated environmental Sydney, Australia, as it appeared one hundred disaster detailed in a game-based scenario years ago. using AR simulations. radford outdoor augmented reality (roar) Project  Geography. Students study an augmented http://gameslab.radford.edu/ROAR.html globe in a textbook, and gain both a better ROAR is an augmented reality game developed representation of the cartographic information by researchers in the Games, Animation, and greater options for interaction and Modeling and Simulation (GAMeS) Lab at comprehension. Radford University. The project uses AR to  History. Visiting actual locations tagged help teach K-12 students more about Native with information, students view images and American history and teamwork through a game information from the past in situ, enhancing their called Buffalo Hunt. The project was done in comprehension. collaboration with HP Labs and MIT. skidmore Campus Map augmented reality in Practice http://academics.skidmore.edu/blogs/ The following links provide examples of how onlocation/2010/10/21/augmenting-reality/ augmented reality is being used in higher education The Skidmore GIS Center used augmented settings. reality to create the Skidmore Campus Map. augmented reality, blogs and Geo-Tagging to Text spaces in augmented reality Connect students with their environment abroad http://blogs.ubc.ca/etec540courseproj/course- http://blogs.dickinson.edu/edtech/2010/11/23/ assignment-major-project/ a u g m e n te d - re a l i t y - b l o g s - ge o - t a g g i n g - to - Text Spaces in Augmented Reality is a project connect-students-with-their-environment-abroad/ at the University of British Columbia using AR Study Abroad students from Dickinson in conjunction with text. The project gives many College visiting Japan were assigned the examples and a list of references related to the task of documenting their surroundings using subject. augmented reality. They built a simple AR layer that was complemented with geo-tagged for further reading photographs and blog entries. The project’s The following articles and resources are goal was to help better familiarize students with recommended for those who wish to learn more the new surroundings. about augmented reality.
  • 23. augmented reality - its future in education How The New York Times, others are http://www.publictechnology.net/sector/ experimenting with augmented reality augmented-reality-its-future-education http://www.poynter.org/how-tos/digital- (Mark Smith, publictechnology.net, 15 November strategies/e-media-tidbits/99162/how-the-new- 2010.) This post offers a look at how augmented york-times-others-are-experimenting-with- reality can have an impact on education. augmented-reality/ (Dorian Benkoil, poynter.org, 30 October 2009.) blended reality: superstructing reality, This post discusses how The New York Times superstructing selves and other publishers are exploring the use and http://www.iftf.org/node/2598 application of augmented reality. The author also (Kathi Vian, Institute for the Future, 4 March suggests how AR can be used in conjunction 2009.) This in-depth report looks at the impact of with other technologies such as the semantic augmented reality as it is increasingly integrated web and smart objects. into technology and society, focusing specifically on the transformation of sensory perception and its implications culturally. Collaborative augmented reality in schools http://ltee.org/uploads/cscl2009/paper236.pdf (Lyn Pemberton, Marcus Winter, University of Brighton, 2009.) This brief research paper discusses the use of augmented reality for collaboration and learning, and describes a specific collaborative project deploying three AR prototypes. Delicious: augmented reality http://delicious.com/tag/hz11+augmentedreality Follow this link to find additional resources tagged for this topic and this edition of the Horizon Report, including the ones listed here. To add to this list, simply tag resources with “hz11” and “augmentedreality” when you save them to Delicious. How augmented reality apps Can Catch on http://radar.oreilly.com/2010/10/two-ways- augmented-reality-app.html (Mac Slocum, O’Reilly Radar, 13 October 2010.) This article discusses standards for development of AR applications. T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 19
  • 24. GaMe-based LearNiNG Time-to-adoption Horizon: Two to Three Years Game-based learning has gained considerable traction since 2003, when James Gee began to describe the impact of game play on cognitive development. Since then, research — and interest in — the potential of gaming on learning has exploded, as has the diversity of games themselves, with the emergence of serious games as a genre, the proliferation of gaming platforms, and the evolution of games on mobile devices. Developers and researchers are working in every area of game-based learning, including games that are goal-oriented; social game environments; non-digital games that are easy to construct and play; games developed expressly for education; and commercial games that lend themselves to refining team and group skills. Role-playing, collaborative problem solving, and other forms of simulated experiences constitute topics for further research, but are recognized for having broad applicability across a wide range of disciplines. overview Proponents of game-based learning in higher games that make them especially engaging and education point to its role in supporting collaboration, appealing to players of various ages and of both problem-solving, and communication, the 21st genders: the feeling of working toward a goal; the century competencies needed by American students possibility of attaining spectacular successes; the outlined by Secretary of Education Arne Duncan ability to problem-solve, collaborate with others, in late 2010 in the National Education Technology and socialize; an interesting story line; and other Plan. Advocates also underscore the productive characteristics. These qualities are replicable, role of play, which allows for experimentation, the though they can be difficult to design well, and they exploration of identities, and even failure. Gaming can transfer to games featuring educational