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#bizarch from
the #entarch point of view
For IASA eSummit
“Business Architecture”
Alexander SAMARIN
• An enterprise architect
– from a programmer to a systems architect
– have created production systems which work without ...
• Systems architecting
• Architecture viewpoints and model kinds
• Some simple relationships between model kinds
• Scenari...
• System
– set of interacting discrete parts organized as a whole which
exhibits (as the result of interaction between the...
• Architecting socio-technical systems (i.e. any enterprise)
is more complex than architecting technical systems
– relatio...
• #entarch a system-thinking applied management
discipline for coordinating people, processes, projects and
products in ma...
• In systems architecting the focus is changing
– FROM the thing
– TO how the thing changes
– SUBJECT how things change to...
• Customers
• Shareholders
• Corporate board
• Top management
• Line management
• Super users
• Normal users
• Project man...
• Systems architecting
• Architecture viewpoints and model kinds
• Some simple relationships between model kinds
• Scenari...
• Architecture view
– work product expressing the architecture of a system-in-focus
from the perspective of specific syste...
• Concepts system or terminology or “common taxonomy”
– explains for a particular subject field all the essential concepts...
• Business outline
– describes means and methods those a system (e.g. an enterprise)
employs to earn the revenue projected...
• Example - BMC internal relationships from
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/strategy-business-model-
mihai-ionescu
2016-04-...
• Capability-as-a-discrete-unit-of-mission decomposition
– describes a system (e.g. an enterprise) as an approximate
hiera...
• Functional anchor
– describes a system (e.g. an enterprise) as a structure of unique
functions
– Note: Function is an in...
• Operating outline
– explains how a system (e.g. an enterprise) functioning to deliver
on its service or product promises...
• Process map
– describes a system (e.g. an enterprise) as a set of processes
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point ...
• Capability-as-performance
– describes measure of ability of a system’s part (function, process,
etc.) to do achieve a pa...
• Organisational chart
• Service map
• Data / Information nomenclature
• Events (triggers) nomenclature
• …
2016-04-20 #bi...
• Systems architecting
• Architecture viewpoints and model kinds
• Some simple relationships between model kinds
• Scenari...
• Pattern “Strategy To Executable Portfolio (STEP)”
• Pattern “Stakeholder Analysis”
• Pattern “Structure IT Organisation ...
• Business concern
– dealing with the project portfolio during evolution of the strategy:
intended, emerging and realised
...
Business
initiatives
(business-specific
demand)
Business
capabilities
(business-
generic
demand)
IT
capabilities
(IT-gener...
• Implications
– A formal way to discover points of the most leverage
– The decision-making process is explicit and transp...
• Establish explicit relationships between
– Stakeholders of a system
– Their concerns
– Architecture viewpoints to addres...
Matrix – stakeholders vs architecture
viewpoints
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 26
• Business concern: How to structure a business unit
• Logic
– Collect functions
– Draw a matrix of mutual relationships b...
• Prohibition rules:
– P1 Separate doing and supervising/controlling – SoD
– P2 Separate architecture/design and implement...
• Matrix
• Clusters
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 29
Example of matrix
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 30
Process Set Solidity Test (PSST)
• To check that your set of proces...
• Systems architecting
• Architecture viewpoints and model kinds
• Some simple relationships between model kinds
• Scenari...
1. Creating from scratch
2. Changing operating outline
3. Changing business outline
4. Building systems via incorporation
...
• Synonyms
– greenfield
– top-down
– design of business
• Examples
– start-up (medium-term and long-term)
– sports event (...
1. Business motivation viewpoint (A system-in-focus is
mainly considered as a black-box via “external”
viewpoints)
– Stake...
2. Business outline (a system-in-focus is considered as a
grey-box via “high-level structural details” viewpoints)
2016-04...
3. Operating outline (a system-in-focus is mainly considered as
a white-box via “high-level behavioural details” viewpoint...
4. Governance outline
5. Implementation plan
– macro-planning architecture viewpoint
– project portfolio architecture view...
• Slide 6 from http://www.slideshare.net/TheDesignOfBusiness/introducing-the-open-group-it4it-
standard
• https://www.sale...
