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Training Principles1


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Training Principles1

  1. 1. Training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology knowledge for application in physical activity.
  2. 2. Improving performance in a physical activity <ul><li>To improve performance in a physical activity an effective training program is required. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many components that must be considered in the planning of a program if improvement is to occur. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is our focus in this module <ul><li>Training principles </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of training </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise physiology </li></ul><ul><li>Note: there are many more relevant components e.g biophysical aspects such as skill acquisition, anatomy, biomechanics, sports psychology as well as socio cultural such as barriers, enablers etc…However, these three are the focus of this module. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Training Principles <ul><li>Training is a systematic process in which athletes improve their fitness to meet the demands of their sport/activity. Training is a long-term process that is progressive and meets the individual at their level of fitness and conditioning. Training uses both general and event-specific exercises to develop individuals for their sport. Training is a cyclical process: tear down, recovery, super-compensation and buildup (adaptation). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Training Principles <ul><li>When we train, we do specific damage to some cells, and use up cellular resources (fuel, water, salts). When you finish your workout, you are weaker, not stronger. How much weaker depends on the amount and intensity of the exercise. After the training session, if the body is given proper rest and food, the body will adjust to super-compensate and prepare for the next stress/session. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Specificity <ul><li>The specific nature of a training produces its own specific response and adaptations. </li></ul><ul><li>The training must be specific to both the individual and the demands of their sport/activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Training should use specific patterns of joint and muscle coordination that are used in the sport/activity. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Specificity <ul><li>Specific components of fitness that are used in the sport/activity should be trained. </li></ul><ul><li>The programme should also use the specific energy system/s that are used in the sport/activity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Health related fitness components <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Body Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Cardio-respiratory Endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular Endurance </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul>
  9. 9. Body Composition <ul><li>Relative amounts of muscle, fat, bone, and other vital parts of the body. There are three general classifications of body type. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Endomorphs : <ul><li>Endomorphs : A predominantly endomorphic individual typically has short arms and legs, as well as a large amount of mass on their shorter than normal frame. This hampers their ability to compete in sports requiring high levels of agility or speed. Sports of pure strength, like power lifting, are perfect for an endomorph. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mesomorphs <ul><li>Mesomorphs: A predominantly mesomorphic individual excels in strength, agility, and speed sports. Their medium structure and height, along with their tendency to gain muscle and strength easily makes them a strong candidate for a top athlete in any sport. </li></ul>http://
  12. 12. Ectomorphs <ul><li>Ectomorphs : A predominantly endomorphic individual is long, slender and thin, and therefore power and strength sports are almost totally out of the question. Their slight build also leaves them susceptible to injuries. While they can easily get lean and hard, their lack of musculature severely limits their chances in sports requiring mass. Typically, Ectomorphs dominate endurance sports. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cardio-respiratory Endurance <ul><li>The ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity and to eliminate fatigue products after supplying fuel. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Muscular Strength <ul><li>Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle to exert force. Strength is measured by the maximal amount of resistance or force that can be sustained in one single effort. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Muscular Endurance <ul><li>Muscular Endurance is the amount of external force that a muscle can exert over an extended period of time. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Flexibility <ul><li>The absolute range of movement in a joint or series of joints that is attainable in a momentary effort with the help of a partner or a piece of equipment. Flexibility is either static (stationary) or dynamic (moving). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Skill related fitness components <ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Agility </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordination </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Time </li></ul>
