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Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja
Ciclo Académico Abril Agosto 2011
Carrera: Inglés
Docente: Mgs. Elvia Ivanova Pinza Tapia
Ciclo: Quinto
Bimestre: Segundo

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  1. 1. DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND LEARNING SCHOOL : PROFESSOR: English Mgs. Eliana Pinza Tapia TERM: Second Abril Agosto 2011
  2. 3. when experience causes a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior
  3. 4. <ul><ul><li>This change may be deliberate or unintentional for better or for worse, correct or incorrect, and conscious or unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To qualify as learning this change must be brought about by experience or by interaction of a person with his or her environment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><ul><li>Stimulus event that activates behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response observable reaction to a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul>Contiguity <ul><ul><li>Association of two events because of repeated paring </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Association of automatic responses (fear, sweating) with new stimuli Automatic responses = Respondents Classical Conditioning
  6. 8. <ul><li>Learning in which voluntary behavior is strengthened or weakened by consequences or antecedents </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People actively operate on their environment to produce different kinds of consequences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Consequences (follow behavior) that strengthen behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul>Positive reinforcement Occurs when the consequence that strengths a behavior is the addition of a new stimulus Negative reinforcement Occurs when the consequence that strengths a behavior is the subtraction of a stimulus
  8. 10. Consequences that weakens or suppresses behavior Punishment Presentation It occurs when the appereance of a stimulus following the behavior supresses or decreases the behaviour (For example, teachers assigning extra work) Removal It involves removing the stimulus (For example, no TV for a week)
  9. 11. <ul><li>Antecedents (events preceding behaviors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information about which behaviors will lead to positive consequences and which will lead to unpleasant ones </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><ul><li>Cueing is the act of providing a stimulus just before a particular behavior is supposed to take place. It is useful in setting the stage for behaviors that must occur at specific time, but are easily forgotten. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes students need help learning to respond to a cue in an appropriate way. For this reason, it will be useful to provide an additional cue, called a prompt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompt is a reminder that follows a cue to make sure the person reacts to the cue. (For example, remember to share ideas) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><ul><li>When teachers need to change inappropriate classroom behavior, they often employ applied behavior analysis . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is the application of behavioral learning principles to change behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It requires clear specification of the behavior to be changed, careful measurement of the behavior, analysis of the antecedents and reinforces that might be maintaining inappropriate behavior, and careful management of changes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>In classrooms teachers can </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly specify the behavior to be changed and note the current level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan a specific intervention using antecedents, consequences, or both </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep track of the results, modify the plan if necessary </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. A general approach that views learning as an active mental process of acquiring, remembering, and using knowledge. <ul><li>Knowledge is learned, and changes in knowledge make changes in behavior possible </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is a source of information that provides feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><ul><li>One of the most important elements in learning process is what the individual brings to new learning situations. What we already know is the foundation and frame for constructing all future situations. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Domain-specific: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information that is useful in an specific situation or topic (math, soccer, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information that is useful in many different kinds of tasks or situations (planning, solving problems) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18.
  17. 19. <ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term memory </li></ul></ul></ul>It is the initial processing that transforms incoming stimuli from the environment (sights, sounds, smells, etc.) into information so we can make sense of them It is the interface where new information is held temporarily and combined with knowledge from long-term memory, to solve problems or comprehend a lecture. Information that you are focusing on at a given moment Holds the information that is well learned
  18. 20. Information is encoded in sensory memory . In working memory , new information connects with knowledge from long-term memory . Thoroughly processed and connected information becomes part of long-term memory , and can be activated to return to working memory. Sensory memory Working memory Long-term memory
  19. 21. <ul><li>There are number of differences between working and long-term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information enters working memory very quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To move into long-term storage requires more time and a bit of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whereas the capacity of working memory is limited, the capacity of long-term memory appears to be practically unlimited </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><ul><li>Once information is securely stored in long-term memory, it can remain there permanently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information in working memory is immediate because we are thinking about the information at that very moment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information in long-term memory requires time and effort </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>One important requirement to save information in long-term memory is to integrate new information with knowledge already stored in long-term memory as you construct an understanding </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>Elaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul></ul></ul>Adding meaning to new information by connecting with existing knowledge Material that is well organized is easier to learn and to remember, especially if the information is complex and extensive If you try to remember the information, it will be easier if the current context is similar to the original one
  23. 25. METACOGNITION Metacognition knowledge Declarative Procedural Self-regulatory Knowing what to do Knowing how to use the strategies Knowing when and why to apply the procedures and strategies Awareness of one's own learning or thinking processes
  24. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>It involves deciding how much time to give to a task, which strategies to use, how to start, what resources to gather, what order to follow, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is the real-time awareness of “how I’m doing” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It involves making judgments about the processes and outcomes of thinking and learning “Should I change strategies?” </li></ul></ul></ul>There are three essential skills that allow us to do this: <ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. The way something is learned in the first place greatly influences how we remember and how appropriate we can apply the knowledge later /