• Creating a new enterprise
• Contracting key partners (venues, clubs, national
associations)
• Services to be delivered (...
• Changing operating outline
– Synonyms
• modernizing, optimizing, refactoring, restructuring,
rationalisation, standardis...
• Synonyms
– bottom-up
– integration
– “old-farm renovation”
• Examples
– silos removal
– M & A
– system of systems, i.e. ...
• Question: What should be done to say “all the interacting
discrete parts of the system-in-focus work as a whole”?
• Answ...
• Energy stream or “domains” (energy generation, energy
transmission, energy delivery, energy consumption)
• Operating spa...
• Interoperability layers business, functions, information,
communication, components
• Operating span or “Hierarchy Level...
• Proximity (aura/body, home, personal vehicle, public
building, global)
• Enablers (monitoring, audio-visual interaction,...
• Align terminology or, even better, make an ontology
– concept system architecture viewpoint
• Understand concerns of all...
• Consider implementation of functions as services
– service map architecture viewpoint
• Consider implementation of servi...
• Analyse future system-in-focus functions
– functional anchor architecture viewpoint
– use-cases architecture viewpoint
•...
• Find various gaps
– integration points
– coordination points
– touch points
– missing parts
• Road mapping to close the ...
• But, there are a few real-life difficulties: you have
– to do many puzzles at the same time
– to use pieces from other p...
• The users told us that their processes are unique thus
they need different applications
• We modelled their processes wi...
• Orchestration-centric
– temporal-based
– flow-chat-based
– pattern-based
• State-centric
– life-cycle-based
• Decision-c...
• Various
– resource-based
– goal-based
– event-based
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 53
About coordin...
Coordination
technique
Level of
coordination
Type of
coordination
Nature of
coordination
Horizon of
coordination
Intensity...
• Systems architecting
• Architecture viewpoints and model kinds
• Some simple relationships between model kinds
• Scenari...
Several paths of transformation
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 56
• Because it is not possible to def...
To know about each path
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 57
• Initiators
• Pre-requisites
• Benefits
• ...
Generic approach
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 58
• Following the enterprise pattern STEP
• Establis...
Business-innovation centric path
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view
E2E or macro
process (P1)
Innovation
...
ERP-decomposition centric path
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view
ERP functionality
(F1)
Capability
(C2)
...
OTS-product-centric path
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view
OTS product
Capabilities
(C1)
Capabilities
(C...
Project-opportunity centric examples
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 62
Project (J1)
Capability
(C2)
r...
Operational-improvement centric
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 63
Capabilities
(C1)
Capabilities
(C2)...
What is a capability?
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 64
• Capability is a measure of the ability of a...
Important for any transformation
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view
• Consider all paths together
• Capab...
• Systems architecting
• Architecture viewpoints and model kinds
• Some simple relationships between model kinds
• Scenari...
Conclusion
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 67
• Formalise your artefacts – syntax and semantic
• Defin...
Q & A
2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 68
• Personal website: http://www.samarin.biz
• Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com
• LinkedIn: http://www.linkedi...
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#bizarch from the #entarch point of view

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In the modern world of digital transformation and innovation, the speed of change is permanently increasing. Therefore the focus of enterprise architecture needs to shift from the description of individual independent artefacts to the management of their life cycles, and beyond to the management of the evolution of all artefacts as a whole.
This presentation will discuss how several modern techniques, such as architecture viewpoints, patterns, and machine-executable models, can be combined to improve a business architecture’s ability to manage business artefacts and thus to improve an enterprise's ability to adapt to new business models and business challenges.