  18. 18. Power <ul><li>Power is the amount of work done or energy transferred per unit of time. Muscular power is the ability to use strength quickly to produce an explosive effort. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Speed <ul><li>Speed relates to the ability to perform a movement within a short time period. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Agility <ul><li>Agility is the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Balance <ul><li>Balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium while static (stationary) or dynamic (moving). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Co-ordination <ul><li>Co-ordination is the ability for the body’s senses, the nervous system and muscles to work together so that specific movements can be performed smoothly and accurately. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reaction time <ul><li>The time it takes for the body to react to a stimulus. </li></ul>
  24. 24. ENERGY SYSTEMS <ul><li>During exercise production of ATP depends upon the Energy System being used. This is in turn dependent on the intensity and duration of the exercise: </li></ul><ul><li>ANAEROBIC / ATP-CP ANAEROBIC / LACTIC ACID AEROBIC </li></ul><ul><li>(Anaerobic Glycolysis) (Aerobic Glycolysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Very rapid Rapid Slow </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical fuel: PC Food fuel: glycogen Food fuels: glycogen, fats, and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Very limited ATP Limited ATP production Unlimited ATP Prod. </li></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular stores limited By-product, lactic acid, No fatiguing by-prod. </li></ul><ul><li>causes muscular fatigue Produces H20, CO2, heat </li></ul><ul><li>Used with sprint or any Used with activities of Used with endurance or </li></ul><ul><li>High-power, short-duration 1 to 3 min duration. Long-duration activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Activity up to 10secs Approx 5mins+ </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from (VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999) </li></ul>
  25. 25. ATP
  26. 26. Anaerobic glycolysis
  27. 27. Aerobic Glycolysis
  28. 28. Energy systems <ul><li>There is a relationship between the energy systems and the graph on the next slide shows the overlap between the systems. Highly trained athletes have increased efficiency of each of the energy systems and this enables a faster transition between each energy system. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Oxygen consumption
  30. 30. Examples of the overlap of energy systems <ul><li>ATP- CP ANAEROBIC AEROBIC EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>100% 0% 0% Diving, jumps, throws </li></ul><ul><li>80% 20% 0% Basketball, baseball, fencing, judo </li></ul><ul><li>60% 20% 20% Figure skating, soccer, tennis </li></ul><ul><li>0% 20% 80% Slalom skiing, 1500m run, 500m kayak </li></ul><ul><li>0% 10% 90% 3000m run, 800m swim, 5000m skate </li></ul><ul><li>0% 5% 95% 10,000M skate, 10,000 run </li></ul><ul><li>0% 1% 99% Road cycling, biathlon, marathon </li></ul><ul><li>0% 0% 10% shooting, bowls, driving </li></ul>
  31. 31. Specificity <ul><li>Therefore when trying to improve performance it is important to consider training the relevant components of fitness and energy systems. This will differ according to the sport/physical activity that you are training in your programme. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Adaptation <ul><li>One important consideration in planning an exercise program is that conditioning will occur only with regular exercise (frequency). This principal is referred to as the principle of adaptation which means that only regular exercise produces physical gains. Adaptation depends on challenging the physical capability beyond a minimum threshold level. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Overload <ul><li>If the appropriate type and amount of activity is in excess of this threshold level, a training overload is incurred and physiological gain usually occurs. Regular overloading can lead to increased function and the training workload needs to be increased to ensure overload and progress when the fitness level improves. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Progressive overload <ul><li>The progression rate at the start of an exercise program needs to be gradual to best ensure fitness benefits. Fitness should improve only when the appropriate amount of overload is progressively increased. This principle is referred to as the principle of progressive overload. Overload can be an increase in Frequency, Intensity, Distance or Time (duration). To ensure efficiency only one variable should be changed at a time. