Ibn Zohr university Educational Psychology Module FLSH Prof. Yusuf Tamer TEFL & ICT master program SUMMARIES OF THE COURSESREGARDING EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY MODULE• Behaviorism• Social learning theory• (cognitive)Information processing theory• Cognitive development theory ( Piaget)• Social constructivism (Vygotsky)• The Freud and new Freudians theories• The Moral development theory• Humanism This work is prepared by the following students: Nadia Bat, Brahim Mezgar, Mustapha Aboulahassan, Mohamed Ait madani Yusef, Ikram Ait dra, Mustapha Omarakly, Naima Sellam, Amal Hafidi and Brahim Elomari
Skinner: Reinforcement theory Bundura : social learning theory: Learn from observing others in society. Basic principles: Basic principles: - views learning as being determined by the learning - Learn from observing others.(modeling) environment. - he talks about Vicaruios learning/ vicarious - the process of learning based on the following reinforcement and punishment: The learner mechanism: watches the consequences of behaviors engaged Stimulus Response Reinforcement in by observing others. This influences his/her - A particular behavior is the result of forming habits by behavior in the future.reinforcing the seq consequence of a response - people’s feelings,emotions and thoughts affectsgenerated from a stimulus their behaviors. think,believe,and feel affects how - The learning process is a kind of habit formation. they behave. Implications: - Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not 1-Identify the BEHAVIORAL objective: the teacher entirely responsible for learning. must set the behavioral goals that students can perform. - The environment can affects your behavior but 2-The teacher has to choose and immediately provide the you can affect the environment as well. appropriate form of reinforcement. -Congnitive processes play a crucial role in 3-Change what you are doing if it does not work: if the learning. reinforcement does not work find another one(the Bundura’s assumptions: teacher is a scientist) - Teachers use vicarious learning for 4- All learning is the responsibility of the teacher. reinforcing students’ behaviors. 5-Concentrate on what you want, not what you don’t - He talks also about the importance of want: don’t waste time punishing undesired behaviors, modeling: the learner learn through observing reinforce desired behaviors. and imitating others. 6- Skinner talked about the individualized education. : Individual reinforcement for each student. - Views the learner as being active. 7-The purpose of schools is to shape (change) behaviors. - People change through reinforcement and Achievement is defined as the desired behavior. punishment but there is also vicarious The problems of the theory: reinforcement and punishment. -It focuses only on the observable (overt) behavior. - People are motivated by reinforcement and -It ignores the role of the mind in the learning process. punishment (external) but our internal - Skinner does not account for person values, emotions thoughts and feelings affect our behaviors as and Personality makes a difference. well. - The term reinforcement is circular and gives us no - Thinking and emotions are very important in information as to how to get a behavior to change. Use students’ learning. sth that has a high probability to occur: use sth a pupil The problems of the theory: likes to as a reward as a reward for doing sth he does not - You can never know how the observer is like to do. reacting to what s/he sees: what is - Skineer views the learner as being passive: the learner’s behavior is shaped by the environment except reinforcement for the person with whom you the one who is shaping the teacher. directly acting may be a punishment for the observer. - When naturally occurred behaviors are reinforced, they tend to be extinguished if reinforcement is withdrawn. References: - Educational psychology “theory & practice”. ROBERT E. SLAVIN. Eight edition
(cognitive) Information processing theory What is it? Information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking in relation to how they process the same kind of information as computers. The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being in essence computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. According to thefreedictionary.com, the definition of information processing is, "the sciences concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information". It suggests that for information to be firmly implanted in memory, it must pass through three stages of mental processing; sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory. IMPLICATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION The understanding of how the mind processes and stores information is invaluable to educators as they plan for instruction. If there is little to no understanding of the information processing skills of the students with whom one is working, it would be almost impossible to design instruction that contributes to high levels of learning and achievement. USING THE INFORMATION PROCESSING APPROACH IN THE CLASSROOM Principle Example Use cues to signal when you are ready to begin.1. Gain the students attention. Move around the room and use voice inflections. Review previous days lesson.2. Bring to mind relevant prior learning. Have a discussion about previously covered content. Provide handouts.3. Point out important information. Write on the board or use transparencies. Show a logical sequence to concepts and skills.4. Present information in an organized manner. Go from simple to complex when presenting new material. Present information in categories.5. Show student how to categorize (chunk) related Teach inductive reasoning. information. Connect new information to something already known.6. Provide opportunities for students to elaborate on new information. Look for similarities and differences among concepts. Make up silly sentences with first letter of each word in the list.7. Show students how to use coding when memorizing Use mental imagery techniques such as the key word method.
