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Ltms525 cognitive chapt-7 Cognitive Theory


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Review of Chapter 7 Cognitive Theory

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Ltms525 cognitive chapt-7 Cognitive Theory

  1. 1. LTMS 525: How Humans Learn
  2. 2. Cognitive <ul><li>Purposive Behaviorism (Tolman) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is internal </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is purposive </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations affect behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Learning = organized body of information </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gestalt Psychology <ul><li>Organizational processes- perception, learning, problem solving, predisposed to organize </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is different from reality </li></ul><ul><li>Whole is more than sum of the parts </li></ul><ul><li>Structures and organizes experience </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposed to organize experiences in certain ways </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving – restructuring and insight </li></ul>
  4. 4. Verbal Learning <ul><li>Paired associate learning </li></ul><ul><li>Serial learning </li></ul><ul><li>Overlearned material is recalled later </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed practice is more effective than massed practice </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in one situation often affects learning and recall in another situation </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of material affect the speed of learning </li></ul><ul><li>People impose meaning on new information </li></ul><ul><li>People organize what they learn </li></ul>
  5. 5. Verbal Learning <ul><li>People often use encoding strategies to help them learn </li></ul><ul><li>People are more likely to learn general ideas than to learn words verbatim </li></ul>
  6. 6. General Assumptions <ul><li>Some learning processes may be unique to human beings </li></ul><ul><li>Learning involves the formation of mental representations or associations that are not necessarily reflected in overt behavior changes </li></ul><ul><li>People are actively involved in the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is organized </li></ul><ul><li>Objective, systematic observations of people’s behavior should be the focus of scientific inquiry, however, inferences about unobservable mental processes can often be drawn from behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Information Processing of Human Memory Dual-Store Model Sensory Register
  8. 8. Moving Info to Working Memory How do we move information to working memory?
  9. 9. Alternative Views of Human Memory What do we do to organize our memory and how can we use this in instructional design?
  10. 10. Moving Info to Long-term Memory Connecting New Info with Prior Knowledge
  11. 11. Challenges to Dual-Store Model How do we store what we learn?
  12. 12. Educational Implications What does this mean to teaching and learning?
  13. 13. Homework and Questions <ul><li>Readings : Read Ch 8, 9,… if time Ch 10 </li></ul><ul><li>In Discussion Board : Discuss a strategy you have used or are aware of for capturing and holding students’ attention. </li></ul>