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Principles of Training


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Core 2: Factors Affecting Performance

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Principles of Training

  1. 1. Principles of Training
  2. 2. CROW ST V Variety Cool DownTrainingThresholds Reversibility Specificity Overload Principle Warm Up
  3. 3. Cool DownPurpose to reduce muscle stiffness and soreness disperse and remove lactic acid replenish body’s energy stores replace O2 usedProcedure jogging, decreasing intensity as you go stretching
  4. 4. Reversibility Occurs when exercise stops or slackens and the training benefits are lost. Most of the benefits of training are lost in 4-8 weeks.Question: How can this be prevented if an athlete is injured?
  5. 5. Overload Principle In order to produce a training effect, exercise or workload must be increased as the body adapts, so that the individual is training at a level slightly above that which they would usually perform at. This can be achieved by gradually increasing the frequency, intensity or duration of the training.
  6. 6. Overload PrincipleThis must be a gradual andprogressive process, Increased load, then adaptationtoo much overload canlead to injury and Increased load, then adaptationfatigue. Increased load, then adaptation Increased load, then adaptation
  7. 7. Warm UpPurpose to reduce risk of injury or soreness by increasing joint mobility and muscle flexibility increase body temperature to promote faster and more powerful contractions mentally prepare athlete stimulate cardiovascular systemProcedure jog, stretch, skills at least 10 minutes never stretch before you sweat!
  8. 8. Specificity This exercise or training specific to the muscle groups and the energy systems used by an individual. It also includes the fitness components and skills neededExamples: Weight lifting – anaerobic fitness & strength are vital Diver – anaerobic fitness, flexibility, balance, power, co-ordination & moderate strength Marathoner – aerobic fitness, muscular endurance, cardiovascular endurance
  9. 9. Training Thresholds These are the minimum amounts of exercise required to produce an improvement in fitness. The aerobic threshold is reached at 70% of your MHR (max. heart rate). Working above this level, but below the anaerobic threshold will cause an improvement in your body’s ability to use oxygen during activity. The anaerobic threshold is reached at 85% of MHR. To develop anaerobic fitness, short bursts of near max to max efforts are needed.Question: What is your aerobic and anaerobic thresholds? Answer to be in beats per minute (bpm)
  10. 10. Variety Repetition of drills and routines lead to boredom Activities must be challenging May include using different venues or facilities, exercises incorporating low activity, rest periods if activities are more intense.