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GAIT
Saurab Sharma, MPT
Lecturer,
Physiotherapy
KUSMS
Contents:
• Divisions of gait cycle
• Temporal and spatial
variables
• Determinants of gait
• Phases of gait cycle
Human Locomotion/
Gait
• Translatory progression of the body as a
whole
• Produced by coordinated, rotatory
movements of b...
Functional division of
body
10% 40% 10% 40%
Variables in Gait cycle
Temporal
variables
• Stance time
• Single-limb time
• Double-support
time
• Swing time
• Stride ti...
Step / Stride length
5-7°
8-10
cm
Determinants of Gait
• Pelvic Rotation
• Pelvic List
• Knee Flexion in Stance
• Ankle flexion and extension
mechanisms
• K...
Phases of Gait
• Stance phase
• Occurs when the
foot is in contact
with the ground
• Accounts for about
60% of the gait
cy...
Traditional
classification
Stance phase Swing phase
Heel strike/contact Acceleration
Foot flat Mid-swing
Mid stance
Decele...
Traditional
classification
Neumann, 1st
Rancho Los Amigos (RLA)
Classification
Stance phase Swing phase
Initial contact Initial swing
Loading response Mid swing
M...
Comparison of
classification
Phases RLA Traditional
Stance
Initial contact Heel strike
Loading response Foot flat
Mid stan...
Stance Phase
0-2 % 2- 10 % 10 - 30 %
Stance Phase (contd…)
30 – 50 % 50 - 60 %
Swing Phase
60 - 73 % 73 - 87 % 87 - 100 %
• Divisions of gait cycle
• Temporal and spatial variables
• Determinants of gait
• Phases of gait cycle
Summary
Initial contact
• The instant when the
foot strikes the ground
Interval: 0-2%
Heel rocker
Loading
response
• Begins with initial
floor contact
• Continues until the
other foot is lifted for
swing
Interval: 0-10%
...
Mid-stance
• Begins as the other
foot is lifted
• Continues until body
weight is aligned over
the forefoot
Interval: 10-30%
Terminal stance
• Begins with heel rise
• Continues until the
other foot strikes the
ground
Interval: 30-
50%
Forefoot roc...
Pre-swing
• Begins with initial
contact of the
opposite limb
• Ends with ipsilateral
toe-offInterval: 50-60%
Initial- swing
• Begins with lift of the
foot from the floor
• Ends when the
swinging foot is
opposite the stance
footInte...
Mid-swing
• Begins as the
swinging limb is
opposite the stance
limb
• Ends when the
swinging limb is
forward and the tibia...
Terminal-
swing
• Begins with a vertical
tibia
• Ends when the foot
strikes the floor
Interval: 87-100%
Different Rockers
Heel Rockers Forefoot
Rockers
Ankle
Rockers
Joint motions -
Phases of Gait
Hip joint:
Knee joint:
Ankle joint:
Muscle actions -
phases of gait
Initial contact
Loading response
Mid-stance
Terminal-stance
Pre-swing
Initial-swing
Mid-swing
Terminal-swing
References
• Gait analysis: normal and pathological
function. Jacquelin Perry.
• Joint structure and function. 4th edition...
Gait, Phases of Gait, Kinamatics and kinetics of gait
Gait, Phases of Gait, Kinamatics and kinetics of gait
Gait, Phases of Gait, Kinamatics and kinetics of gait
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Gait, Phases of Gait, Kinamatics and kinetics of gait

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Intended for BPT 1st year undergraduate students.
Acknowledgement: Swathi Ganesh, my classmate during MPT prepared the slide which I modified for the purpose of teaching students.

