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  • Definition from Myers (1998, p.420) Personality is an abstract concept, like intelligence, that cannot be -seen, touched or directly measured Personality is one’s relatively distinctive and consistent pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Each dwarf has a distinct type of personality
  • Personality

    1. 1. Personality
    2. 2. What is Personality? <ul><li>When we talk of personality, we don’t mean that a person has charm, a positive attitude toward life, a smiling face. </li></ul><ul><li>When psychologists talk of personality, they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than looking at parts of the person, personality looks at some aggregate whole that is greater than the sum of the parts. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>“ An individual’s characteristic pattern of </li></ul><ul><li>thinking, feeling, and acting.” </li></ul>What is Personality?
    4. 4. What is Personality? <ul><li>Personality refers to the structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>In General , the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with each others. </li></ul>
    5. 5. MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY <ul><li>I. Biological Contributions: </li></ul><ul><li>The role of heredity. </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Split-brain thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Biofeedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical characteristics and rate of maturing. </li></ul>
    6. 6. MAJOR DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY <ul><li>II. Cultural Contributions </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural values & norms </li></ul><ul><li>III. Contributions from the Family. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental influence. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Personality Determinants <ul><ul><li>Is personality genetically determined, or is it formed by experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment determines development within these limits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across all characteristics there is about a 50-50 heredity-environment split. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Personality Traits <ul><li>Personality is: </li></ul><ul><li>the dynamic organisation of traits. </li></ul><ul><li>Trait: </li></ul><ul><li>“ a characteristic pattern that describe an individual’s behaviour” </li></ul>
    9. 9. Personality Traits <ul><li>Identifies the degree to which several different personality characteristics occur within an individual </li></ul><ul><li>It can be said as consistent ways of behaving (traits) e.g., </li></ul><ul><li>Honest </li></ul><ul><li>Dependable </li></ul><ul><li>Moody </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive </li></ul>
    10. 10. Myers-Briggs Dichotomies <ul><li>Four dichotomies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion / Introversion (E/I) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing / Intuition (S/N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking / Feeling (T/F) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging / Perceiving (J/P) </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Extraversion <ul><li>More interested in the external world of people and things </li></ul><ul><li>They derive meaning from connections with the external environment </li></ul><ul><li>They maximize interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Sociable, Energetic, Adventurous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic, Outgoing </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Introversion <ul><li>Interested more in the internal world of ideas and concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy solitude and introspection </li></ul><ul><li>P refer to focus on one thing at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Listen more than talk </li></ul><ul><li>Feel comfortable being alone </li></ul><ul><li>Are self-contained & reserved </li></ul>
    13. 13. Sensing <ul><li>A tendency to perceive by relying on observable facts or happenings through the senses </li></ul><ul><li>A dmire practical solutions </li></ul><ul><li>N otice details and remember facts </li></ul><ul><li>Trust actual experience </li></ul><ul><li>Like step-by-step instructions </li></ul><ul><li>L ive in the here-and-now </li></ul>
    14. 14. Intuition <ul><li>Emphasizes concepts, theories, relationships and possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Values inspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Admire creative ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Prefer to learn new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the </li></ul><ul><li>big picture & possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Notice anything new or different </li></ul>
    15. 15. Thinking <ul><li>Make decisions in an objective, logical, and analytical manner </li></ul><ul><li>These people evaluate ideas and data objectively </li></ul><ul><li>Argue or debate issues for fun </li></ul><ul><li>Are motivated by achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Value honesty and fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Appear cool and reserved </li></ul>
    16. 16. Feeling <ul><li>They emphasize the effect the decision will have on people and interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Decide based on their values & feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Are diplomatic and tactful </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid arguments and conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Are most convinced by how they feel </li></ul>
    17. 17. <ul><li>Prefer a structured, scheduled, and planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be organized, deliberate and capable of making decisions with a minimum of stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Make most decisions pretty easily . </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually scheduled, develop fixed ideas of how things should be done. </li></ul>Judging
    18. 18. Perceiving <ul><li>Prefer a flexible, spontaneous and adaptive environment. </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to continue to collect information rather then make a decision. </li></ul><ul><li>Play first, work later . </li></ul><ul><li>May have difficulty making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Want the freedom to be spontaneous </li></ul>
    19. 19. Myers-Briggs 16 Primary Traits
    20. 20. The “Big Five” Personality Traits <ul><li>Openness to Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul>
    21. 21. Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Agreeableness Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. Conscientiousness Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. Openness to Experience Imaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism. Emotional Stability Calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative). The Big Five Personality Traits
    22. 22. The Big Five Personality Traits, Cont’d <ul><li>Openness to experience - curious, imaginative, creative, complex, refined, and sophisticated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “Inquisitiveness” or “Intellectualness” or even “Culture.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness to experience is also more likely to be valuable in jobs that require high levels of creativity , defined as the capacity to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly open individuals are more likely to migrate into artistic and scientific fields. </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. The Big Five Personality Traits, Cont’d <ul><li>Conscientiousness - dependable, organized, reliable, ambitious, hardworking, and persevering. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness has the biggest influence on job performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientious employees prioritize accomplishment striving , which reflects a strong desire to accomplish task-related goals as a means of expressing personality. </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Big Five Personality Traits, Cont’d <ul><li>Extraversion - talkative, sociable, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easiest to judge in zero acquaintance situations — situations in which two people have only just met. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize status striving , which reflects a strong desire to obtain power and influence within a social structure as a means of expressing personality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to be high in what’s called positive affectivity — a dispositional tendency to experience pleasant, engaging moods such as enthusiasm, excitement, and elation. </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. The Big Five Personality Traits, Cont’d <ul><li>Agreeableness - warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, and courteous. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritize communion striving , which reflects a strong desire to obtain acceptance in personal relationships as a means of expressing personality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beneficial in some positions but detrimental in others. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeable people focus on “getting along,” not necessarily “getting ahead.” </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. The Big Five Personality Traits, Cont’d <ul><li>Neuroticism - nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, and jealous. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synonymous with negative affectivity —a dispositional tendency to experience unpleasant moods such as hostility, nervousness, and annoyance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with a differential exposure to stressors, meaning that neurotic people are more likely to appraise day-to-day situations as stressful. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated with a differential reactivity to stressors, meaning that neurotic people are less likely to believe they can cope with the stressors that they experience </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Trait Adjectives Associated with the Big Five
    28. 28. Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavellianism </li></ul><ul><li>Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Propensity for risk taking </li></ul><ul><li>Type A personality </li></ul>
    29. 29. Locus of Control
    30. 30. Machiavellianism <ul><li>Conditions Favoring High Machs </li></ul><ul><li>Direct interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal rules and regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Distracting emotions </li></ul>
    31. 31. Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring
    32. 32. Risk-Taking <ul><li>High Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make quicker decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use less information to make decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Risk-taking Managers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are slower to make decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require more information before making decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exist in larger organizations with stable environments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk Propensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Personality Types
    34. 34. Personality Types <ul><li>Personality Types </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Investigative </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprising </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic </li></ul>
    35. 35. Personality Types
    36. 36. The End