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Reversibility (detraining) <ul><li>When exercise stops the physical gains can regress to pre-training levels (regression/reversibility). Aerobic endurance losses are quicker than strength (power) losses. Basically, </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you don’t use it you lose it”. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Overtraining/Retrogression <ul><li>Retrogression refers to an excessive training overload where improvements have slowed. Retrogression can occur with highly intense single exercise bouts (acute overload) over extended time periods. Excessive overload over time is commonly referred to as chronic overload. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Periodisation/training year <ul><li>The year can be divided into 12 months of training. Obviously if the season is shorter, the following principles are applied but over a shorter time period. The first month is the month immediately after the end of the season. Usually the targeted or peak competition concludes the sports season. Therefore, month 12 should be the peak competition, the national championships, the regional championship or the World Championships. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Periodisation/training year <ul><li>The coach should decide on the peak competition for each athlete and count backwards to establish the number of the relevant months of training. If the national or world championships is the peak competition and it is in September, then October is month one. This program divides the year into six main phases. </li></ul>
  39. 40. Periodisation-example Months 10 through 12 Race/match prep and peak performance Peak competition period Months 8 and 9 Specific endurance and sport technique Early competition period Months 6 and 7 Maximum strength and specific endurance Pre-Competition period Months 4 and 5 Maximum strength and general endurance Preparation period Months 2 and 3 General strength and endurance Early preparation period Month 1 Active recovery Recovery period Month Aim Phase
  40. 41. F.I.T.T Principle <ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Time (duration) </li></ul><ul><li>Type (methods of training) </li></ul>
  41. 42. Frequency <ul><li>Frequency . The minimum number of workouts for cardio respiratory improvement is 3 times weekly with no more than two days between exercise sessions. You should gradually progress to 5 days per week as your fitness level improves. The benefits of exercising beyond 5 days per week can be negated by an increased injury risk. If you should exercise five days per week, it is important to lower exercise intensity. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Frequency <ul><li>To improve strength, power and speed has an ideal frequency of 3-5 days per week. Therefore it is important in planning programmes to ensure you know which components of fitness are your focus to ensure gains can be made. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Intensity <ul><li>Training intensity refers to how hard each training session will be. Intensity measurement is dependant on the type of training used. It can be measured by heart rate or by resistance levels. We will look at both of these separately. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Time (duration) <ul><li>Duration can be used for the length of a training session or the length of a training programme. The minimum length of a training programme for improvement is 6 weeks. However, for real benefits to be seen aerobic programmes should last for 12 weeks and anaerobic programmes should last 8-10 weeks. </li></ul>
  45. 46. Time (duration) <ul><li>In terms of the length of sessions this should be taken into consideration when using the principle of progressive overload. Therefore duration of individuals sessions can increase over a programme (particularly with aerobic training). </li></ul>
  46. 47. Type of training <ul><li>This refers to the methods of training being implemented in a training programme eg continuous training, circuit training etc… We will look at these separately. It can also refer to actual type of activity eg running, cycling, swimming etc… </li></ul>
  47. 48. Intensity by Heart Rate <ul><li>Intensity of training can be measured by a % of MHR (maximum heart rate). </li></ul><ul><li>For training the aerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 70-85% of MHR. </li></ul><ul><li>For training the anaerobic systems the target heart rate is approx 85-100% MHR. </li></ul>
  48. 49. Putting it all together-by heart rate <ul><li>(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999) </li></ul>3-4km 5-8km Distance/workout 8-10 weeks 12-16 weeks or longer Duration 1 1 Sessions per day Heart rate:85-100% MHR Heart Rate: 70-85% MHR Intensity 3-5 days/week 4-7 days/week Frequency Sprint (anaerobic) training Endurance (aerobic) training Training Aspect