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#bizarch from the #entarch point of view

  1. 1. #bizarch from the #entarch point of view For IASA eSummit “Business Architecture” Alexander SAMARIN
  2. 2. • An enterprise architect – from a programmer to a systems architect – have created production systems which work without me • My professional “roles” – “cleaning lady” (at an ICT department) – “peacemaker” (between ICT and the business) – “coordinator” (without formal authority, of course) – “swiss knife” (for solving any potential problem) – “patterns detective” (seeing commons in unique cases) – “assembler” (making unique things from commodities) – “barriers breaker” (always there is a bigger system) 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 2 About me
  3. 3. • Systems architecting • Architecture viewpoints and model kinds • Some simple relationships between model kinds • Scenarios for using architecture viewpoints together • Several paths of transformation • Conclusion 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 3 Agenda
  4. 4. • System – set of interacting discrete parts organized as a whole which exhibits (as the result of interaction between the parts) some emergent characteristics indispensable to achieve one or more stated purposes • Architecting is about making essential decisions to enable desired characteristics • It is about an understanding of the relationship between structure and behaviour, between design and outcomes • Architect is a person who 1. translates a customer’s requirements into a viable plan and 2. guides others in its execution 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 4 Systems architecting
  5. 5. • Architecting socio-technical systems (i.e. any enterprise) is more complex than architecting technical systems – relationship between cause and effect can only be perceived in retrospect – self-evolving – always have non-linear behaviour – For want of a nail the shoe was lost. – For want of a shoe the horse was lost. – For want of a horse the rider was lost. – For want of a rider the message was lost. – For want of a message the battle was lost. – For want of a battle the kingdom was lost. – And all for the want of a horseshoe nail. • Everything must be considered together and synergetically 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 5 Socio-technical systems architecting
  6. 6. • #entarch a system-thinking applied management discipline for coordinating people, processes, projects and products in many dimensions: 1. scope span (device, activity, …, country, market) 2. value-stream span (domain-dependent) 3. interoperability layer (business, information, apps, etc.) 4. time span (project life-cycle, solution life-cycle, etc.) 5. sector span (various industries) 6. problem space (situation-specific) 7. solution space (context, conception, …, operations - ZF rows) 8. social space (gender equality, consensus building, conflict resolutions) 9. cultural space (multi-lingual communication, national mentality, regional mentality, corporate mentality) 10. media span (physical vs analogue vs digital vs bionic) 11. authority span (top management, …, workers) 12. person span (aura/body, house, personal cars, etc.) 13. financial span 14. CX span (touch point, journey, storytelling, lifecycle) 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 6 Yet another definition of #entarch
  7. 7. • In systems architecting the focus is changing – FROM the thing – TO how the thing changes – SUBJECT how things change together • With new speed and scale, there is no time for human intervention and errors in routine operations and at interfaces • To enable innovations – “in the digital age innovation depends on process automation” 7 Effect of digital 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view
  8. 8. • Customers • Shareholders • Corporate board • Top management • Line management • Super users • Normal users • Project managers • IT architects • Developers • Operators • …and all of them must be comfortable with the system A lot of stakeholders 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 8
  9. 9. • Systems architecting • Architecture viewpoints and model kinds • Some simple relationships between model kinds • Scenarios for using architecture viewpoints together • Several paths of transformation • Conclusion 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 9 Agenda
  10. 10. • Architecture view – work product expressing the architecture of a system-in-focus from the perspective of specific system concerns • Architecture viewpoint – work product establishing the conventions for the construction, interpretation and use of architecture views to frame specific concerns – Note: Architecture viewpoints are not system specific, unlike the stakeholders, concerns and architecture view • Model kind – convention for a type of modelling – Note: Models kinds usually establish relationships between various types of artefacts – Note: Model kinds are not system specific 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 10 Nomenclature of architecture viewpoints and model kinds (ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010)
  11. 11. • Concepts system or terminology or “common taxonomy” – explains for a particular subject field all the essential concepts and relationships between them • Spatial-like classification – defines a spatial classification of essential parts in a particular subject field • Business motivation – explains the reason for which a system (e.g. an enterprise) exists and ambitions of its stakeholders – example – BMM from OMG 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 11 Architecture viewpoints (1)