State important principles several times in different ways during the presentation of information (STM). 8. Provide for repetition of learning. Have items on each dayss lesson from preivous less (LTM). S chedule periodic reviews of previously learned concepts and skills (LTM). Use daily drills for arithmetic facts. 9. Provide opportunities for overlearning of fundamental Play form of trivial pursuit with content related to class.concepts and skills. Source: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/infoproc.html CONCLUSION In summary, there are many different theories of information processing that focus on different aspects of perceiving, remembering, and reasoning. One of the most important agreements is that elaboration is a key to permanently storing information in a way that facilitates its quick retrieval when it is needed. REFERENCES http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/infoproc.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_processing Piagets Stage Theory of Development Piaget, a psychologist who was interested in cognitive development and after observation of many children, posited that children progress through 4 stages and that they all do so in the same order. These four stages are described below.
• Assimilation: The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schemas is e known as assimilation. This process is subjective because we tend to modify experience or information to fit it with our pre-existing beliefs. existing • Accommodation: It involves altering or changing existing schemas or ideas as a result of new altering information or new experience. New schemas may be also be developed during this process. • Equilibration: Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism called equilibration. As children odation, progress through the stages of cognitive development, it’s important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge –assimilation- and changing behaviour to account for new knowledge –accommodation-. • Equilibration helps us to explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next. • Cognitive development is a complex process comprising three main concepts: Assimilation, accommodation and equilibration. All three are associated with the formation and modification bration. of schemata in order to attain a balanced sense of understanding of the external world. Processes Example Schemata Angie who has never seen anything fly but birds thinks that all flying objects are birds. Assimilation Seeing an airplane flying prompts the child to call it a bird. ee Start Child experiences conflict upon realizing that the new bird has no feathers. Concludes it is not a bird and Accommodation asks for the proper term or invents a name. Equilibrium restored. fo Organization Forms hierarchical scheme consisting of a super ordinate class (flying objects) and two subordinate classes me (birds and airplanes). Finish Activities for the Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Period: Activities for Infants and Toddlers-Provide a rich stimulating environment-Allow the child to play with toys that squeak when squeezed. (ex: rubber duck) At first when the child squeezes the toy, they will be Allowsurprised by the sound and why it happened. However, after some time the child will realize that by squeezing the toy they ar the one arecausing the noise. This gives and example of cause cause-an-effect relationships: if I squeeze the duck, it will squeak. effect
-Another example of a toy is a rattle; when the baby shakes a rattle it makes noise.-Playing peek-a-boo is another good example of a fun activity for children around this age. Preoperational Period: Activities for Toddlers and Early Childhood- Sometimes children in this age group enjoy playing house. This is also a good activity because they are playing different roles that theyhave observed in their own lives.-Hands on activities should also be facilitated at this time.-Encourage children to play with toys that change shape (ex: playdoh, sand, clay, water) because this will help them move towards theconcept of conservation.Children need physical, hands on practice with facts and skills needed for development.-Use cut-out letters to build words.-Avoid lessons that are very different from the childs world. And steer away from using workbooks or paper and pencil activities very often. Concrete Operations: Activities for Middle ChildhoodGive children the chance to manipulate objects and test out ideas-Do simple experiments, with participation of the studentsAvoid dealing with more than three of four variables at a time-Reading selections should have a limited number of characters-Experiments should have a limited number of stepsStudents should have practice classifying objects and ideas on complex levels-Have students group sentences on a piece of paper-Use analogies to show the relationship of new material to already acquired knowledge. Formal Operations: Activities for Adolescents-Students could work in pairs, one is the listener, while the other is the problems solver. The problem solver works the problem out loud,while the listener checks to see that all steps are followed and seem logical.-Teachers could put a few essay questions on a test, which allows students the opportunity to give more than one final answer.Teachers should try to teach broad concepts, rather than just facts.-Use materials and ideas relevant to the students-For example: If you were teaching material about the Civil War, the class could join in a discussion about other issues which have dividedour country-Use lyrics from a popular song to teach poetryOther implications of Piagets theory in the classroom: There needs to be a match between the demands of a learning task and the current cognitive capacity (ability) of the learners. We must not assume that all learners in a given class will be at the same stage of cognitive development. Focus on what children at each stage can do and avoid what they cannot meaningfully understand. Learning through activity and direct experience is essential. Provide plenty of materials and opportunities for learners to learn on their own. put learners into suitable situations where they are actively engaged in tasks which moderately challenge their current way of understanding the world. Since learners’ schemas are expanded and built on with time, point out to learners how new ideas and concepts relate to old ones, and allow learners a better understanding of already acquired concepts. Memorization of information for its own sake should be avoided. Begin lessons with concrete objects or ideas and gradually shift explanations to a more abstract and general level (especially with younger learners).
