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E-government reference model

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E-government reference model (see PPT notes for URLs with explanation of some views)

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E-government reference model

  1. 1. E-government reference model Alexander SAMARIN Global e-Government Forum 2014 7-8 October, 2014, Astana, Kazakhstan http://www.unpan.org/GeGF/2014
  2. 2. About me • A digital enterprise architect – from a programmer to a systems architect – creator of systems that work without me – broad experience: company, canton, country, continent • I believe that many improvements in operational excellence and strategy execution are achievable relatively easy • HOW I do what I do – architecting synergy between strategies, technologies, tools and good practices for the client’s unique situation, and knowledge transfer • WHAT is the result of my work for clients – less routine work, less stress, higher performance, higher security, less risk, higher predictability of results, better operations, less duplication and liberation of business potentials © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 2
  3. 3. Agenda • Context • E-government reference model • Views © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 3
  4. 4. Introduction • E-government is the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of public sector organisations • E-governance is the use of ICTs to improve the manner in which power is exercised in the management of the affairs of a nation, and its relations with other nations • E-government is a sociotechnical system of systems • Relationships between socio and technical elements should lead to the emergence of productivity and wellbeing • A system is a set of interacting or interdependent components forming an integrated whole © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 4
  5. 5. Complexity of e-government • Unlimited life-cycle (unpredictable and incremental evolution) • Socio-technical system • Collaborative system • Industrialised system • Ability for rapid innovation is important • Variety of services (several hundred governmental services are listed in the Swiss e-government catalogue) • High level of security for personal data © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 5
  6. 6. Digital age (1) • Digital eats physical: Everything becomes digital: products, information, content, documents, records, processes, money, rights, communications. • Fast eats slow: As digital is intangible thus news tools and new execution speed immediately. • Group eats single: It is mandatory to collaborate to address modern complex problems. • Big eats small: Digital things are at new scale. • With this new speed and scale, there is no time for human intervention and errors in routine operations and at interfaces © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 6
  7. 7. Digital age (2) • Transparency is increasing with bad and good consequences • In addition to being – cheaper, faster, better • it is mandatory to become – cleaner – greener – more agile – more synergetic (i.e. IoT) – more comprehensive © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 7
  8. 8. Digital age (3) • In systems architecting the focus is changing – FROM the thing (strategy, policy, service, rule, application, process, etc.) – TO how the thing changes – SUBJECT how things change together • To avoid “house of cards” effect • To enable innovations – “in the digital age innovation depends on process automation” © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 8
  9. 9. Agenda • Context • E-government reference model • Views © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 9
  10. 10. WHY e-Gov reference model (1) • Many governmental entities deliver the same services, albeit in a different manner • Many potential similarities Technical architecture Data architecture Application architecture Business architecture Communal 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % Provincial 100 % 100 % 100 % 80 % Ministerial 90 % 100 % 60-80 % 70 % National 90 % 100 % 70 % 50 % • Realisation of the e-government need a systemic approach © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 10
  11. 11. WHY e-Gov reference model (2) • There is a way to combine diversity and uniformity • The problem of combining them is also known in the business as “shared services” • Example - Business units (BUs) have different levels of computerisation – a standard solution from the IT department is not always good for everyone BU1 BU2 BU3 Standard solution Level of computerisation IT department © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 11
  12. 12. WHY e-Gov reference model (3) Level of computerisation © A. Samarin 2014 B C A B A B C BU1 BU2 BU3 1) Standard solution is based on processes and shared services 2) Each BU is moving to a similar architecture IT department E-government reference model v3 12
  13. 13. WHY e-Gov reference model (4) • Considers together all implementations and architects the ability to reproduce results – ready-to-use solutions, tools, patterns and architectures – offers the best possible services for each citizen – becomes the centre of societal transformation – seamlessly incorporates innovations – implementable at your pace – secure by design © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 13
  14. 14. HOW does e-Gov reference model work • Apply the power of Enterprise Architecture (EA) – commonly-agreed model – platform-based implementation – enterprise-as-a-system-of-processes – modernisation of legacy applications • Bring EA group into an e-Gov programme • EA group as a seed for an e-Gov competence centre © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 14
  15. 15. EA explained (1) • Architect is a person who translates a customer’s requirements into a viable plan and guides others in its execution • Enterprise Architecture (EA) is the process of translating business vision and strategy into effective enterprise change by creating, communicating, and improving the key requirements, principles, and models that describe the enterprise's future state and enable its evolution and transformation. © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 15