  49. 50. Intensity by resistance. <ul><li>Intensity can also be measured by resistance. It is measured against your repetition maximum (RM). Eg 1RM is the maximum you can lift in one rep. 10RM is the maximum you can lift in 10 reps. This differs depending on what you are training eg strength, power etc… </li></ul>
  50. 51. Putting it all together-by resistance. <ul><li>(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999) </li></ul>3-6 1-3mins Fast 2-5 15-40 Light 40-60% or 20-40 RM Endurance 3-4 3-5mins Fast 3-8 2-10 Medium 60-80% or 8-20 RM Power 3-6 1-3mins Slow 3-10 6-12 Heavy 70-80% or 6-12 RM Hypertrophy (bulk) 3-4 3-5mins Slow 5-12 2-6 Very Heavy 80-95% or 2-6 RM Strength Frequency per week Rest between Sets Speed Sets Reps Weight 1RM or RM Fitness Component
  51. 52. Variety <ul><li>Variety adds spice to your programme, and helps you to stay motivated. You ca do this by varying… </li></ul><ul><li>How you train (Methods) </li></ul><ul><li>Where you train </li></ul><ul><li>How hard you train (Intensity) </li></ul><ul><li>Who you train with </li></ul>
  52. 53. Acute and chronic effects of exercise. <ul><li>These are physiological changes that occur in response to the demands of exercise. Acute effects are those responses that occur while you are exercising and in the recovery period. Chronic effects are long term adaptations that take at least 6 weeks to occur. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Acute effects of exercise on the body (Immediate)
  54. 55. Increased Heart Rate <ul><li>When you exercise your heart rate (beats per minute) increases to increase the supply of oxygen to your working muscles. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Increased Respiration Rate <ul><li>Respiratory rate is the number of breaths taken in one minute. During exercise amounts of carbon dioxide increases as it is a waste product and the respiratory rate increases to increase oxygen and decrease carbon dioxide. </li></ul>
  56. 57. Increased Stroke Volume <ul><li>Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped out of your left ventricle with each beat of the heart. This increases to increase oxygen supply to working muscles. </li></ul>
  57. 58. Increased Cardiac Output-Q <ul><li>Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in 1 minute. </li></ul><ul><li>Q=stroke volume x heart rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Q=SV x HR </li></ul>
  58. 59. Increased VO 2 <ul><li>Oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) is the amount of oxygen that is taken up and used by the body to produce energy. </li></ul>
  59. 60. Increased Tidal Volume <ul><li>Tidal volume is the size of each breath and this increases with exercise as the body tries to increase oxygen flow to the blood. </li></ul>
  60. 61. Increased Systolic Blood Pressure <ul><li>Systolic blood pressure is the pressure as the left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta. Diastolic is the pressure in the arteries. Only the systolic pressure increases during exercise. </li></ul>
  61. 62. Increased Arterio-venous O 2 difference <ul><li>This is the difference between the O 2 concentration in the arteries and in the veins. As more O 2 is used during exercise this difference increases. </li></ul>
  62. 63. Increased Blood to working muscles <ul><li>Due to increased need for O2 during exercise blood is distributed more where it is required in working muscles. </li></ul>
  63. 64. Decreased muscle Glycogen stores <ul><li>Muscle glycogen stores are decreased while exercising as they are being used by the body for energy production. </li></ul>
  64. 65. Decreased blood plasma volume <ul><li>Due to increased sweating, the blood plasma volume usually decreases during strenuous exercise and hot weather. </li></ul>
  65. 66. Chronic Effects of exercise on the body (Long Term)
  66. 67. More efficient use of O 2 because…
  67. 68. Increased Blood Volume and haemoglobin levels <ul><li>Training stimulates an increase in plasma volume as well as in the number of red blood cells (and therefore haemoglobin that carries O 2. </li></ul>
  68. 69. Increased O 2 carrying capacity of blood <ul><li>This is due to the increase in plasma, haemoglobin as well as increases in blood vessels etc…and overall greater efficiency. </li></ul>
  69. 70. Lungs can take in and distribute more O 2 <ul><li>Increased VO 2 Max. This occurs due to increased tidal volume as well as improved ability to attract O 2 from the alveoli onto the red blood cells. </li></ul>
  70. 71. Increased number of blood vessels <ul><li>Efficiency is also improved as the number of blood vessels is increased. Particularly the capillaries where gaseous exchange takes place. </li></ul>
  71. 72. Increased blood supply as increased capillaries
  72. 73. Cardiac Hypertrophy <ul><li>The size of the heart increases. For endurance the chambers get larger (particularly the left ventricle) and for non endurance the thickness of the ventricle walls increases. </li></ul>
  73. 74. Decreased resting heart rate <ul><li>Your resting heart rate decreases with fitness due to greater efficiency of systems. </li></ul>