  12. 12. • Business outline – describes means and methods those a system (e.g. an enterprise) employs to earn the revenue projected in its business motivation – Note 1: This architecture viewpoint answers the question, "How is the enterprise going to make money to survive and grow?" • Note 2: This architecture viewpoint may be actually a combination of several model kinds. 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 12 Architecture viewpoints (2)
  13. 13. • Example - BMC internal relationships from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/strategy-business-model- mihai-ionescu 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 13 Architecture viewpoints (3)
  14. 14. • Capability-as-a-discrete-unit-of-mission decomposition – describes a system (e.g. an enterprise) as an approximate hierarchy of all the discrete-units-of-mission those a system must be doing to achieve its mission – Note: Not all units-of-mission are implemented within an enterprise – some units-of-mission may be outsourced and some units-of-mission can be obtained from partners – Note: If outsourcing, partnership and sharing are ignored, all enterprises in the same industry sector have the same capability- as-a-discrete-unit-of-mission decomposition (industry ref. model) – Note: Variant “discrete-unit-of-purpose” 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 14 Architecture viewpoints (5)
  15. 15. • Functional anchor – describes a system (e.g. an enterprise) as a structure of unique functions – Note: Function is an in-house implementation of a capability-as-a- discrete-unit-of-mission 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 15 Architecture viewpoints (5)
  16. 16. • Operating outline – explains how a system (e.g. an enterprise) functioning to deliver on its service or product promises in accordance with its business outline – Note 1: This architecture viewpoint is actually a combination of several model kinds – Note 2: A business-outline presents invariants that are (relatively) stable, while an operating-outline presents, well, operations that are much more volatile and the pre- and post-conditions of which have to satisfy these invariants 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 16 Architecture viewpoints (4)
  17. 17. • Process map – describes a system (e.g. an enterprise) as a set of processes 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 17 Architecture viewpoints (6)
  18. 18. • Capability-as-performance – describes measure of ability of a system’s part (function, process, etc.) to do achieve a particular result – Note: this measure aggregates the usage of all sub-ordinated and shared parts – Note: this measure is not binary; it is qualitative or quantitate 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 18 Architecture viewpoints (7)
  19. 19. • Organisational chart • Service map • Data / Information nomenclature • Events (triggers) nomenclature • … 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 19 Architecture viewpoints (7)
  20. 20. • Systems architecting • Architecture viewpoints and model kinds • Some simple relationships between model kinds • Scenarios for using architecture viewpoints together • Several paths of transformation • Conclusion 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 20 Agenda
  21. 21. • Pattern “Strategy To Executable Portfolio (STEP)” • Pattern “Stakeholder Analysis” • Pattern “Structure IT Organisation (SITO)” • Pattern “Process Set Solidity Test (PSST)” 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 21 Some simple relationships
  22. 22. • Business concern – dealing with the project portfolio during evolution of the strategy: intended, emerging and realised • Logic – explicitly linking strategic objectives, initiatives, business capabilities, IT capabilities, IT tools and projects – add priorities 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 22 Strategy To Executable Portfolio (STEP)
  23. 23. Business initiatives (business-specific demand) Business capabilities (business- generic demand) IT capabilities (IT-generic supply) Roadmap programmes (from AS-IS to TO-BE) Business demand IT supply Business strategic objectives Governance Maturity improvementRequested maturityBusiness priority 1 2 3 2 2->5 2->4 1->3 1->4 2->4 1->3 2->5 2->4 3->4 4 4 5 3 1 2 3 4 4 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 4 5 3 3->4 1->4 3->5 3->4 2->4 IT tools (IT-specific supply) 3 Programme priority 5 4 3 4 4 Logic 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 23 Manage business by processes Manage processes BPM suite
  24. 24. • Implications – A formal way to discover points of the most leverage – The decision-making process is explicit and transparent – A strategy adjustment and validation becomes a routine on-going activity during its implementation (like functioning of the GPS navigator) 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 24 Implications and example
  25. 25. • Establish explicit relationships between – Stakeholders of a system – Their concerns – Architecture viewpoints to address those concerns – Model kinds to compose each of selected viewpoints – IT tools which support the model kinds 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 25 Stakeholder analysis
