Principles Of Training


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Principles Of Training

  1. 1. Principles of Training
  2. 2. Frequency <ul><li>Basic health related fitness 3-4 x per week </li></ul><ul><li>The greater the aerobic component of the event, the more frequent the training </li></ul><ul><li>Non endurance athletes frequency 3x per week </li></ul><ul><li>Most endurance athletes frequency 4-6 x per week </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers of over training. Injury boredom, poor technique burnout. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangers of under training. Loss of motivation, poor or no improvement </li></ul>
  3. 3. Intensity <ul><li>How hard should I be training. </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we need to train at the correct intensity? </li></ul><ul><li>Correct intensity provides sustained improvements in performance due to physiological adaptations. </li></ul><ul><li>Too much and we risk injury and burn out </li></ul><ul><li>To little and the gains are small if at all </li></ul><ul><li>By manipulating frequency and intensity we can overload the system thereby making improvements. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity is measured by Heart rate. Perceived exertion rate PER, Repetition max. RM, Subjective measures of feelings </li></ul>
  4. 4. Duration <ul><li>The length of time we train. The time of stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>By manipulating duration and intensity we can overload the systems and make adaptations. </li></ul><ul><li>As fitness increases, duration needs to increase if you wish to improve. </li></ul><ul><li>Because without it adaptations/ improvements will slow down or cease. This means the athlete needs to devote more time to training. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overload <ul><li>Foundation principle behind all training programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Overload leads to training gains. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the level of conditioning the greater the overload required. </li></ul><ul><li>By varying frequency, duration and intensity we can apply overload. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Specificity <ul><li>You get what you train for </li></ul><ul><li>You should train the : </li></ul><ul><li>energy systems </li></ul><ul><li>muscles groups </li></ul><ul><li>Specific to the sport/activity being played </li></ul>
  7. 7. Adaptation <ul><li>The body will adapt in response to: </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency of training </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of training </li></ul><ul><li>Duration of training </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity of training </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations tend to occur early on training. As time progresses, gains made tend to become smaller this is known as the law of diminishing returns. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to increase the level of overload as the level of improvement/ conditioning increases </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological adaptations.. Increases heart volume, increase lung volume, more slow twitch muscle fibres, increased blood volume, increased RBC’s </li></ul>
  8. 8. Regularity <ul><li>Regularity is closely linked to frequency of training. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations will only be achieved if training is regular </li></ul><ul><li>There has to be consistent and regular exercising of muscles and energy systems if you want to improve. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reversibility <ul><li>The longer the build up, the slower the loss. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Generalisation before specialisation <ul><li>Core Fitness components: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardio – respiratory endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Is important before skill specialisation. </li></ul><ul><li>This allows for greater quality and quantity of practice </li></ul>
  11. 11. Variety <ul><li>Variety is the spice of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent boredom </li></ul><ul><li>Help overcome plateaus in training </li></ul><ul><li>How to add variety to training </li></ul><ul><li>Circuit training </li></ul><ul><li>Running in new locations or with people </li></ul><ul><li>Playing different games at training </li></ul>
  12. 12. Group and Individual Training <ul><li>Advantages of training in a group </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly competition within group, </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation of a group </li></ul><ul><li>Support with a group </li></ul><ul><li>Information goes out to the whole group </li></ul><ul><li>Team bonding </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of training as individuals </li></ul><ul><li>You can receive specialised training depending on your skill/ fitness profile </li></ul><ul><li>You can train “where you are at” </li></ul><ul><li>You can work towards individual goals </li></ul>
  13. 13. Methods of training <ul><li>Continuous Training </li></ul><ul><li>Is designed to improve Cardio respiratory endurance and muscular endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Common continuous training activities include </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobics </li></ul><ul><li>Jogging/ Running </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul>