  74. 75. Increased Stroke volume at rest <ul><li>The heart develops larger chambers and/or thicker walls and improved efficiency. Therefore the stroke volume increases and this relates to the decrease in resting heart rate. </li></ul>
  75. 76. More glycogen stored in muscle <ul><li>Greater amounts of fuel are stored for use in endurance events. (For non-endurance ATP and CP stores are increased. </li></ul>
  76. 77. Increased size of muscle <ul><li>In non-endurance athletes the size of the muscle is increased due to hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, in endurance twitch fibres, increased numbers of capillaries, increased strength in connective tissues eg tendons, ligaments. </li></ul>
  77. 78. Increased strength of muscle <ul><li>In non-endurance athletes the size of the muscle is increased due to hypertrophy of fast twitch fibres, increased numbers of capillaries, increased strength in connective tissues eg tendons, ligaments. </li></ul>
  78. 79. Effects of exercise <ul><li>When completing a training programme both acute and chronic effects of exercise should be monitored this is part of ensuring that improvements are measurable. This can occur through goal setting. Goal setting for programmes should follow the S.M.A.R.T principle. </li></ul>
  79. 80. S.M.A.R.T GOALS
  80. 81. S.M.A.R.T Goals <ul><li>These may relate to acute and chronic effects of exercise and what you are trying to improve or it may relate to what fitness components you are trying to improve. They could also involve long term achievement. However, these goals should be measurable. These goals will only be achievable if the training principles and methods of training are carefully considered. </li></ul>
  81. 82. Training Methods. <ul><li>There are various types of training that can be used in a training programme. These again will relate back to what components of fitness you have chosen/or been given to develop. They will also depend on what energy systems you are trying to develop. The following examples are brief and research will need to occur into developing relevant exercises within these methods. </li></ul>
  82. 83. Continuous Training <ul><li>Continuous exercise for minimum of 20mins. Particularly for cardio-respiratory endurance and muscular endurance. Energy system predominantly aerobic glycolysis. </li></ul>
  83. 84. Fartlek training <ul><li>This is a type of continuous training that includes bursts of speed so that relevant energy systems are worked. Therefore cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular endurance and speed are all developed. This increases the use of the anaerobic glycolysis system as well as aerobic glycolysis. </li></ul>
  84. 85. Circuit training <ul><li>A combination of continuous and resistance training. It can train a variety of fitness components such as cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular endurance, speed agility etc… Therefore depending on how the circuit is set it can work the aerobic glycolysis and anaerobic glycolysis systems. It can be set up specifically to include sports skills and use of relevant muscle groups etc… </li></ul>
  85. 86. Plyometric training <ul><li>Involves exercises such as bounding, hopping, jumping and medicine ball passing. Plyometrics helps improve power and explosiveness for sports especially sports that involve jumping, throwing and speed. It can train the ATP/CP system and the anaerobic glycolysis sytems. </li></ul>
  86. 87. Swiss ball training <ul><li>Was used at one stage for rehabilitation. However benefits such as improved core stability, prime mover strength, balance, dynamic flexibility and co-ordination have increased use in training programmes. Depending on how these exercises are used all three energy systems can be trained. </li></ul>
  87. 88. Resistance training <ul><li>Depending on use in a programme this type of training can develop, muscular strength, power and endurance. See recap on following slide. Muscular endurance works the aerobic glycolysis sytem while the other two work the ATP/CP and anaerobic glycolysis systems. </li></ul>
  88. 89. Putting it all together-by resistance. <ul><li>(VCE Physical Education Book 2-1999) </li></ul>3-6 1-3mins Fast 2-5 15-40 Light 40-60% or 20-40 RM Endurance 3-4 3-5mins Fast 3-8 2-10 Medium 60-80% or 8-20 RM Power 3-6 1-3mins Slow 3-10 6-12 Heavy 70-80% or 6-12 RM Hypertrophy (bulk) 3-4 3-5mins Slow 5-12 2-6 Very Heavy 80-95% or 2-6 RM Strength Frequency per week Rest between Sets Speed Sets Reps Weight 1RM or RM Fitness Component
  89. 90. Flexibility training <ul><li>Used to improve your joint and muscle flexibility. There are 2 major types of flexibility training. </li></ul><ul><li>PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) where you take a muscle to its maximum range, then contract the muscle against an immovable resistance eg a partner. </li></ul><ul><li>Static (passive) stretching which involves taking a muscle to its greatest range and holding it for at least 30 secs. Both types improve flexibilty and work the aerobic glycolysis system. </li></ul>