  26. 26. Matrix – stakeholders vs architecture viewpoints 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 26
  27. 27. • Business concern: How to structure a business unit • Logic – Collect functions – Draw a matrix of mutual relationships between those functions – The relationships may be like “synergy” – The relationship may be like “prohibition”, e.g. SoD – Find clusters in the matrix 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 27 Structure IT Organisation (SITO)
  28. 28. • Prohibition rules: – P1 Separate doing and supervising/controlling – SoD – P2 Separate architecture/design and implementation – SoD and quality at entry – P3 Separate implementation and operation – SoD and quality at entry – P4 Policy vs applying it – legislation vs executive separation – P5 Specialisation • Synergy rules: – S1 Close work – S2 Architecture role to guide – S3 Synergy between technical and administrative activities (how you do something may be more important what you do) 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 28 Example of rules
  29. 29. • Matrix • Clusters 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 29 Example of matrix
  30. 30. 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 30 Process Set Solidity Test (PSST) • To check that your set of processes / functions / capabilities is complete – map functions vs primary artefacts
  31. 31. • Systems architecting • Architecture viewpoints and model kinds • Some simple relationships between model kinds • Scenarios for using architecture viewpoints together • Several paths of transformation • Conclusion 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 31 Agenda
  32. 32. 1. Creating from scratch 2. Changing operating outline 3. Changing business outline 4. Building systems via incorporation 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 32 Scenarios for using architecture viewpoints in architecting
  33. 33. • Synonyms – greenfield – top-down – design of business • Examples – start-up (medium-term and long-term) – sports event (short- and medium-term) – military mission – ad-hoc working group – development project 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 33 Creating from scratch
  34. 34. 1. Business motivation viewpoint (A system-in-focus is mainly considered as a black-box via “external” viewpoints) – Stakeholders (external) – Mission – Vision 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 34 Algorithm of creating (1)
  35. 35. 2. Business outline (a system-in-focus is considered as a grey-box via “high-level structural details” viewpoints) 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 35 Algorithm of creating (2) a) Define your capability-as-a-discrete-unit-of-mission (high-level) – take an industry model if available b) Define B2C (including customer segments, channels, relationships, value proposition) c) Define B2C services d) Link B2C services with some capabilities-as-a- discrete-unit-mission (high-level) to be implemented in-house as functions e) Define B2B (including key partners, their offers, etc.) f) Define B2B services g) Link B2B services with some capabilities-as-a- discrete-unit-of-mission (high-level) to be implemented in-house as functions h) Understand your functional anchor (high-level), i.e. key activities Check: Capability-as-a-discrete-unit-of- mission (high-level) = Functional anchor (high-level) + B2B offers i) Identify value-streams (or processes L1& L2) in functional anchor (high-level) Hint: they start from B2C services j) Capability-as-performance (qualitative evaluation of the functional anchor) k) Financial flows (high-level for cost structure and revenue streams) +$$ B2C services -$$ functional anchor -$$ B2B offers
  36. 36. 3. Operating outline (a system-in-focus is mainly considered as a white-box via “high-level behavioural details” viewpoints) a) Functional anchor (detailed) b) Capability-as-performance (qualitative) c) Defined your processes (L3, etc.) d) Isolate shared services e) Derive organisational structure (units and key positions) f) Data / information (syntax, semantic and lifecycles) g) Select technologies h) Capability-as-performance (quantitative) – use some simulation i) Restart from c) if the top management not happy with the performance figures 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 36 Algorithm of creating (3)
  37. 37. 4. Governance outline 5. Implementation plan – macro-planning architecture viewpoint – project portfolio architecture viewpoint – application architecture viewpoint – data/information architecture viewpoint – technology architecture viewpoint 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 37 Algorithm of creating (4)
  38. 38. • Slide 6 from http://www.slideshare.net/TheDesignOfBusiness/introducing-the-open-group-it4it- standard • https://www.salesforce.com/blog/2016/04/how-salesforce-does-enterprise-architecture-.html • https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/design-direct-monitor-enterprise-digital-using-sarath-chandran 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 38 Examples
  39. 39. • Creating a new enterprise • Contracting key partners (venues, clubs, national associations) • Services to be delivered (VIP, broadcast, ticketing, etc.) • Developing the organisational structure • Contracting people (including volunteers) • Travel, accommodations, logistic for staff and VIP • Setting-up venues • Operating, i.e. executing the event • Dismantling venues • Post-event placement of volunteers • Liquidating the enterprise 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 39 Example: sports event
