Resistance training

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Resistance training

  1. 1. ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES OF RESISTANCE TRAINING Designing Muscular Strength & Endurance Programmes
  2. 2. Why Resistance Training?        Build muscle Prepare for sport Posture Weight Loss Body Shape Bone Density Manage conditions Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  3. 3. Principles of Resistance Training      Specificity of training SAID (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands) Progressive overload Variation in training Prioritization of training Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  4. 4. Planning a resistance training workout        Needs analysis (history, goals, preference) Exercise selection Training frequency Exercise order Training load and repetitions Volume Rest periods (Baechle & Earle, 2008) Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  5. 5. Needs Analysis      Any adverse PARQ information Exercise history (current status, past experience) Goals (what could the goals be?) Exercise mode selection Evaluation of the practical needs (sport, lifestyle)  Frequency, energy systems, muscle groups, injury prevention  Stage of training (periodisation) & endurance programmes Designing muscular strength
  6. 6. Needs Analysis: Female Athletes and ACL  Common mechanism   deceleration, twisting, pivoting, change of direction 8 times more likely in women Wider pelvic girdle,  Quads angle of pull,  Smaller quads,  Tibial torsion,  Narrower femoral notch,  Lower ham:quad,  Slower force production,  Smaller ACLs  Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  7. 7. Needs Analysis: Female Athletes and ACL  8 areas of concern (Wilk, 1999)  Increase hip strength in 3 planes  Strengthen hamstrings  Controlled valgus stress  Controlled knee hyperextension  Increased neuromuscular reaction  Increased thigh musculature  Increased endurance  Increased speed Wilk, K. E., Arrigo, C., Andrews, J. R., & Clancy, W. G. (1999). Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the female athlete. Jnl of Ath. Training, 34(2), 177–193 Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  8. 8. Exercise Selection • List the ways(modes) that you can train muscular strength & endurance... Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  9. 9. Exercise Selection – some considerations         What could effect your choices? Multi-joint v single joint Core v assistance Specific biomechanics Whole body approach Time constraints Availability of equipment Free weight v machines Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  10. 10. Exercise Selection – some considerations Anatomical       Legs Chest Back Shoulders Arms Abs 6 Fundamental Movements       Squat/Lift Lunge Twist Push/Pull Gait Maintaining balance McGill, S.M. (2009) Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  11. 11.    Momentum Alignment Stability EFFECTIVENESS Safe and Effective Exercise not very safe SAFETY very safe Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  12. 12. Teaching Resistance Exercise  NAMSET  Name the exercise  Areas the exercise works  Muscles involved in the exercise  Silent demo (sometimes)  Explain the exercise  Teach, observe, and correct Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  13. 13. Training Frequency  ACSM guidelines  2-3    non-consecutive days Training status Stage of season Other training/split routine Training status Frequency guidelines Beginner 2-3 Intermediate 3-4 Advanced& Earle, R.W. (2000) Essentials of strength training & conditioning (2nd Ed.) Champaign, Il: Human 4-7 Baechle, T.R. Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  14. 14. Exercise Order  What order can the exercises go in?  Power, other core, assistance exercises Alternate Upper and lower body exercises Alternate push and pull exercises Supersets and compound sets    Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  15. 15. Training Load & Repetitions Training Zone Fitness goal Resistance 1 – 3 RM Muscular Power Very Heavy 3 – 7 RM Muscular Strength Heavy 8 – 12 RM Muscular strength and Endurance Moderate 13 – 25 RM Muscular Endurance Light Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  16. 16. Training Load & Repetitions  Issues around using 1RM... Baechle, T.R., Earle, R.W. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd Ed.) National Strength and Conditioning Association. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  17. 17. 1RM Training Load & Reps (testing, tables) Goal Strength Power – Load (%1RM) Goal Reps ≥85 ≤6 80-90 1-2 Single effort Multiple effort Hypertrophy Muscular Endurance 75-85 67-85 ≤67 3-5 6-12 ≥12 Baechle & Earle 3rd Ed
  18. 18. Training Load Peterson, M.D., Rhea, M.R. and Alvar,B.A. (2004) Maximizing strength development in athletes: A meta-analysis to determine the dose-response relationship. J. Strength Cond. Res. 18(2):377–382.[full text] Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  19. 19. Progression of the Training Load  Timing  2-for-2  rule Quantity  5-10%  Dependent  on training status See Baechle, T.R., Earle, R.W. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd Ed.) Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  20. 20. Volume     The total amount lifted in a session. Strength & power Training goal Goal Reps Hypertrophy Strength <6 Muscular endurance Sets 2-6 Power single effort 1-2 3-5 Power multi effort 3-5 3-5 Hypertrophy 6-12 3-6 Muscular Endurance >12 2-3 Baechle, T.R., Earle, R.W. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd Ed.) National Strength and Conditioning Association. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  21. 21. Number of Sets  Untrained client for muscular fitness:   One set 8 – 12 exercises, slow to moderate speed. Conditioned client for MS&E:   Three sets 8 – 12 exercises at 3 – 7RM – Strength Three sets 8 – 12 exercises at 15 – 25 – Endurance Each set must be taken to the point of momentary muscular failure for gains to be made Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  22. 