Criticisms of Piagets theoryo Researchers have found that young children are capable and can succeed on simpler forms of tasks requiring the same skills.o Second, Piagets theory predicts that thinking within a particular stage would be similar across tasks. For example, all preschool children should perform at the preoperational level in all cognitive tasks.o children often learn more advanced concepts with brief instruction. All of this research has led up to the belief that children may be more competent that Piaget gives them credit form, especially in their practical knowledge.o Overlooking Cultural Effects: Some believe that Piaget overlooked the effects of students cultural and social groups. It seems as though the stages of development constructed by Piaget are representative of Western society and culture. In his work, scientific thinking and formal operations are presumed worthy levels to be reached by children. However, in other cultures there may be a much higher regard for the basic level of concrete operations (Edwards, Hopgood, Rosenberg, & Rush, 2000).o Unscientific Methods: According to Edwards et al. (2000) Piagets work is characterized by: lack of controls, small samples, and absence of statistical analysis in his research. Much of this form of criticism has originated from Empiricism and Logical Positivism, which was extremely popular at the time. However, Piaget was a structuralist and his scientific orientation was very different from tradition research being done at this time in America. Piaget attempted to identify universal features of cognitive development by observing children in specific situations. He believed that small samples of children and the methods he used were adequate as long as he was able to identify the structres common to all individuals. However, it is reasonable to question the reliability of Piagets work. Referenceso Psychology for Language Teachers: Marion Williams And Robert L.Burden- Combridge Language Teaching Libraryo (2009). Piagets stages of cognitive development. Retrieved April 30, 2009, from About.com: Psychology Web site: http://psychology.about.com/library/quiz/bl_piaget_quiz.htm Edwards, L., Hopgood, J., Rosenberg, K., & Rush, K. (2000). Mental Development and Education. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from Flinders University Web site: http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/education/DLiT/2000/Piaget/begin.htm Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (1998). Cognitive development. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html Lefrancois, G.R. (2006). Theories of Human Learning. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education. Plucker, J. (2007). Human Intelligence . Retrieved May 1, 2009, from Indiana University Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/piaget.shtml Slavin, R.E. (2005). Educational psychology: theory and practice. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Smith, L. (2000). A brief biography of jean piaget. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from Jean Piaget Society Web site: http://www.piaget.org/aboutPiaget.html Wadsworth, B.J. (1996). Piagets theory of cognitive and affective development: White Plains, NY: Longman. Wood, K.C. (2008). Piagets Stages. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from Department of Educational Psychology and Instrutional Technology, University of Georgia Web site: http://projects.coe.uga.edu/eplt /index.php?title=Piaget%27s_Stages#Educational_Implicati Exercises Summary of key learning points in this section: In the last section we have looked at the following aspects of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development:• The processes we use to organize and adapt to our world• The stages of cognitive development• The educational implications this theory has for teaching practice• Some limitations of Piaget’s theory Group Activity :1. Write e-mail to your group and explain one way in which Piaget has most influenced your practice as a teacher, or where you can see elements of Piagets theory in your teaching (without previously knowing about Piaget). Describe ways in which teachers who are not influenced by this factor could enhance their teaching by including this practice. Discuss this with your group.
