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Industrial Fermenters


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Industrial Fermenters

  1. 1. Industrial fermenters Growing cells on a large scale
  2. 3. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>Can hold up to 200 000 litres of culture </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are provided with nutrients and very carefully controlled environment to keep them in desired growth stage </li></ul><ul><li>Usually made out of stainless steel as many fermentations produce acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients and other materials are fed in by valve operated pipelines. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Industrial fermenters
  4. 5. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>Conditions in the fermenter are carefully monitored to regulate cell growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Fermenter and all pipework must be sterile before fermentation begins </li></ul><ul><li>This is usually achieved by flushing the whole system with superheated steam before the production begins. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Industrial fermenters
  6. 7. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>Interior is monitored by sterilisable probes which record temp., pressure, stirrer speed, pH, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels. </li></ul><ul><li>These are all recorded and electronic control systems with automatic valves will regulate them. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. if medium becomes too acidic, bases can be added from a reservoir to correct the pH </li></ul>
  7. 8. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>A fermenter with a 30 000 gallon capacity </li></ul>
  8. 9. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>The production of microbial products is called fermentation but it is not fermentation in the defined sense of the word. </li></ul><ul><li>Process if frequently aerobic so ferementer has to be well aerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming air is filtered and pumped into the base of the fermenter – a valve releases the pressure from the top f the tank. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Industrial fermenters
  10. 11. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>The aeration will be sufficient to mix many cultures </li></ul><ul><li>If the culture is thick or sticky additional stirring is required by a motor driven paddle called an impeller . </li></ul><ul><li>While initially the culture may need warming to start of the process – once it has started a cooling system is vital. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Industrial fermenters Control panel for an industrial fermentation operation
  12. 13. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>An antibiotic producing fermentation may use a tonne of sugar a day. </li></ul><ul><li>The organisms are likely to raise the temperature of the culture by more than 1 0 C per hour ; more heat will come from the activity of the impeller. </li></ul><ul><li>This rise in temperature could quickly kill the microbes if not cooled. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooling is achieved by either a water jacket or cooling coils inside the fermenter. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Industrial fermenters
  14. 15. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>Most fermentations are batch processes, e.g. beer and wine, penicillin </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients and the innoculum are added to the sterile fermenter and left to get on with it! </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-foaming agent may be added. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the desired amount of product is present in the fermenter the contents are drained off and the product is extracted. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Industrial fermenters Fermenters in an American winery
  16. 17. Industrial fermenters <ul><li>Some products are made by a continuous culture system. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a steady stream of nutrient input, and spent medium is drained off. </li></ul><ul><li>Not many products are made this way but manufacturers would like to be able to make most products this way……..why? </li></ul>