  90. 91. Interval-sprint training <ul><li>In this type of training work intervals are followed by rest intervals. I t is designed to improve speed, power and agility. Short interval training works the ATP/CP system and long interval training works the anaerobic glycolysis system. </li></ul>
  91. 92. Aerobic floor classes <ul><li>Aerobic floor classes are a type of continuous training, but also include callisthenic exercises usually found in circuit training it works cardio –respiratory endurance, strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility and predominantly uses the aerobic glycolysis system. </li></ul>
  92. 93. Training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology. <ul><li>All of these topics interrelate and should be considered carefully when planning or evaluating a programme. This is relevant whether you are designing or have been supplied with a programme. Look carefully at the focus and intended outcomes of the programme in relation to the specific activity sport or components that are being trained for. </li></ul>
  93. 94. Application <ul><li>In using the knowledge from this module the application is just as important as the knowledge. Examples of use of training principles, methods of training and exercise physiology knowledge is how these are all applied to your specific situation/sport/activity or component. There is a separate power point on application to physical activity. </li></ul>
  94. 95. Critical thinking on programmes. <ul><li>We must consider the limitations of the knowledge in this module. This includes ideologies such as “healthism”. </li></ul>
  95. 96. Healthism <ul><li>Healthism is a set of assumptions based on the belief that health is solely an individual responsibility. It includes the concept of the body as a machine that is influenced only by physical factors. </li></ul><ul><li>(Health and Physical Education. The curriculum in action. Making meaning: Making a difference. (2004) </li></ul>
  96. 97. Biophysical focus. <ul><li>This module has focused on the biophysical aspects of training for performance improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be considered that all of this does consider the body as a machine and has not focused on the environmental and social effects that have influence on an individual. </li></ul>
  97. 98. Limitations <ul><li>Contained within what has come to be called the ideology of “healthism” is a system of beliefs that defines health-promoting activities, such as involvement in some form of physical fitness program, as a moral obligation (Crawford, 1980). </li></ul>http:// /Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  98. 99. Limitations <ul><li>Perceptions of health and the body are a social construction. In contemporary Western culture, physical and health ideals are congruent and emphasize both slimness and muscularity, but do so differently for men and women. </li></ul>http:// /Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  99. 100. Limitations <ul><li>For women, slimness is believed to be an unmistakable sign of self-restraint, and discipline. The thin person is an exemplar of mastery of mind over body and virtuous self-denial (Crawford, 1984). For men, muscular bulk carries significant social value, so long as it is not accompanied by visible fat. Fat signified the loss of control, a moral failure, a sign of impulsiveness, self-indulgence and sloth. </li></ul>http:// /Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  100. 101. Limitations <ul><li>The real champions of the ideology of healthism have been the educated middle-class. Fitness and fitness education are geared towards the middle-class who are predisposed to regarding the body as a project to be managed and improved through self-improvement as an integral means to structure identity and social mobility (Bourdieu, 1984; Crawford, 1984). </li></ul>
  101. 102. Limitations <ul><li>Programs have become an exercise in human engineering aimed at transforming the human body into an efficient, inexhaustible machine. Like any finely tuned machine, it must be managed, maintained, conditioned, and fueled. </li></ul>http:// /Employee Fitness Programs.pdf
  102. 103. How can we use the limitations in our application. <ul><li>In writing our programmes we can use different dimensions of hauora to develop our goals and outcomes. If we take into consideration Taha whanau (social/family), Taha hinengaro (mental/emotional), Taha wairua (spiritual), as well as Taha tinana (physical) and what these mean to us individually then we are looking beyond the body as a machine. </li></ul>
  103. 104. How can we use the limitations in our application. <ul><li>We can also consider the barriers and enablers that may effect our programme. These will also be beyond just the physical and will consider social, environmental, and cultural influences. </li></ul>
  104. 105. Bibliography <ul><li>Websites </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Books </li></ul> http:// /Employee Fitness Programs.pdf <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>VCE Physical Education Book 2 (1999) </li></ul>