Principles of Training

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Principles of Training

  1. 1.  Understand and be able to explain the Principles ofUnderstand and be able to explain the Principles of Training – Individual needs; progressive overload,Training – Individual needs; progressive overload, specificity, rest and recovery, the FITT principle, andspecificity, rest and recovery, the FITT principle, and reversibility.reversibility.  Be able to apply these to your own sport and use theseBe able to apply these to your own sport and use these principles to improve your fitness levels and skills.principles to improve your fitness levels and skills.
  2. 2. Individual Needs/Individual Needs/ DifferencesDifferences
  3. 3. Matching training to the requirements of an individual. 1. Body Build 2. The sport (and position played) 3. Your aims 4. Current fitness levels/ Age/ Gender. Write down 5 elite sportsmen/women who you think have different training needs and what they are? Why would you not use someone else’s personal exercise programme?
  4. 4. SpecificitySpecificity
  5. 5. Matching training to the requirements of an activity. How can you make a training programme specific? What would you do to make your training specific for your sport?
  6. 6.  You need to train specifically to develop the right… muscles – if your sport requires a lot of running, work mainly on your legs. type of fitness – do you need strength, speed, stamina or a combination? skills – you need to practice any relevant skills like kicking, serving and passing. Remember that: specific individuals respond differently to the same exercise. Training may need to be adapted to suit the needs of different participants.
  7. 7. ProgressiveProgressive OverloadOverload
  8. 8. GraduallyGradually increaseincrease the amount of overload so asthe amount of overload so as to gainto gain fitnessfitness without the risk ofwithout the risk of injuryinjury Unless the body is subjected to increased demands, improvements in physical fitness will not be made. • If a PEP is to be effective, it must place increased & specific demands on the body. • If training levels remain the same, then the programme will only be maintaining the participants level of fitness, not improving it.
  9. 9. Rest andRest and RecoveryRecovery
  10. 10. Rest: The period of time allocated to recovery. Recovery: The time required to repair damage to the body caused by training or competition.  Adaptation is reacting to a hard training session by increasing the ability to cope with future gruelling sessions.
  11. 11.  There are four ways to increase the amount of work the body does in order to achieve progressive overload in a PEP.   They can easily be remembered using the mnemonic FITT.
  12. 12.  F – FREQUENCY  How regularly/ how many times a week  I – INTENSITY  How hard you train.  T – TIME  How long each session must be in order to benefit  T - TYPE  What sort of training you do?
  13. 13.  If a performer wishes to train their aerobic system, they should train at between 60% and 80% of their maximum.  If a performer wishes to train their anaerobic system, they should train at between 80% and 90% of their maximum.  The precise percentage level you train at will be based upon your current level of fitness.
  14. 14. Explain how frequency overlaps with the principle of rest and recovery? Write down three ways that you could increase the intensity of a training session?
  15. 15. ReversibilityReversibility
  16. 16.  …….. Unfortunately, If you don't use it, you lose it!!  Training effects are reversible.  Strength and speed are gradually lost with muscles losing their tone and size, commonly known as:  Muscular Atrophy
  17. 17. Lucy has decided to take her cycling more seriously and is planning a training programme to improve her performance. As part of her training she goes to the gym. a) Which of the following cardiovascular machines would be most appropriate for her to use? Rowing machine Treadmill Exercise bike b) Which principle of training does this relate to? ……………………………………… Explain what is meant by the term reversibility in relation to weight training? …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… A rower is planning a training programme to prepare for a 2000m race. Explain how the following principles might affect their programme: a. Specificity …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… b. progressive overload …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  18. 18. S P I R R F I T T

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