2. Record your reflective thoughts in your e-diary. Essay: In an essay of no fewer than 800 words: Explain how your knowledge of cognitive development has influenced your teaching with ICT. Focus on:• how the learner may experience your lessons differently;• what your and the learners roles should be;• what the role of ICT in these lessons will be. Submit this essay as a file attachment in e-mail and send it the group CONSTRUCTIVISM Learners construct knowledge in their own minds And that the T can facilitate this process by making The knowledge presented more meaningful. Social constructivism Emphasizes the social context of learning And that knowledge is mutually built. A shift from individual to collaboration Vygotsky’s theory The implication in education• Assess Ss ZPD : to determine when to start instruction• Exploit your Ss ZPD in teaching : Teaching should aim that Ss reach the upper limit of the ZPD.• Ts monitor Ss’ persepectives, thinking, and feelings• T needs to differenciate instruction as Ss’ ZPD differ from one another
• T should create many opportunities for Ss to learn by co-constructing knozledge along with the T and with peers. • Children can also benefit from assidtance of more –skilled children. • Culture can determine what skills are important ^such as computer skills, communication skills, teamwork skills^ • don’t do for students what they can do for themselves . But do monitor their efforts and give them needed support and assistance. REFERENCE : Educationl psychology by Santrock COMPARISON OF VYGOTSKY’S AND PIAGET’S THEORIESPIAGET VYGOTSY-Cognitive constructivist - Social constructivist-emphasized that Ts should provide - Emphasized that Ts shouldsupport for Ss to develop under- create opportunities for Ssstanding. to learn.-knowledge is individually constructed -Knlge is mutually constructed-Individual -Collaboration-Language has a minimal role -Language has a major role key concepts : key concepts : - Schema - ZPDknlge helps in understanding the world What I can do Independently and can do with others - Assimilation - Scaffolding taking new information into our existing schema Adjust the amount of guidance to fit S’ performance - Accomodation - TutoringAlerting or changing the existing schemas or ideas Takes place between an adult and a child - Equilibiration - Cooperative learning Explain how children move from one stage of thought Ss work in small groups to help each other learnto another. - Conservation - Cognitive apprenticeshipThe awareness that a quantity remains the same despite An expert stretches and supports a novice’s
the chage in its appearance. understanding and use of culture’s skills. - Centration - Situated cognitionFocusing attention upon one feature of a situation The idea that thinking is situated or located in socialand ignoring others. and physical contexts, not within an individual’s mind. REFERENCE : Limitations to Vygotsky’s theory Humans may be more biologically predisposed to learn Consists mostly of general ideas He did not detail cognitive processes underlying developmental changes He developed few applications of his theories for teaching Constructivism requires time for people to become accustomed to it. They mustformulate their own assessment strategies for understanding concepts. It also removes grading in the traditional way and instead places more value on studentsevaluating their own progress. The biggest disadvantage is its lack of structure. Some students require highlystructured environments in order to be able to excel. The Freud and new Freudians theories
Levels of mental developmentThe conscious; Is viewed as The pre/subconscious; The middle The unconscious;the smallest portion of the mind. portion of the mind beneath the conscious layer. represents things we are Represents our present unaware of, but which stillawareness, including our Represents things we are not affect our functioning. Thethoughts, feelings, and presently aware of but can become unconscious mind includes bothperceptions aware of with little effort; forces that originate there (our basic instincts and drives) as well as unacceptable thoughts and memories that may have been pushed back because of their threatening nature.Unconscious processes and internal forces influence all of our behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.The ways in which the internal forces interact with one another gives rise to behavior, thoughts, and emotionsWhen the forces are in conflict, abnormal behavior arises.Psychoanalytic theory has a deterministic assumption, all behaviors, thoughts and emotions are determined bypast experiences, particularly those during early childhood.