  16. 16. EA explained (2) • EA is the right “tool” to address the challenge of diversity & uniformity because EA is a systemic coordinator of people, processes, products and projects in 4 dimensions: – Business zones span – organisational unit, segment, enterprise, supply chain, municipality, governorate, ministry, country, region, continent, etc. – Architectural domains span – business, data, application, security, information, technology, etc. – Time span – solution life-cycle, technology life-cycle, tool life-cycle, project life-cycle, enterprise life-cycle, etc. – Sector span – detecting and re-using common patterns (good business practices) in unique processes from different sectors © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 16
  17. 17. EA views: projects, solutions, © A. Samarin 2014 capabilities and platforms E-government reference model v3 17
  18. 18. © A. Samarin 2014 EA views: time-span E-government reference model v3 18
  19. 19. EA views: business zones vs time span © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 19
  20. 20. EA views: architectural domains vs business zones © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 20
  21. 21. EA group in an e-Gov program organigram Steering Committee PMO EA group Budget Administrative coordination Technical coordination Financial control Degree of involvement Time External team Local team Initiation phase Projects-based phase Maintenance phase © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 21
  22. 22. EA group structure by main roles • Chief Architect • Governance group – review board – quality assurance – budget – librarian • Solution group – solution architects – business analysts • PMO group – project leaders • Domain group – business architects – application architects – information architects – security architects – infrastructure architects • Vertical group – healthcare – smart-cities – tourism – … © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 22
  23. 23. EA group as a seed for an e-Gov competence centre • Potential structure of the e-Gov competence centre – EA group – Communication group – Application Development group – Operations group – Knowledge Management group – Education services – Training services © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 23
  24. 24. EA - Many stakeholder (participants) • Citizens • Local businesses • Global businesses • Government authorities • Local government stakeholders • National regulatory agencies • Political parties • Local NGOs • External NGOs • Funding bodies • Public service providers • IT vendors • Architects • Project managers © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 24
  25. 25. Matrix between stakeholders and views An example © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 25
  26. 26. WHAT RM - many views (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 26
  27. 27. WHAT RM - many views (2) • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 27
  28. 28. Agenda • Context • E-government reference model • Views © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 28
  29. 29. VIEWS (1) • Partner and governmental-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 29
  30. 30. Four communication patterns for exchanges between a partner and the government Partners (citizen, business, and other organisations) Government 2. Patrner-declaration 1. Government-announce 4. Partner-demand Spread in time 3. Government-demand Spread in time 1. Government-announcement, e.g. broadcasting changes in a law 2. Partner-declaration, e.g. communicating a change of the partner’s address 3. Government-demand, e.g. inviting to pay taxes 4. Partner-demand, e.g. requesting a certificate (fishing license) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 30
  31. 31. A partner-initiated-demand may required several exchanges between the partner and the government Government Time © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 31
  32. 32. The partner may need to deal with some ministries Government Ministry A Ministry B Ministry C Methodologies: + data modelling + electronic document exchange Time Tools: + standard data schemas + electronic signature • data flow (black dashed lines) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 32
  33. 33. E-gov coordinates partner’s interactions Methodologies: • data modelling • electronic document Process with the government + + + + Government • control flow (black solid lines) • data flow (black dashed lines) Ministry A Ministry B Ministry C Time (ED) exchange + BPM discipline + process modelling Technologies: • standard data schemas • electronic signature + BPM suite © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 33
  34. 34. E-gov unifies the communication between the partner and the ministries Methodologies: • data modelling • electronic document (ED) exchange + BPM discipline + process modelling … … Process -- Government 2b Ministry B Time 2a x 2c • control flow (black solid lines) • data flow (black dashed lines) Technologies: • standard data schemas • electronic signature + BPM suite © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 34
  35. 35. E-gov provides a social collaborative Methodologies: • data modelling • ED exchange • BPM discipline • process modelling + ED management + records management + collaboration + social Process extranet for partners + + + + Government Ministry A Ministry B Ministry C Time Technologies: • standard data schemas • electronic signature • BPM suite + ECM Social collaborative extranet • control flow (black solid lines) • data flow (black dashed lines) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 35
  36. 36. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 36
  37. 37. Partner’s view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 37
  38. 38. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 38
  39. 39. E-gov application architecture view Partners Social collaborative extranet e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Existing application e-Government Existing application Existing application Government Technologies: • BPM suite • SOA orientation • ECM © A. Samarin 2014 39 E-government reference model v3
  40. 40. E-gov traditional application architecture Partners Application Existing application Portal Application Existing application Application Existing application Government © A. Samarin 2014 40 E-government reference model v3