  14. 14. Continuous Training <ul><li>Application of Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Health related fitness Training Frequency 3x per week </li></ul><ul><li>Sports related fitness 5-6 x per week </li></ul><ul><li>If training competitively in an aerobic activity the frequency of the training increases as the aerobic component increases. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Continuous Training <ul><li>Application of Duration </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum length of time required to gain an aerobic benefit is 20 minutes. Ideal starting point for beginners who want a basic health related fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>Sport related fitness sessions up to an hour may be required. </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond an hour benefits begin to decrease. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Continuous training <ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic capacity is developed by exercising with your heart rate at about 70% of maximum </li></ul><ul><li>An effective method for establishing your training threshold is to use the Karvonen Formula </li></ul><ul><li>Training Heart Rate [THR] = RHR + 0.6 [MHR – RHR] </li></ul><ul><li>Training Heart Rate [THR] = RHR + 0.85 [MHR – RHR] </li></ul>
  17. 17. 0 +25 +5 +15 Upper Body -25 0 -20 -10 Running doing -5 +20 0 +10 Swimming Been -15 +10 -10 0 Cycling Have Upper Body Running Swimming Cycling Do To What
  18. 18. Continuous training <ul><li>Application of Overload </li></ul><ul><li>How can we overload the system in order to keep producing gains? </li></ul><ul><li>Increase intensity of training </li></ul><ul><li>Increase frequency of training </li></ul><ul><li>Increase duration of training </li></ul><ul><li>Resting Heart rate decreases with appropriate training. </li></ul><ul><li>Using the Karvonen Formula </li></ul><ul><li>RHR comes down also. </li></ul><ul><li>Get into THR zone quicker which means can train for longer time in this zone </li></ul>
  19. 19. Continuous Training Summary Up to an hour Duration of session THR = 142 - 154 Intensity Karvonen Formula THR = 133 – 182 bpm Intensity Age THR Zone 3-5 x per week Frequency Application Principle of training
  20. 20. Continuous Training <ul><li>How you will apply overload to his training </li></ul><ul><li>Increase intensity, frequency, duration of training. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, adaptations will be made. </li></ul><ul><li>They key is to regularly ensure overload is being applied. Eg measuring RHR and recalculating THR zone. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to realise that this assumes that medically the person can cope with this training </li></ul>
  21. 21. Weight Training <ul><li>Weight Training develops the following components of fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular power </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology used in a weight training programme </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition Max : The max amount of weight that can be lifted x the number of times [ no more no less] </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions [Reps] The number of times the exercise is done </li></ul><ul><li>Sets: The number of times each set of exercise is done </li></ul>
  22. 22. Weight Training <ul><li>Application of Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>3 sessions per week with 24 hours between sessions </li></ul><ul><li>We need time to recover between sessions so the body can heal and overcome fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Supercompensation in training </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>Onset of Ex. D </li></ul><ul><li>_____________________________________________Normal state </li></ul><ul><li>A B </li></ul>
  23. 23. Weight Training <ul><li>Following the onset of exercise, we go through four phases. </li></ul><ul><li>A: Fatigue - Decrease in performance as we fire </li></ul><ul><li>B: Recovery as we rest immediately following a session of training </li></ul><ul><li>Supercompensation as the body adapts to training </li></ul><ul><li>De training – reversibility if training does not occur </li></ul><ul><li>Best time to train is during C Supercompensation </li></ul><ul><li>Supercompensation phase lasts between 24-48hours depending on intensity of training </li></ul><ul><li>We are ready to train when we feel ready </li></ul><ul><li>PER Ratio can be of benefit </li></ul>
  24. 24. Weight Training <ul><li>Application of Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Four Types Of Muscle contractions </li></ul><ul><li>A. Isotonic Tradition weight training </li></ul><ul><li>B. Isometric Contractions against immoveable force </li></ul><ul><li>C. Isokinetic Tends to use highly specialised machines </li></ul><ul><li>D. Eccentric Slowly lowering weights [ controlling] </li></ul>
  25. 25. Weight Training <ul><li>Basic weight Training Regimes </li></ul>Minimal Medium 2-3 15- 30 15+ RM Endurance 3-5mins Fast / explosive 3-6 4- 8 8-20 RM Power 2-3 mins Slow / Medium 2-3 8-12 8-12 RM Beginner Strength 3-5 mins Slow / Medium 3-6 2- 6 2-6 RM Advanced Strength Rest Speed Sets Reps Load COMPONENT
  26. 26. Weight Training <ul><li>Application of Overload </li></ul><ul><li>How do we apply over load to weight training? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Increase the repetition max </li></ul><ul><li>B. Increase the number of reps per set </li></ul><ul><li>C. Increase the number of sets </li></ul><ul><li>D. Decrease rest time between sets </li></ul><ul><li>E. Decrease time between training sessions </li></ul><ul><li>F The best method is to re-test the RM after a period of time and altering the load accordingly </li></ul>
