Carbon Dioxide Transport

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Carbon Dioxide Transport

  1. 1. Transport of carbon dioxide H +
  2. 2. Transport of carbon dioxide H + <ul><li>CO 2 is carried in three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>5% carried in solution in the plasma as CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>10% combines with the Hb in the form of carbamino-haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>85% is carried as hydrogen carbonate </li></ul>
  3. 3. Transport of carbon dioxide <ul><li>The way in which hydrogen carbonate is formed is important and needs to be known in detail. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Transport of carbon dioxide <ul><li>In tissue : </li></ul>CO 2 plasma
  5. 5. Transport of carbon dioxide <ul><li>In tissue : </li></ul>+ H 2 O H + + HCO 3 - plasma CO 2 enzyme
  6. 6. Transport of carbon dioxide <ul><li>In lungs: </li></ul>HCO 3 - plasma
  7. 7. Transport of carbon dioxide <ul><li>In lungs: </li></ul>CO 2 + H 2 O H + + HCO 3 - plasma enzyme
  8. 8. Transport of carbon dioxide <ul><li>In lungs: </li></ul>CO 2 + H 2 O H + + HCO 3 - plasma enzyme
  9. 9. Formation of hydrogen carbonate <ul><li>CO 2 diffuses from tissues into rbc </li></ul><ul><li>Some combines with amino groups to form carbamino-haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>The RBC contain an enzyme called carbonic anhydrase which catalyses the reaction between CO 2 and water to form carbonic acid </li></ul>
  10. 10. Formation of hydrogen carbonate <ul><li>Carbonic acid dissociates into negatively charged hydrogen carbonate and positive hydrogen ions </li></ul><ul><li>The hydrogen ions increase the acidity of the blood </li></ul><ul><li>The H + combine with Hb to give haemoglobinic acid . </li></ul><ul><li>This decreases the affinity of Hb to oxygen so it gives it up to the tissues (hence the Bohr effect) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Formation of hydrogen carbonate <ul><li>The build up of hydrogen carbonate ions causes them to diffuse out of the RBC leaving the inside of the RBC positively charged. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to balance this electric charge chloride ions diffuse into the rbc from the plasma – this is known as the chloride shift. </li></ul><ul><li>In this reaction Hb is acting as a buffer </li></ul>
  12. 14. Formation of hydrogen carbonate <ul><li>When blood gets to the lungs, all the reactions are reversed </li></ul><ul><li>The hydrogen carbonate and hydrogen ions recombine releasing CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>The chloride shift is reversed </li></ul><ul><li>Carbamino-haemoglobin breaks down to release CO 2 </li></ul>

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