22. Number of Sets: single set training      Nautilus, 1970s Time efficient, increased adherence, less injuries Not enough volume, lacking warmup sets, limited variation Reasonable for beginners All studies greater than 14 weeks show multiple sets to be superior to single sets for long term performance enhancements Wolfe, B. L., LeMura, L. M., & Cole, P. J. (2004). Quantitative analysis of single- vs. multiple set programs in resistance training. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 18(1), 35–47.[full text] Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  23. 23. Rest Periods  Dependent on  Goal of training  Relative load lifted  Athletes training status Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  24. 24. Rest Periods Rest between sets Goal Strength Power – Rest length 2-5 min 2-5 min Single effort Multiple effort Hypertrophy Muscular Endurance 2-5 min 30s-1.5 min <30s Bachle & Earle 2nd Ed
  25. 25. Methods of training         Simple Circuit Basic Sets Delorme-Watkins Berger Pyramid training Negative reps Partial reps Pre-, post- exhaust Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  26. 26. Circuit Resistance Training 40-55% 1RM as many times as possible with good form for 30s. 15s rest. Next exercise.  More general conditioning, body comp., MS, M, CV  Become familiar with each lift  Improve technique  Gradual increase in exercises Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  27. 27. The Sets System A single set of each exercise is performed for 8 – 12 repetitions (75% of the 1RM). Significant gains in strength have been demonstrated using the single set approach. It is also quick and very efficient. Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  28. 28. Basic Sets System Exercise Sets Repetitions Resistance Rest Leg press 3 15 15 RM 30–60 sec Bench Press 3 15 15 RM 30–60 sec Upright row 3 15 15 RM 30-60 sec Leg curl 3 15 15 RM 30-60 sec Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  29. 29. Delorme-Watkins System (10RM) (1945) A gradual increase in workload, whilst maintaining the same number of reps in each sets Set 1 10 reps at 50% of the 10 RM 40Kg Set 2 10 reps at 75% of the 10 RM 60 Kg Set 3 10 reps at 100% of the 10 RM 80 Kg Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  30. 30. The Berger System A system that research suggests that by performing 3 sets of six repetitions each with the same 6RM was the most effective method for improving muscular strength. Set 1 6 reps 30 Kg or 100% 5mins rest Set 2 6 reps 30 Kg or 100% 5mins rest Set 3 6 reps 30 Kg or 100% 5mins rest Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  31. 31. Pyramid System Set 1 10 reps at 55% of 1 RM 55 Kg Set 2 6 reps at 65% of 1 RM 65 Kg Set 3 3 reps at 80% of 1 RM 80 Kg Set 4 1 rep at 100% of 1 RM 100 Kg Set 5 3 reps at 80% of 1 RM 80 Kg Set 6 6 reps at 65% of 1 RM 65 Kg Set 7 10 reps at 55% of 1 RM 55 Kg Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  32. 32. Negative reps Resistance > 1RM Lower more resistance than lift Spotters raise the weight Use the machine as assistance Greater increases in strength? DOMS Heavy eccentric training results in neuromuscular adaptations Hortobagyi et al, 1996 Jnl Appl Physio Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  33. 33. Partial reps “The Burn system” When set cannot be completed in full, half or partial reps are carried out. 5/6 reps Used with isolation exercises Hypertrophy and strength gain Massey et al. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Aug;18(3):518-21 Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  34. 34. Pre & Post exhaust system Compound ex cause fatigue in synergists prior to major muscles Pre-exhaust  iso then compound Post-exhaust  compound then iso Massey et al. J Strength Cond Res. 2004 Aug;18(3):518-21 Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  35. 35. Descending sets Drop sets / Triple drop / Strip sets 1 set to volitional fatigue Load decreased then repeated Usually 3 drop sets after first Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  36. 36. Staggered sets v1. Similar to supersets Antagonistic pairing with rest between v2. Compound sets Different body parts with no rest Repeat the small circuit Decreases training duration Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  37. 37. Progressing Intensity  Increase Loading Increase Repetitions (within rep range for goals) Increase Sets Increase Exercises Decrease Rest Intervals Vary Exercises  Periodisation?      Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  38. 38. Plyometrics  Issues  Client capabilities  Appropriate programming variables used  Safe and effective execution and facilities Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  39. 39. Planning a resistance training workout        Needs analysis (history, goals, preference) Exercise selection Training frequency Exercise order Training load and repetitions Volume Rest periods Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes
  40. 40. Further Reading Click here for more resources Baechle, T.R., Earle, R.W. (2008). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning (3rd Ed.) National Strength and Conditioning Association. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. Ratamess,N.A. et al (2009) ACSM Position Stand: Progression Models in Resistance Training for Healthy Adults Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 41(3):687-708 [full text] McGill, S.M. (2009) Ultimate Back Fitness and Performance. Waterloo, Canada: Backfitpro Inc. American College of Sports Medicine (2009) ACSM's Resources for the personal trainer. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins [amazon][Ch 16 Resistance exercise] NASM (2008) NASM Essentials of Personal Fitness Training (3rd ed.) Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Designing muscular strength & endurance programmes

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