  26. 28. Learning strategies General plans for approaching learning tasks Learning tactics Specific techniques for learning, such as using outlining <ul><ul><li>Metacognition includes knowledge about the value of using </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Reading strategies <ul><ul><ul><li>R Review headings and subheadings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E Examine boldface words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Ask, “What do I expect to learn” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D Do it - Read! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S Summarize in your own words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C Who are the characters? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A What is the aim of the story? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P What problem happens? S How is the problem solved? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>K What do I already know? W What do I want to know? L At the end of the reading, what have I learned ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>HOW TO BECOME AN EXPERT STUDENT? </li></ul><ul><li>The way something is learned influences how we remember and how we can apply the knowledge later. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of good learning strategies helps students learn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding what is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underlining and highlighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking notes </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><ul><li>Students must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Be cognitively engaged (to focus attention on important aspects of the material) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Invest effort (to make connections, elaborate, translate, organize, and recognize) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Think and process deeply (the greater the practice and processing, the stronger the learning) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Regulate and monitor their own learning (to make sense and notice when a new approach is needed) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Problem Solving Problem: Any situation in which you are trying to reach a goal and must find a means to do so A problem Initial state (the current situation) A goal (the desired outcome) A path for reaching the goal (including operations or activities that move you toward the goal)
  31. 33. Problem solving is creating new solutions for problems General problem-solving strategies I Identify problems and opportunities D Define goals and represent the problem E Explore possible strategies A Anticipate outcomes and Act L Look back and Learn
  32. 34. <ul><li>Identifying: Problem finding </li></ul><ul><li>It is a critical first step and we have to spend time considering the nature of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Defining goals and representing the problem </li></ul><ul><li>To represent the problem and set a goal, it is important to fucus on relevant information, understand the words of the problem, and activate the right schema to understand the whole problem </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Exploring possible solution strategies </li></ul><ul><li> In conducting your search for a solution there are two general kinds of procedures: </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithm: Step-by-step procedure for solving a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristic: It is a general strategy that is particularly used to rapidly come to a solution that is hoped to be close to the best possible answer </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Anticipating, Acting, and Looking back </li></ul><ul><li>After selecting the solution strategy it is necessary to anticipate the consequences. After this, you need to implement it and evaluate the results by checking for evidence that confirms or contradicts your solution. </li></ul>
  35. 37. CREATIVITY It is the ability to produce work that is original, but still appropriate and useful. It requires knowledge, flexibility, motivation, and persistence. Furthermore, social support plays an important role.
  36. 38. <ul><li>(Plucker et all., 2004) “Creativity is important for an individual’s psychological, physical, social, and career success” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important for teachers to promote it in the classroom because teachers are in a great position to encourage or discourage creativity through their acceptance or rejection of the unusual and imaginative. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY It emphasizes learning through observation of others
  38. 40. <ul><ul><li>In social cognitive theory, internal and external factors are important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All of them influence and are influenced by each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>Social Environmental (resources, consequences of actions, other people, and physical settings) Personal factors (beliefs, expectations, knowledge) <ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors (individual actions) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>Teacher feedback can lead students to set higher goals. </li></ul><ul><li>If students seem to misunderstand, teachers may change instruction strategies </li></ul>Social influence Personal factors Behavior Social environment
  40. 42. <ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy = A person’s sense of being able to deal effectively with a particular task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulated learning = Process of activating and sustaining thoughts, behaviors, and emotions in order to reach goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both are key elements of social cognitive theory that are important in learning and teaching </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><ul><li>If learners have a high sense of efficacy in a given area, they will set higher goals, be less afraid of failure, and find new strategies when old ones fail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-regulated learners are motivated to learn. They have the skill and the will to learn </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Intrinsic It is associated with activities that are their own reward Extrinsic It is created by external factors such as rewards and punishments MOTIVATION An internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behavior
  43. 45. <ul><li>General approaches to motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviorists: Emphasize extrinsic motivation caused by incentives, rewards, and punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic views: Stress the intrinsic motivation created by the need for personal growth </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>Cognitive views: Stress a person’s active search for meaning, understanding, and competence, and the power of the individual’s attributions and interpretations </li></ul><ul><li>Sociocultural views: Emphasize legitimate engaged participation and identity within a community </li></ul>
  45. 47. Motivation to learn in school <ul><li>Teachers are interested in a particular kind of motivation (student motivation to learn) . It involves: </li></ul><ul><li>taking academic work seriously, </li></ul><ul><li>trying to get the most from it, </li></ul><ul><li>applying appropriate learning strategies </li></ul><ul><li>in the process. </li></ul>
  46. 48. Decisions made by teachers can influence student motivation to learn T Task (the nature of the task that Ss are asked to do) A Autonomy (the autonomy Ss are allowed in working) R Recongnized (how Ss are recognized for their accomplishments) G Grouping (practices) E Evaluation (procedures) T Time (schedule of time in the classroom)
  47. 51. <ul><li>PROGRAMA: Tutoría (Nombre de Tutoría) Carrera: </li></ul><ul><li>Fecha: </li></ul><ul><li>Docente: </li></ul><ul><li>Hora Inicio: Hora Final: </li></ul>GUIÓN DE PRESENTACIÓN Puntos de la Presentación Intervienen Duración Aprox. en minutos Material de Apoyo - Presentación - Objetivos Nombre del docente y/o invitados <ul><li>2 minutos </li></ul><ul><li>3 minutos </li></ul>Sin material. Sin material. <ul><li>Desarrollo del contenido: </li></ul><ul><li>Capítulo I </li></ul><ul><li>Capítulo II </li></ul><ul><li>…………… . </li></ul>Nombre del docente y/o invitados <ul><li>35 minutos </li></ul>Diapositivas (cambios cada 5 seg.), videos, otro o ningún material. - Preguntas - Despedida (Contactos, Sugerencias) Nombre del docente y/o invitados <ul><li>15 minutos (Si no existen, proponer y dar solución) </li></ul><ul><li>5 minutos </li></ul>Correo, teléfono, ext, horario de tutoría.