  41. 41. E-gov introductory application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Existing application e-Government Existing application Existing application Government © A. Samarin 2014 41 E-government reference model v3
  42. 42. E-gov transitional application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Existing application e-Government Existing application Coordination backbone Service Service Government © A. Samarin 2014 42 E-government reference model v3 Existing application
  43. 43. E-gov target application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet e-Government e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Service Service Service © A. Samarin 2014 43 E-government reference model v3
  44. 44. E-social system application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet E-social system Public service Social service Coordination and integration backbone Private service Professional service Voluntary service © A. Samarin 2014 44 E-government reference model v3
  45. 45. Steps of evolution in application architecture Introductory architecture Target architecture E-Social system architecture Portal-centric architecture Transitional architecture © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 45
  46. 46. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 46
  47. 47. Integration process instead of N-to-N connectivity © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 47
  48. 48. Use of many security envelopes • Business (processing) envelope • Delivery (addressing) envelope • Transportation (routing) envelope © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 48
  49. 49. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 49
  50. 50. Platform-based architecture (1) • Business concern: How to deliver many similar applications for various highly-diverse clients; define everything up-front is not possible (typical BPM or ECM project) • Logic – Developing individual applications will bring a lot of duplications – The provisioning of solutions should be carried out incrementally with the pace of the target client – Consider a platform 1. must standardise and simplify core elements of future enterprise-wide system 2. for any elements outside the platform, new opportunities should be explored using agile principles © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 50
  51. 51. Platform-based architecture (2) • Principles – The platform frees up resource to focus on new opportunities – Successful agile innovations are rapidly scaled up when incorporated into the platform – An agile approach requires coordination at a system level – To minimise duplication of effort in solving the same problems, there needs to be system-wide transparency of agile initiatives – Existing elements of the platform also need periodic challenge Delivery by applications Delivery by solutions A2 A1 A3 S2 S … 1 Platform S3 Functionality Scope © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 51
  52. 52. Overall platform governance • There are two primary types of activity. – On-going and centralised platform evolution – Rapid implementation of solutions as mini-projects • Platform evolution is carried out by an inter-organisational- units coordination committee • The roles within mini-projects – A stakeholder – The team lead for administrative coordination – The product owner for functional coordination – The solution architect for technical coordination – The team member © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 52
  53. 53. Advantages of the corporate ECM platform D E V E L O P M E N T Functionality Process-centric integration Company-specific features Advanced features of a common ECM platform Basic features of a common ECM platform Generic web- environment 3 development platforms Dev env 1 Dev env 2 Development © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 53
  54. 54. Financial estimations • Current development cost & time for a collaborative application – Cost: 40 – 200 K $ – Time: 0,5 – 2 years • Corporate platform program cost & time – Cost: 600 K $ – Time: 1 year $$ • Expected development cost & time for a collaborative application within the corporate platform – Cost: 20 - 60 K $ – Time: 1 - 3 months N apps. N≈8 Without common platform With common platform © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 54
  55. 55. Solutions vs components © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 55
  56. 56. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 56
  57. 57. Ladder of maturity meta-pattern • Entities are permitted to advance at different paces in their ascent to the top of the “ladder”. © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 57
  58. 58. Component-oriented design • The platform is designed to be tools-independent by standardizing data, information, interfaces and coordination between various capabilities. © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 58
  59. 59. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 59
  60. 60. Architecture-based agile project management • It combines decomposition with agile implementation of “architected” components © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 60
  61. 61. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 61
  62. 62. Structural dependencies between various artefacts © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 62
  63. 63. Dynamic relationships between various Business initiatives (business-specific demand) Manage business by processes Business capabilities (business-generic demand) Manage processes BPM suite IT capabilities (IT-generic supply) Roadmap programmes (from AS-IS to TO-BE) Business demand IT supply Business strategic objectives Governance 1 2 3 2 2->5 2->4 1->3 1->4 2->5 2->4 1->3 2->4 3->4 5 4 3 4 Business priority Requested maturity Maturity improvement 1 2 3 4 4 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 4 5 3 IT tools (IT-specific supply) 3->5 3->4 1->4 3->4 2->4 3 Programme priority 5 4 3 4 4 artefacts © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 63
  64. 64. Implications and example • Implications – A formal way to discover points of the most leverage – The decision-making process is explicit and transparent – A strategy adjustment and validation becomes a routine on-going activity during its implementation (like functioning of the GPS navigator) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 64