content. also contributes to the development of a particular More recently, the Serious Games movement disposition well-suited to an information-based responded to the desire to unite significant content culture and rapid change. with play. The games within this genre layer social Gaming is an expansive category, ranging from simple issues or problems with game play, helping players paper-and-pencil games such as word searches all gain a new perspective through active engagement. the way up to complex, massively multiplayer online While some criticize these games as being too (MMO) and role-playing games. Educational games serious, and therefore lacking the fun aspects can be broadly grouped into three categories: games that can increase engagement, research shows that are not digital; games that are digital, but that that players readily connect with learning material are not collaborative; and collaborative digital games. when doing so will help them achieve personally The first category includes many games already meaningful goals. common in classrooms as supplemental learning A few years further out, but increasingly interesting, tools. Digital games include games designed for is the creation of massively multiplayer online (MMO) computers, for console systems like the Nintendo games designed for learning. Like their entertainment- Wii, and online games accessed either through a or training-focused counterparts (World of Warcraft, special game client (like IBM’s Power Up) or through Everquest, Lord of the Rings Online, America’s a web interface (like Whyville). Army, and others), games of this type bring many Research into games for educational purposes players together to work on activities that require reveals some interesting trends. Early studies of collaborative problem-solving. Games like these are consumer games helped to identify the aspects of complex, and include solo as well as group content
  • 25. and goals that are collaborative as well as some experiment with leadership. In MMO games, the that are competitive. They are often goal-oriented in “conceptual blending” required in navigating the real ways that tie to a storyline or theme, but the highest world and virtual spaces simultaneously in game play levels of interaction and play require outside learning similarly contributes a valuable skill. Finally, gaining and discovery. What makes MMO games especially an understanding of the “procedural logic” or meta compelling and effective is the variety of sub-games level of game design is also useful, helping students or paths of engagement that are available to players garner a deeper understanding of the systems that — there are social aspects, large and small goals to drive contemporary culture. In these ways, gaming work towards, often an interesting back story that sets as an activity contributes to learning broadly. the context, and more. Players dedicate enormous In the second direction, gaming related specifically to amounts of time on task pursuing the goals of these course content helps student gain a fresh perspective games. The problem that needs to be solved, and on material and can potentially engage them in which is being tackled on many fronts today, is that of that content in more complex and nuanced ways. embedding educational content in such a way that it Alternate reality games (ARGs), in which players becomes a natural part of playing the game. find clues and solve puzzles in experiences that blur One area in which there is currently a great deal of the boundary between the game and real life, offer development is social games, especially those that a clear example in which course content and game can be taken along and played anywhere at all using play can overlap. Recent examples of large-scale a mobile device. With social games, players are ARGs include the educational games World Without never far from a game environment, whether it be a Oil, a collaborative and social imagining of the first mobile in a pocket, a desktop or laptop computer, or a 32 weeks of a global oil crisis, and Superstruct, in networked gaming console. With this kind of ubiquity, which players imagined themselves 10 years in the games are becoming a pervasive part of everyday future, in a world facing daunting environmental, life, and our notions of what constitutes a game are political, and health challenges. The Tower of Babel, changing as fast as the games themselves. an ARG designed by the European ARGuing Project, was used in schools as well as by learners of all ages relevance for Teaching, Learning, for learning languages other than their own. research, or Creative inquiry Online games for single users are also popular, Considering the relevance of gaming within higher although they may be used more in informal than education can take one of two admittedly overlapping formal learning contexts. Examples of single-player paths. In the first, gaming is deemed significant as online games useful in an educational context a conceptual practice with outcomes that enable include those developed by Persuasive Games, students to gain skills needed specifically in an which explores advocacy issues in a format intended information-based culture. The second path finds to engage players in serious questions related to relevance in specific gaming content, which can health, policy, and contemporary topics. Similarly, the overlap with course content, helping students learn Italian design collective Molleindustrial uses gaming material in an innovative way. to address pressing social needs. The Free Culture In the first direction, advocates support the act of Game, for example, is described as “a playable gaming. They see value, for example, in creating theory” and deals with copyright and free culture, a disposition or stance that enhances skills in while Oligarchy considers international oil drilling. decision-making, innovation, and problem-solving. The premise behind these games is that while The ability to identify with experts as one adopts students may read about social issues in a given differing identities in games can allow students to college course, actively playing through the topics T H e H o r i Z o N r e P o r T – 2 0 1 1 21