Structural Model of PersonalityThe id is the innate system that is the ego, a part of the psyche the superego develops out oflocated in the unconscious mind that seeks to fulfill wishes the ego. The superegoand operates from the pleasure in more appropriate and represents the ethical andprinciple, which seeks immediate socially acceptable ways. moral attitudes of a child’sgratification of sen-sual needs The ego is the center of parents and society moreand drives. Freud viewed infants As consciousness and follows broadly. It is purported toas operating on nearly purely the childre the reality principle, which develop out of theid. For example, an infant who is n is the drive to satisfy needs internalization of the moralhungry will seek his or her develop within the limits of and ethical standards of , theymother to breastfed or scream society’s rules, rather than society, and as such, it holds begin Latand cry if the mother is not to the pleasure principle. The the rules and regulations to be eravailable. recogni ego attempts to regulate followed. We internalize these ze that conflict between the in moral standards becauseWhen direct action cannot be they instinctual drives of the id following them feels good andtaken, fantasies or memories are cannot and the demands of the chil reduces anxiety. The superegocreated to meet the id’s needs. In have dho immedi external world and, in doing is often the source of feelingsthe case of the infant, the infant so, seeks maximal od of guilt and instructs humans atemay imagine the sight of his or wish gratification of instincts on all of the things theyher mother’s breast. This process while maintainingis referred to as primary process relationships with thethinking, or wish fulfillment outside world. Freud believed that there are two basic forces that motivate human behavior: the sexual drive (referred to as the libido) and the aggressive drive. The energy created from these drives continually seeks to be released but can be channeled by psychological sys-tems. The psychological systems that help regulate the drives are the id, the ego, and the superego The three components—the id, ego, and superego— are frequently in conflict, with competing wishes and demands on the person. The interactions among them typically occur in the unconscious part of the mind, where we are completely unaware. Wishes, desires, needs, and memories occasionally work their way into the preconscious from the unconscious mind, but rarely do they enter the conscious mind. Our unconscious and preconscious work to protect our conscious from the wishes, needs, and memories that represent our basic instincts and drives because these are often unacceptable to the individual person or society at large. Psychosexual Stages of Personality Development Psychoanalytic theory contends that a child’s early childhood relationships, particularly those with his or her caregivers, are important influences of personality development. Freud claimed that as children develop, they go through a universal series of psychosexual stages. Each stage of development has psychological conflicts to be addressed by the id, ego, and superego, and each stage focuses on a different sexually excitable zone of the body. The psychological issues and conflict within each stage must be successfully negotiated for the child to become a psychologically healthy adult. The way a child learns to fulfill the sexual desires associated with each stage becomes an important component of his or her personality, and the caregiver’s responses to the child’s attempts to satisfy basic needs and wishes can
greatly influence whether a given stage is negotiated successfully. If a child does not successfully adjust, then fixation occurs, wherein the child can become trapped at an earlier stage. The first stage is the oral stage, which occurs during infancy to approximately 18 months of age. In this stage libidinal impulses are satisfied through stimulation of the mouth area, usually through feeding or sucking. If the caregiver is not adequately available, the child can develop a deep sense of mistrust and fear of abandonment. Fixation at this stage results in excessive dependence on others and habits related to the mouth, such as smoking and excessive eating and drinking. Next is the anal stage, which lasts from age 18 months to approximately 3 years. The focus of gratifi-cation in this stage is the anus, with children expressing great interest in passing and retaining feces. If parents are too harsh or critical with toilet training, the child may become fixated at this stage and have traits such as being stubborn (having a strong will, too determinds), overcontrolling, stingy (chi7i7), and too focused on orderliness (well-arregement). Following the anal stage is the phallic or Oedipal stage, which occurs from age 3 to 6 years. In this stage, the focus of pleasure is the genitals. The phallic stage is where the most important sexual conflicts occur: the Oedipus complex for boys and the Electra complex for girls. Boys must work through the Oedi-pus complex, wherein they are purported to fall in love with their mothers and fear their fathers will retaliate by castrating them. The fear of castration is quite strong for boys and is the source of motivation for resolving this conflict. Resolution of this results in a strong superego and identification with their father’s values. The Electra complex is the equivalent for girls. Girls’ movement through this stage involves the experience of falling in love with their fathers and fearing retaliation by their mothers. However, Freud argued that there is no castration anxiety for girls because they were already castrated. As a result, girls do not have as strong of a motivation for developing their superegos and thus are argued to not be as moral. Freud argued they are instead motivated more by emotions than morals and by penis envy. According to Freud, unsuccessful resolution of the phallic stage results in not adopting appropriate gender roles or a heterosexual orientation and excessive seductiveness in relationships. Next is the latency stage, which covers middle childhood, from age 6 to 12. During this stage, libidi-nal drives are more at rest and there is a tendency to avoid the opposite sex. The focus is now more on developing skills and interests. Last, is the genital stage, which begins around age 12 at puberty. If chil-dren have successfully resolved their previous stages, their sexual interests turn to heterosexual relation-ships. During this stage they pursue and develop romantic relationships and learn to negotiate romantic and sexual encounters with the opposite sex. Criticismcriticism to his theory is the strong focus on sexuality as the driving force behind development and behavior.Freud developed his theory during the Victorian era with its strong suppression of sexuality, and so it is not a coincidencethat his work is so strongly influenced by the context in which he worked. Given the changes in society, however, thetheory may not be as applicable.Another criticism centers on notions of determinism. Many people object to the idea that all behavior is predetermined bypast behavior, as it does not allow for simple mistakes, is too rigid in assuming people will always act based on what theylearned early in childhood, and does not allow for the possibility of change.Finally, a crucial problem with the theory is the difficulty in scientifically testing its fundamental assumptions.REFERENCE; encyclopidia of educationa psychologySigmund Freud failed to include evidence of the impact of the environment on the individual throughout histheory.The theory is lacking in empirical data and too focused on pathology.This theory lacks consideration of culture and its influence on personality.These limitations have led to the resolution that much of modern research does not support many of its notions.
