Revision Respiration


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Revision Respiration

  2. 2. What respiration actually is… <ul><li>&quot;Respiration is the chemical process of releasing energy from organic compounds.&quot; </li></ul>
  3. 3. It is important that you understand the correct terms for some of the processes: <ul><li>Gas exchange - The movement of oxygen into an organism and carbon dioxide out of an organism. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing - The ventilation movements that are needed in some larger animals so that efficient gas exchange can take place. It involves ribs, intercostal muscles, the diaphragm and lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiration - The process by which complex organic molecules are broken down to release energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic respiration - Requires oxygen to fully oxidise the organic molecule. This releases lots of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic respiration -The breakdown of the molecule without oxygen. This releases much less energy. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ATP <ul><li>ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the universal currency of energy. It is a small molecule with 3 phosphate groups (P) attached to an adenosine molecule i.e. Adenosine-P-P-P </li></ul><ul><li>During respiration, high energy C-C, C-H and C-OH bonds are broken. Lower energy bonds are formed and the difference is released and used to attach a P to Adenosine-P-P (ADP adenosine diphosphate), making ATP. When energy is required at a later time by a cell, it can use the ATP and break a P off the end. This releases the energy needed (30.6kJ for every ATP, ADP + P). The more ATPs used, the more energy is released. </li></ul><ul><li>For aerobic respiration to occur, the cell needs to possess mitochondria. </li></ul>
  5. 5. An outline of the stages of respiration <ul><li>Glycolysis (splitting of sugar):  What = formation of pyruvic acid from glucose.  Where = cytoplasm of a cell.    </li></ul><ul><li>Krebs cycle:   What = removal of hydrogen from pyruvic acid.  Where = matrix of the mitochondria.    </li></ul><ul><li>Electron transport chain / oxidative phosphorylation:   What = using hydrogen to produce ATP.  Where = inner mitochondrial membrane. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Electron / hydrogen carriers <ul><li>Many of the reactions in the stages of respiration involve oxidation by the removal of electrons or hydrogen atoms (H). These are transferred to electron/hydrogen carriers. Ultimately they are passed to oxygen to form water right at the very last stage of respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Two important electron/hydrogen carriers are NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oxidation / reduction <ul><li>Oxidation is the addition of oxygen, the removal of hydrogen or the loss of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction is the addition of hydrogen, the removal of oxygen or the gain of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>A quick way to remember this is &quot; OILRIG &quot;: </li></ul><ul><li>O xidation I s L oss, R eduction I s G ain. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Glycolysis
  9. 9. Glycolysis <ul><li>1. Glucose is phosphorylated twice to make a 6C sugar phosphate. 2 ATPs are used to supply the P groups. This makes the glucose more reactive and so… </li></ul><ul><li>2. The 6C sugar phosphate breaks down to form 2, 3-carbon sugar phosphates, called triose phosphates (TP). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hydrogen is removed from each of the 2 TP molecules. The hydrogens are passed to 2 NADs (the NADs are reduced). 2 ATPs are made directly from the conversion of each TP to pyruvic acid (written shorthand as PA or called pyruvate) as the phosphate groups are removed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Glycolysis <ul><li>Into glycolysis: </li></ul><ul><li>1 glucose (6C) </li></ul><ul><li>2 NAD </li></ul><ul><li>2ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Out of glycolysis </li></ul><ul><li>2 pyruvic acid (3C) </li></ul><ul><li>2 reduced NAD (2NADH + H + ) </li></ul><ul><li>4 ATP </li></ul>
  11. 11. Glycolysis <ul><li>Net Gain = 2 ATP and 2 NADH + H+ </li></ul><ul><li>This stage occurs in the cytoplasm. The next stage occurs in the mitochondria. From here, the reaction will only proceed if oxygen is available. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The link reaction
  13. 13. The link reaction <ul><li>1. The PA molecules enter the mitochondrion. </li></ul><ul><li>2. CO 2 and hydrogen are removed from each PA to create 2 2-C molecules. The hydrogen is transferred to NAD </li></ul><ul><li>3. The 2-C molecule is then combined with coenzyme A (CoA) to form the 2C compound, acetylCoA. (CoA is a vitamin derivative which acts as a transporter of the 'acetate' psrt left from the PA molecule) </li></ul>
  14. 14. The link reaction <ul><li>Into link: </li></ul><ul><li>2 PA and 2 CoA </li></ul><ul><li>2NAD </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the link: </li></ul><ul><li>2 Acetyl CoA </li></ul><ul><li>2CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2 reduced NAD (2NADH + H + ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Krebs Cycle <ul><li>This is also known as the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>For each glucose molecule, there were 2 pyruvic acid molecules formed, (and therefore 2 acetylCoA molecules formed) so the whole cycle takes place twice for every glucose molecule respired. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Krebs Cycle <ul><li>1. Each acetylCoA (2C) combines with an oxaloacetic acid (4C) to make a 6C compound (citric acid). </li></ul><ul><li>2. In a series of steps, for each 6C compound, 2 CO 2 molecules are released, 3 NAD molecules are reduced, 2 FAD molecules are reduced, 1 ATP molecule is made directly. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The 4C compound is regenerated (by the removal of the 2 Cs in 2 CO 2 molecules) so that the cycle can begin again with more molecules of acetylCoA. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Krebs Cycle <ul><li>Into Krebs: </li></ul><ul><li>2 acetylCoA </li></ul><ul><li>6 NAD </li></ul><ul><li>2 FAD </li></ul><ul><li>2 ADP + P </li></ul><ul><li>Out of Krebs: </li></ul><ul><li>2 oxaloacetate </li></ul><ul><li>4 CO2 </li></ul><ul><li>6 reduced NAD (6 NADH + H+) </li></ul><ul><li>2 reduced FAD (2 FADH + H+)2 ATP </li></ul>