  65. 65. VIEWS (1) • Partner – governmental entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 65
  66. 66. Architecture-based procurement • Separation of duties • Architecture group: selection of IT • Procurement group: acquisition of such IT components (licensees, installation, training, documentation, operations, etc.) • Of course, the architecture group must make the selection logic as explicit as possible. © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 66
  67. 67. VIEWS (2) • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 67
  68. 68. Enterprise as a system of processes • In the context of enterprise functioning, business activities must be coordinated • Coordination maybe strong (e.g. as in the army) or weak (e.g. as in an amateurs football team) • Coordination maybe implicit or explicit • Coordination maybe declarative (laws) and imperative (orders) • Based on coordination, let us think about “levels of cohesion” 1. process patterns (coordination within processes) 2. processes 3. cluster of processes (coordination between processes) 4. system of processes (coordination between clusters of processes) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 68
  69. 69. Process fragments – patterns Click for animation • Business case: typical “claim processing” process – claim, repair, control, invoicing, and assurance to pay SI PAR SI IPS © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 69
  70. 70. SI animated diagram Click for animation © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 70
  71. 71. Coordination between processes (1) • Simple event-based (which looks like a state machine) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 71
  72. 72. Coordination between processes (2) 1. state-machine 2. synchronous invocation 3. asynchronous invocation 4. fire and forget 5. parallel processes 6. co-processes (pattern SI) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 72
  73. 73. CLuster Of Processes (CLOP) • CLOPs are usually formed with functional processes which are implemented a particular business function, e.g. Field Services • And a “halo” of extra processes 1. monitoring 2. operating 3. governance © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 73
  74. 74. Enabler group, supporting group and customer group of clusters © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 74
  75. 75. Implicit coordination between CLOPs (1) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 75
  76. 76. Implicit coordination between CLOPs (2) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 76
  77. 77. Implicit coordination between CLOPs (3) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 77
  78. 78. Make coordination between CLOPs explicit (1) • Business Object (BO) lify-cycle as a process © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 78
  79. 79. Make coordination between CLOPs explicit (2) • Add enterprise-wide event dispatcher © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 79
  80. 80. Make coordination between CLOPs explicit (3) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 80
  81. 81. Functional view at a system of processes (1) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 81
  82. 82. Functional view at a system of processes (2) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 82
  83. 83. Functional view at a system of processes (3) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 83
  84. 84. VIEWS (2) • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 84
  85. 85. Dynamic provision of the access © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 85
  86. 86. Extra relationships between activities © A. Samarin 2014 Mandatory: different actors because of the separation of duties Potentially: different actors because of performance impact – avoid assigning mechanical (low-qualified “red”) activities and added-value (“green”) activities to the same actors E-government reference model v3 86
  87. 87. Extra relationships between activities • There are security-related relationships between activities • Example – “Activitiy_B” relates to Activity_A as “Validating the work” – These activities may be in different processes – No actors must be assigned to both “Role_1” and “Role_2” © A. Samarin 2014 (3) Activity_A Carry out the work Activity_B Carry out the work Validating the work Role_1 Role_2 E-government reference model v3 87
  88. 88. BPM and information security: Extra relationships between activities • Doing the work – To which ROLES the work can be delegated – To which ROLES the work can be send for review • Assuring the work – other ACTIVITIES to audit (1st, 2nd and 3rd party auditing) – other ACTIVITIES to evaluate the risk (before the work is started) – other ACTIVITIES to evaluate the risk (after the work is completed) • Validating the work – Other ACTIVITIES to check the output (errors and fraud prevention) • Some ACTIVITIES must be carried out by the same actor, some ACTIVITIES must not © A. Samarin 2014 (4) E-government reference model v3 88
  89. 89. VIEWS (2) • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 89
  90. 90. Embed risk management into functional • Normal activities are enriched by “check-points” © A. Samarin 2014 processes E-government reference model v3 90
  91. 91. © A. Samarin 2014 ERM reference model E-government reference model v3 91
  92. 92. VIEWS (2) • Common functional capabilities • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 92
  93. 93. Typical problems with legacy software • Symptoms of becoming legacy – ad-hoc integration – difficult incorporation of new technologies – old programming techniques – expensive maintenance – heavy releases and upgrades – availability of industrial products for previously unique functionality (e.g. event management) – some functionality is a commodity right now (e.g. BPM and BRM) – just slow to evolve • What is the root cause? – Emergent/historical grow and not architected evolution © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 93
  94. 94. The goal of modernisation • Implement end-to-end processes with the maximum reuse of existing IT applications and infrastructure • Agile (with the pace of business) provisioning of business solutions • From disparate IT applications to a coherent business execution platform which will “liberate” people for business innovations • Business evolution to drive technical transformation • BUT Application as a unit of deployment is too big © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 94