Horney disputed this theory, calling it both inaccurate and demeaning to women. Instead, Horney proposed thatmen experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to childrenREFERENCE, wikipidiaImplications of Carl Jung s theory of personality Perceiving Learning Style Learn ers tend to focus more on indulging their curiosity rather than making decisions. They prefer to keep their options open. If you tend to start many projects at once (often without finishing any of them), avoid strict schedules, and jump in to projects first without planning, you might be a perceiving learner Judging Learning Style learners prefer order and structure, which is why they tend to plan out activities and schedules very carefully. If you are highly organized, detail-oriented, and have strong opinions, you might be a judging learner. Feeling Learning Style Individuals with this learning style are interested in personal relationships, feelings, and social harmony. If you base decisions on emotions and dislike conflict, you might have a feeling learning style. Thinking Learning Style Thinking learners utilize rationality and logic when dealing with problems and decisions. These learners often base decisions on personal ideas of right, wrong, fairness, and justice. Intuitive Learning Style , intuitive learners enjoy considering ideas, possibilities, and potential outcomes. These learners like abstract thinking, daydreaming, and imagining the future. Sensing Learning Style preferring to rely on information gained through experience. While people with a sensing learning style enjoy order and routine, they also tend to be very quick to adapt to changing environments and situations Introverted Learning Style Learners prefer individual work and abstract ideas. Introverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideas from internal sources, such as brainstorming, personal reflection, and theoretical exploration. Extraverted Learning Style Learning activities that benefit extraverted learners include teaching others how to solve a problem, collaborative/group work, and problem-based learning. If you enjoy teaching others, participating in a group and learning by experience, you are probably an extraverted learner. ADLER
Key points about adlerFour main points which pushed ADLER to establish his own theory of individual psychology AND thisis also a kind of comparison between Adler and Freud: First, Freud reduced all motivation to sex and aggression, whereas Adler saw people as being motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority or success. Second, Freud assumed that people have little or no choice in shaping their personality, whereas Adler believed that people are largely responsible for who they are. Third, Freud’s assumption that present behavior is caused by past experiences was directly opposed to Adler’s notion that present behavior is shaped by people’s view of the future. Fourth, in contrast to Freud, who placed very heavy emphasis on unconscious components of behavior, Adler believed that psychologically healthy people are usually aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it. Theory of Moral Development A theory depends on cognitive development in studying children’s learning how to differentiate right from wrong and make decisions. PiagetAccording to Piaget, children’s moral development goes through two main stages: Heteronomous morality: the stage at which children think that rules areunchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment. Autonomous morality: the stage at which children understand that peoplemake rules and that punishment is not automatic. KohlbergKohlberg believed much of Piagets theory but thought it should be extended intoadolescence and adulthood. He generated 3 main levels for human’s development:
Pre-Conventional Moral Development: I will do what I am supposed to do In order to avoid punishment Conventional Moral Development: I will do what I am supposed to do as things work out better when everyone follows the rules. Post-Conventional Moral Development: I will do (or won’t do) what I am supposed to do because I think (or don’t think) it is the right thing to do. Moral Development in the Classroom• Decisions based on trust could be based on how “morally developed” a student is. (Classroom management)• Using this theory to improve students and progress them morally could be useful.• The theory tracks an individuals level of moral reasoning by assigning him to one of six stages, where the first stage is a basic submission to authority and the last is universal ethics for all.• By creating classroom policy, students can advance from stage one submission to stage three where they are accountable within the small classroom community.• Make time for role play, whether it be related to the curriculum or used as a problem solving tool.• The classroom is an ideal laboratory in which students can test hypothetical situations and potential consequences. Teachers must recognize the cognitive
abilities of those in their class and maximize these abilities through problem- solving activities. Criticisms of the moral development theory • Kohlberg’s work involves only boys • Kohlberg’s theory is heavily dependent on an individual’s response to an artificial dilemma. This brings question to the validity of the results obtained through this research. • Young children can often reason about moral situations in more sophisticated ways than a stage theory: Children as young as 3 or 4 years old use intentions to judge the behavior of others. • Many individuals at different stages behave in the same way, and individuals at the same stage often behave in different waysReferences: - Educational Psychology, theory and practice. Robert E. Slavin Johns ( Hopkins University) - Encyclopedia of Educational Psychology. -
