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Memory hierarchy


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Memory hierarchy

  1. 1. Memory Hierarchy &I/O Techniques UNIT 1,3
  2. 2. NEED FOR MEMORY HIERARCHY <ul><li>The memory unit is a essential component in a digital computer since it is needed for storing program and data. </li></ul><ul><li>A small computer with a limited application may be able to fulfill its intended task without the need of additional storage capacity. Most general-purpose computers would run more efficiently if they were equipped with additional storage beyond the capacity of the main memory. there is just not enough space in one memory unit to accommodate all the programs used in a typical computer. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more economical to use low-cost storage devices to serve as a backup for storing the information that is not currently used by the CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>The memory unit that communicates directly with the CPU is called the main memory . </li></ul><ul><li>Devices that provide backup storage are called auxiliary memory . The most common auxiliary memory devices used in computer systems are magnetic tapes and magnetic disks </li></ul><ul><li>They are used for storing system programs, large data files, and other backup information. Only programs and data currently needed by the processor reside in main memory. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The total memory capacity of a computer can be visualized as hierarchy of components. </li></ul><ul><li>The memory hierarchy system consists of all storage devices employed in a computer system from the slow but high-capacity auxiliary memory to a relatively faster main memory, to an even smaller and faster cache memory accessible to the high-speed processing logic. </li></ul><ul><li>The overall goal of Memory Hierarchy is to obtain the highest possible average access speed while minimizing the total cost of the entire memory system. </li></ul>I/O Processor Magnetic disks Magnetic tapes Main Memory CPU Cache Memory
  4. 4. <ul><li>At the bottom of the hierarchy are the relatively slow magnetic tapes used to store removable files. Next are the magnetic disks used as backup storage. The main memory occupies a central position by being able to communicate directly with the CPU and with auxiliary memory devices through an I/O processor. </li></ul><ul><li>Cache Memory :- L1 cache & L2 cache </li></ul><ul><li>A special very high speed memory called cache. </li></ul><ul><li>It is sometimes used to increase the speed of processing by making current programs and data available to the CPU at a rapid rate. </li></ul><ul><li>The cache memory is employed in computer system to compensate for the speed differential between main memory access time and processor logic. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cache memory is concerned with the transfer of information between main memory & CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>L1 cache is a small, fast memory cache that is built in to a CPU and helps speed access to important and frequently-used data. </li></ul><ul><li>L1 cache is typically smaller and faster than L2 cache . </li></ul><ul><li>L1 cache is an abbreviation of Level 1 cache . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>While I/O processor manages data transfers between auxiliary memory and main memory, the cache organization is concerned with the transfer of information between main memory and CPU. </li></ul><ul><li>Many operating systems are designed to enable the CPU to process a number of independent program concurrently . This concept is called multiprogramming , refers to the existence of two or more programs in different parts of the memory hierarchy at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>The part of the computer system that supervises the flow of information between auxiliary memory and main memory is called the memory management system. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main Memory <ul><li>The technology used for main memory is based on Semiconductor Integrated Circuits. </li></ul><ul><li>Main Memory : RAM & ROM </li></ul><ul><li>RAM (volatile) : SRAM & DRAM </li></ul><ul><li>SRAM consist of internal flip-flops to store binary information. The stored information remains valid as long as power is applied to the unit. </li></ul><ul><li>SRAM is easier to use & has shorter read/write cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM stores information in the form of electrical charges that are applied to capacitors. </li></ul><ul><li>The stored charge on the capacitors tend to discharge with time. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs refreshing. </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM offers reduced power consumption & larger storage capacity in a single memory chip. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>ROM : Read only Memory </li></ul><ul><li>It is also Random Access, permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>ROM is required to store initial program called bootstrap loader. </li></ul><ul><li>Its function is to start the computer software operating when power is turned on. </li></ul><ul><li>The hardware of the computer sets the Program Counter (PC) to the first address of the bootstrap loader. </li></ul><ul><li>It loads a portion of the O.S. from disk to main memory & then control is transferred to the O.S. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>CAO Model Question Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Unit – 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 1 Explain Stored program control concept of various types of </li></ul><ul><li>computers. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 2 On what bases Flynn has classified computers? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 3 What are the characteristics of CISC architecture ? How is it </li></ul><ul><li>different from RISC architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 4 Explain Immediate and indexed addressing mode. Discuss their </li></ul><ul><li>advantages and disadvantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 5 How do you classify instructions in an instruction set? Explain </li></ul><ul><li>any two instructions in each category with suitable examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 6 Discuss the two metrics to measure the performance of a </li></ul><ul><li>computer system. What are their advantages & Disadvantages? </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 7 Distinguish between SRAM and DRAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: 8 Discuss computer Instruction Cycle. </li></ul>