  95. 95. How to carry out the modernisation • Step-by-step technical transformation by: 1. Disassemble into services 2. Add, if necessary, more services 3. Assemble via processes • Combine various tactics: assemble, rent, buy, build, outsource, standardised, re-engineered • Incremental improvements and refactoring within a well-defined big picture • Intermix business evolution and technical transformation • Keep the users happy and feel secure © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 95
  96. 96. Monolithic applications are decomposed into interconnected services Monolith application GUI GUI screen 1 1 GUI GUI screen 2 2 GUI GUI screen 3 3 Business Business logic logic BO1 BO1 persistence persistence BO2 BO2 persistence persistence Business logic service Interactive service 1 Interactive service 2 Interactive service 3 Coordination BO1 persistence service BO2 persistence service Assembled solution © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 96
  97. 97. How to coordinate? • Only the flow of data is traceable • Flow of control is explicit, because the primary importance is the result of working together, but not individual exchanges (think about football) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 97
  98. 98. Several coordination techniques may be used together • By processes • By events (EPN) • By rules, work-load, etc. © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 98
  99. 99. Transformation from typical inter-application data flows to end-to-end coordination of services © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 99
  100. 100. Using events • To externalise the flow of control from existing monolith applications © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 100
  101. 101. Co-existence of a legacy application and a process solution • The danger of “DOUble Master” (DOUM) anti-pattern – particular data (actually a business object) are modified via application or process but not either • Few techniques – lock-down the data manipulation interface in the application (a screen) and provide a similar functionality in the process – dynamic provisioning of the access to a screen for a staff member who is carrying out a related activity (see next slide) – decomposition of a screen into separate functions, e.g. Create (out-of-process), Update (within-process) and Delete (separate-process) – combination of previous ones © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 101
  102. 102. Process-centric solutions Assemble via processes (1) • Business processes make bigger services from smaller services • The relationship between services and processes is “recursive” – All processes are services – Some operations of a service can be implemented as a process – A process includes services in its implementation © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 102
  103. 103. Process-centric solutions Assemble via processes (2) • Who (roles) is doing What (business objects), When (coordination of activities), Why (business rules), How (business activities) and with Which Results (performance indicators) • Make these relationships explicit and executable What you model is what you execute “The map is the app” © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 103
  104. 104. Process-centric solutions Multi-layer implementation model (1) © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 104
  105. 105. Process-centric solutions Multi-layer implementation model (2) B C A A - SharePoint B – in-house development C – SAP ECC6 © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 105
  106. 106. Process-centric solutions Multi-layer implementation model (3) SAP BW/BI, etc. NetWeaver PI, SolMan, etc. NetWeaver BPM, etc. NetWeaver BRM, Java, ECC6, etc. XSD, Java, .Net SQL Server, Oracle, etc. © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 106
  107. 107. Multi-layer implementation model and other technologies © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 107
  108. 108. • Healthcare ANNEX © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 108
  109. 109. N E E D S R E S U L T S Healthcare reference model (1) Enrich Knowledge Improve Operations acquisition channels for external data/ information/ knowledge dissemination channels of internal data/ information/ knowledge Methods, practices, laws, international regulations, etc. Knowledge for Healthcare … … … Processes & Services Diagnostic Preliminary analysis Treatment Recovery Coordination PaPratnrtenrer PaPrtanretnrer Partners © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 109
  110. 110. Healthcare reference model (2) ECM RBAC BPM Knowledge Mgmt. Procedures Healthcare Platform acquisition channels dissemination channels Specialised Apps. Specialised Apps. Specialised Apps. Web access Mobile access Patient CRM Web access Mobile access Doctor CRM Access EDI Enrichment Storage ECM Coordination BI BPMs PaPratnrtenrer PaPrtanretnrer Partners © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 110
  111. 111. Healthcare reference model (3) Modern Healthcare System (MHS) Hospitals Clinics MHS Virtual Doctor’s Offices MHS MHS MHS Patients Insurance Social MHS WEB & Cloud MHS Labs © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 111
  112. 112. ANNEX Smart-city implementation reference model • All smart-cites deliver the same services, albeit in a different manner • Realisation of smart-city potentials would benefit from a holistic approach • BSI standard PAS 181:2014 © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 112
  113. 113. Conclusion • Let us use the power of modern technologies to enable and drive societal transformation © A. Samarin 2014 E-government reference model v3 113
  114. 114. • QUESTIONS? Thanks • EKSALANSI website: http://www.eksalansi.org • Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com • LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/alexandersamarin • E-mail: alex@eksalansi.org • Twitter: @samarin • Mobile: +41 76 573 40 61 • Book: www.samarin.biz/book E-government reference model v3 114 © A. Samarin 2014

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