Humanism-- Humanistic approach introduced by the ideas of Scholars like Erickson, Roger, and Maslow began to permeate the field of second language teaching and learning towards the end of 1970. According to Lei (2007) humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of the inner world of the learner and places the individual’s thought, emotions and feelings at the forefront of all human development.- The receiver in education is considered first a human being, and then considered a learner.-- Humanistic education is after all committed to a social and intellectual climate defending students against intellectual oppression, physical punishment, and dishonor.- Humanistic education is therefore interested in educating the whole person-the intellectual and also the emotional dimensions. It is most directly related to what is referred to as the ‘third force’.- Lei (2007) maintains that the humanistic educations is characterized by learner-centeredness in which the aim is not merely developing the cognitive and linguistic capabilities of the learners but also paying attention to the learners emotions and feelings.-
APPLICATIONS LIMITATIONS-The teacher should encourage the power of -The humanist educator is focused on how thecritical thinking in students.( active learners) student develops instead of what the student learns.-Respect should be paid to students asindependent thinkers who are proficient at Other limitationsparticular mental processes, such as analyzing,inferring, synthesizing and evaluating.-Earl Stevick (1980) remarks: “in a language Experience Needed: Finding teacherscourse, success depends less on materials, suitable for the humanist classroom proves totechniques and linguistic analyses, and more on be a challenge.what goes on inside and between the people in the Learning Styles: These learning styles andclassroom”. their evaluations tend to be very unorganized-Allow student to use a learning style that suits and unwieldy.them. Group Emphasis: While the humanist-the teacher should have sincere emotion and approach in the classroom puts emphasis onexpress brief, understanding and unconditional the individual, students spend much of thecare for the students. time in class working in groups.-The teacher’s task is not to teach the students Lack of Competitiveness: The idea ofhow to learn, but to offer learning methods, and competition is de-emphasized.the students learn by themselves. The teachershould not live as “teacher” but a “facilitator”. -They emphasize the Student’s Potential Unilaterally, Ignoring the Effect of Environment and Education.-The relationship between the teacher and thestudent is no longer that of the “kettle and cup”. -They emphasize the Center Position of Students Excessively, Influencing the-The teacher should encourage students to Sufficiency of Education and Teaching.develop freely so that they can try uncertain andunknown fields. (Unconditional positive regard). -Extending the Students’ Interests and Hobby Excessively, Underestimating the Power of Society and Education. Factors to develop the relationship between the teacher and students -Underestimating the Effect of Teacher. Genuineness Acceptance Both of them should The teacher and That humanism psychology emphasizes the express their emotion students should emotional communication between teachers directly without any accept each other’s and students is reasonable, but letting the cheat and false. emotion and concept. teacher humor the concept of students is unacceptable.
-The teacher can accept the students’ fear and -They put extreme emphasis on Ss’ emotionshesitation when they meet new problems, and and forget the main focus of learning which isshould accept their satisfaction when they cognitive development.achieve their aim. - The humanist teacher is mostly concernedStudent-Centered Teaching with the students self-esteem and self-The teacher’s task is not to teach the students concept, and places less emphasis on thehow to learn, but to offer learning methods, and material taught.the students learn by themselves.Basic tips to follow students-centered teaching (1) Let the students decide the content and -Humanism ignores the unconscious mind. the motivation of learning by themselves.If the students don’t have the motivation to learn,they will learn nothing. (2) Let the students evaluate themselvesUsing self-evaluation can make the studentsknow how he learned and whether they haveachieved their aims, and how to make progress. (3) The students master their own learning approachThe students should not only master the generallearning approach, but also a special learningapproach for a certain subject. References: - Application of Humanism Theory in the Teaching Approach: Department of Foreign Language Teaching, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, China. - Humanistic Education: Concerns, Implications and Applications by Mohammad Khatib, Allameh Tabatabaie University, Iran - http://www.simplypsychology.org/humanistic.html#sthash.NzQMrWbo.dpuf -http://www.ehow.com/list_7691322_disadvantages-humanist-approach- classroom.html#ixzz2MEpshqLO