  27. 27. Weight Training <ul><li>Application of specificity EG. Volleyball player </li></ul><ul><li>Use exercises that mimic the sporting actions of the sports we play. Eg. squat jumps in volleyball </li></ul><ul><li>How would you increase a vertical jump. Identify main muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>Quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals , gastrocnemius/ soleus </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises you would perform would be: </li></ul><ul><li>Squats, toe raises, leg extensions </li></ul><ul><li>The exercises would be performed fast/ explosive because you are training for power </li></ul><ul><li>Having selected the exercises there are two essential rules to follow before starting: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Make sure you understand the correct technique </li></ul><ul><li>Never put two exercises together that stress the same muscle group </li></ul>
  28. 28. Circuit Training <ul><li>What health and skill components can circuit training develop? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Muscular strength B. Muscular power </li></ul><ul><li>C. Muscular Endurance D. Aerobic Endurance </li></ul><ul><li>E. Agility F. Skill / Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Basic circuits can be designed for general fitness, or sport specific fitness and skills. </li></ul><ul><li>There Are two general circuit types. </li></ul><ul><li>A . Fixed load. You do a set number of a set exercise before moving on. Eg. 10 chin ups </li></ul><ul><li>B. Individual load You do as many of a certain exercise as possible within a time period. </li></ul><ul><li>In both programmes. You need to consider : </li></ul><ul><li>1. A separate flexibility programme </li></ul><ul><li>2. Never exercise the same muscle group in succession </li></ul>
  29. 29. Circuit Training <ul><li>Application of Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be primarily cardiorespiratory in nature 3-5 days/ week </li></ul><ul><li>Application of Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>What factors will determine how intense the training will be? </li></ul><ul><li>A, Purpose .. what you are training for </li></ul><ul><li>B. Individual fitness level </li></ul><ul><li>C. Exercises selected </li></ul><ul><li>Having determined these we can use duration and overload to set intensity. </li></ul><ul><li>We measure intensity in a circuit by using THR [ Target heart rate] </li></ul><ul><li>And PER [perceived exertion rate] </li></ul>
  30. 30. Circuit Training <ul><li>Application of Duration </li></ul><ul><li>A. Set Duration. This depends on the individual and the training </li></ul><ul><li>objectives but 20-60 seconds is usual. </li></ul><ul><li>. B . Rest Duration This can be increased or decreased to meet </li></ul><ul><li>intensity required. </li></ul><ul><li>General fitness 0-10 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Strength/ power 30-60 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Elderly/ Unfit 20-60 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>We can manipulate these factors to provide overload </li></ul>
  31. 31. Circuit training <ul><li>Application of Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that can be manipulated in order to apply overload </li></ul><ul><li>1. Rest duration </li></ul><ul><li>2. Exercise duration </li></ul><ul><li>3. Intensity of session </li></ul><ul><li>It is time to overload an athlete when; </li></ul><ul><li>A They feel ready to move on </li></ul><ul><li>B When testing shows they have improved </li></ul>
  32. 32. Circuit Training <ul><li>Application of Specificity </li></ul><ul><li>Train energy systems </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle groups specific to a sport </li></ul>
  33. 33. Interval Training <ul><li>ATP-CP Energy System </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies energy for 0-10 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>It takes up to 2 minutes to replace CP stores </li></ul><ul><li>Interval training guidelines for ATP-CP System </li></ul><ul><li>Between reps the rest is passive to allow CP stores to be replaced </li></ul>5-10 minutes Rest between sets 2-4 Sets 4:6 Reps 1:10 Work: Rest ratio 10-100 seconds Rest duration between reps 1-10 seconds Work duration Application Training Component
  34. 34. Interval training <ul><li>Anaerobic energy system </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts 30 to 120 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Lactic acid is produced </li></ul><ul><li>We should perform light exercises between reps in rest phase to help remove lactic acid </li></ul><ul><li>Interval training guidelines for anaerobic system </li></ul>5-10 minutes Rest Between sets 1-4 Sets 4-6 Reps 1:3 Work : Rest Ratio 90-360 seconds Rest Duration Between reps 30-120 seconds Work Duration Application Training Component
  35. 35. Interval Training <ul><li>Aerobic System </li></ul><ul><li>Energy system supp </li></ul><ul><li>supplies energy for long distance </li></ul><ul><li>Interval training guidelines for aerobic training </li></ul>Minimal Rest between sets 1-3 Sets 5-20 Reps 1:1 TO 1:2 Work: Rest ratio 1- 5 minutes Rest Duration Between reps 15-seconds – 3minutes Work duration Application Training component
  36. 36. Interval Training <ul><li>Application of Overload </li></ul><ul><li>How can we overload these energy systems. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Decrease the rest between reps </li></ul><ul><li>2.Increase the number of reps </li></ul><ul><li>3. Increase sets </li></ul><ul><li>4. Increase work-time </li></ul><ul><li>We apply overload to the athlete </li></ul><ul><li>A. Athlete feels ready </li></ul><ul><li>B. We can use PER [perceived exertion rate] </li></ul><ul><li>C. We notice a decreased resting heart rate [RHR] </li></ul>