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Presentation On Personality

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Presentation On Personality

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR Personality Collected By: Seyed Ali Marjaie © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Reference: http://www.prenticehall.com/
  2. 2. AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: <ul><li>Explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the MBTI personality framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the impact of job typology on the personality/job performance relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>How to measure personality </li></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 – L E A R N I N G O B J E C T I V E S
  3. 3. What is Personality? © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 – When we talk of personality, we don’t mean that a person has charm, a positive attitude toward life, a smiling face, or is a finalist for “ Happiest and Friendliest” in this year’s Miss America contest. When psychologists talk of personality, they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. Rather than looking at parts of the person, personality looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts.
  4. 4. What is Personality? © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  5. 5. Personality Determinants © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 – <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Situation </li></ul>Heredity : refers to those factors that were determined at conception. Physical structure, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, energy level etc. Environment : Among the factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised, our early conditioning, the norms among our family, friends and social groups etc. Situation : A third, the situation, influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality. An individual’s generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations.
  6. 6. Personality Traits © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 – Sixteen Primary Traits
  7. 7. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 – <ul><li>Personality Types </li></ul><ul><li>Extroverted or Introverted (E or I) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking or Feeling (T or F) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceiving or Judging (P or J) </li></ul>MBTI is one of the most widely used personality frameworks which has no hard evidence as valid measure of personality.
  8. 8. The Big Five Model © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  9. 9. Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavellianism </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Propensity for risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Type A personality </li></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  10. 10. Locus of Control © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  11. 11. Machiavellianism © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 – <ul><li>Conditions Favoring High Machs </li></ul><ul><li>Direct interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Distracting emotions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  13. 13. Risk-Taking <ul><li>High Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make quicker decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use less information to make decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are slower to make decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require more information before making decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in larger organizations with stable environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Propensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. </li></ul></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  14. 14. Personality Types © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  15. 15. Personality Types © 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  16. 16. Personality Assessment <ul><li>How does one measure another’s personality? Methods include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interviews and observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>projective personality tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>objective personality tests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We will now discuss each of these in some depth </li></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  17. 17. Interviews and Observation <ul><li>Interviews consist of dialogue with the person in an effort to detect their ideas, beliefs, and values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when you first meet someone you have likely engaged in this method of personality assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observation consists of watching the person in various situations over time in an effort to discern their ideas, beliefs, values, and behavior patterns </li></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  18. 18. Projective Personality Tests <ul><li>These are based on the belief that the unconscious mind contains the roots of personality </li></ul><ul><li>They are based on a psychoanalytic view of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Types of projective tests include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rorshach Inkblot test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word- and free-association tests </li></ul></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  19. 19. Objective Personality Tests <ul><li>Objective tests attempt to overcome the subjectivity of interviews and projective tests by using paper-pencil multiple choice tests </li></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  20. 20. Evaluation of Personality Tests <ul><li>Results of research on personality tests suggest caution in relying exclusively on the interpretations of personality tests </li></ul><ul><li>Results suggest that personality tests are useful, but that results from these tests should be used to confirm other data gathered on a person and not used as the sole assessment tool </li></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –
  21. 21. Application of Psychology <ul><li>Situational influences on personality in everyday life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>situations in our lives have a powerful influence on our general behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>situations can, if extreme, radically change our general way of behaving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>would you ever consider eating another human? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>would you ever consider drinking urine? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>would you ever kill, lie, or commit adultery? </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2003 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 –

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