Published in: Health & Medicine

Gait, Phases of Gait, Kinamatics and kinetics of gait

  1. 1. GAIT Saurab Sharma, MPT Lecturer, Physiotherapy KUSMS
  2. 2. Contents: • Divisions of gait cycle • Temporal and spatial variables • Determinants of gait • Phases of gait cycle
  3. 3. Human Locomotion/ Gait • Translatory progression of the body as a whole • Produced by coordinated, rotatory movements of body segments
  4. 4. Functional division of body
  5. 5. 10% 40% 10% 40%
  6. 6. Variables in Gait cycle Temporal variables • Stance time • Single-limb time • Double-support time • Swing time • Stride time • Step time • Cadence- 110 steps/m Spatial variables • Stride length- 144 cm • Step length- 72 cm • Step width- 8-10 cm • Degree of “toe-out” (Foot angle)- 5-7°
  7. 7. Step / Stride length 5-7° 8-10 cm
  8. 8. Determinants of Gait • Pelvic Rotation • Pelvic List • Knee Flexion in Stance • Ankle flexion and extension mechanisms • Knee, ankle and foot rotation • Lateral displacement of the pelvis
  9. 9. Phases of Gait • Stance phase • Occurs when the foot is in contact with the ground • Accounts for about 60% of the gait cycle • Swing phase • Occurs when the foot is not in contact with the ground • Accounts for about 40% of the gait cycle
  10. 10. Traditional classification Stance phase Swing phase Heel strike/contact Acceleration Foot flat Mid-swing Mid stance DecelerationHeel off Toe off
  11. 11. Traditional classification Neumann, 1st
  12. 12. Rancho Los Amigos (RLA) Classification Stance phase Swing phase Initial contact Initial swing Loading response Mid swing Mid stance Terminal swingTerminal stance Pre swing
  13. 13. Comparison of classification Phases RLA Traditional Stance Initial contact Heel strike Loading response Foot flat Mid stance Mid stance Terminal stance Heel off Pre swing Toe off Swing Initial swing Acceleration Mid swing Mid-swing Terminal swing Deceleration
  14. 14. Stance Phase 0-2 % 2- 10 % 10 - 30 %
  15. 15. Stance Phase (contd…) 30 – 50 % 50 - 60 %
  16. 16. Swing Phase 60 - 73 % 73 - 87 % 87 - 100 %
  17. 17. • Divisions of gait cycle • Temporal and spatial variables • Determinants of gait • Phases of gait cycle Summary
  18. 18. Initial contact • The instant when the foot strikes the ground Interval: 0-2% Heel rocker
  19. 19. Loading response • Begins with initial floor contact • Continues until the other foot is lifted for swing Interval: 0-10% Ankle rocker
  20. 20. Mid-stance • Begins as the other foot is lifted • Continues until body weight is aligned over the forefoot Interval: 10-30%
  21. 21. Terminal stance • Begins with heel rise • Continues until the other foot strikes the ground Interval: 30- 50% Forefoot rocker
  22. 22. Pre-swing • Begins with initial contact of the opposite limb • Ends with ipsilateral toe-offInterval: 50-60%
  23. 23. Initial- swing • Begins with lift of the foot from the floor • Ends when the swinging foot is opposite the stance footInterval: 60-73%
  24. 24. Mid-swing • Begins as the swinging limb is opposite the stance limb • Ends when the swinging limb is forward and the tibia is vertical Interval: 73-87%
  25. 25. Terminal- swing • Begins with a vertical tibia • Ends when the foot strikes the floor Interval: 87-100%
  26. 26. Different Rockers Heel Rockers Forefoot Rockers Ankle Rockers
  27. 27. Joint motions - Phases of Gait
  28. 28. Hip joint:
  29. 29. Knee joint:
  30. 30. Ankle joint:
  31. 31. Muscle actions - phases of gait
  32. 32. Initial contact
  33. 33. Loading response
  34. 34. Mid-stance
  35. 35. Terminal-stance
  36. 36. Pre-swing
  37. 37. Initial-swing
  38. 38. Mid-swing
  39. 39. Terminal-swing
  40. 40. References • Gait analysis: normal and pathological function. Jacquelin Perry. • Joint structure and function. 4th edition. Cynthia Norkin.

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