  40. 40. • Changing operating outline – Synonyms • modernizing, optimizing, refactoring, restructuring, rationalisation, standardisation, etc. – Examples • BPR, CPI, TQM, etc. • Changing business outline – Synonyms • rethinking, reimagining, reinventing, innovations, etc. – Examples • disruptive strategy 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 40 Two variants of “Creating from scratch”
  41. 41. • Synonyms – bottom-up – integration – “old-farm renovation” • Examples – silos removal – M & A – system of systems, i.e. no control over constituting systems – supply-chain – smart-city – smart-energy – healthcare – e-government 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 41 Building systems via incorporation
  42. 42. • Question: What should be done to say “all the interacting discrete parts of the system-in-focus work as a whole”? • Answer: all the interacting discrete parts of the system- in-focus must be incorporated structurally and behaviorally to guarantee the desired characteristics • Question: What are the system-forming factors for a this system-in-focus? • Answer: – Start with “dimensions” as integration pillars – Determine “dimensions” which are most import for the system-in-focus – Integrate between “dimensions” 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 42 General approach for this scenario
  43. 43. • Energy stream or “domains” (energy generation, energy transmission, energy delivery, energy consumption) • Operating span or “zones” (process, field, station, operation, enterprise, market) • Interoperability layers (business, functions, information, communication, components) 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 43 Dimensions in reference classification IEC SyC “Smart Energy”
  44. 44. • Interoperability layers business, functions, information, communication, components • Operating span or “Hierarchy Levels” (product, field device, control device, station, work-centre, enterprise, connected-world) • Value stream 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 44 Dimensions in reference classification Germany, Industry 4.0
  45. 45. • Proximity (aura/body, home, personal vehicle, public building, global) • Enablers (monitoring, audio-visual interaction, assistance systems, data acquisition, mechatronics and control, data aggregation and storage, defined function control and support, complex cross-function service control and support, integral service programs) • Interoperability layers (business, functions, information, communication, components) 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 45 Dimensions in reference classification IEC SyC “Ambient Assisted Living”
  46. 46. • Align terminology or, even better, make an ontology – concept system architecture viewpoint • Understand concerns of all people involved – stakeholders analysis architecture viewpoint • Develop common syntax, semantic and lifecycles for all assets – data/information nomenclature architecture viewpoint • List external and internal (change lifecycle phases) events – event nomenclature architecture viewpoint • Analyse functions for all existing parts – functional anchor architecture viewpoint – use-cases architecture viewpoint 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 46 Algorithm of incorporation (1) (a happy path only)
  47. 47. • Consider implementation of functions as services – service map architecture viewpoint • Consider implementation of services (actually some of their operations) as processes – process map architecture viewpoint • Find dependencies between functions and events (e.g. function is invoked because of an event) and express them via different coordination techniques (flow-chart, schedule, decision, etc.) – various model kinds for coordination • Find implicit processes and make them explicit – process map architecture viewpoint 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 47 Algorithm of incorporation (2)
  48. 48. • Analyse future system-in-focus functions – functional anchor architecture viewpoint – use-cases architecture viewpoint • Consider implementation of functions as services – service map architecture viewpoint • Consider implementation of services (actually some of their operations) as processes – process map architecture viewpoint • Find shared services – service map architecture viewpoint 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 48 Algorithm of incorporation (3)
  49. 49. • Find various gaps – integration points – coordination points – touch points – missing parts • Road mapping to close the gaps • Consider data-level integration, application-level integration and process-level integration • Important! – Use the same methodology to model artefacts. Thus, different people in similar situations will find similar solutions or propose innovations. 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 49 Algorithm of incorporation (4)
  50. 50. • But, there are a few real-life difficulties: you have – to do many puzzles at the same time – to use pieces from other puzzles – to propose new pieces – to optimise the number of pieces – to transform some puzzles – etc. • It should be a lot of fun! 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 50 Algorithm of incorporation (5)
  51. 51. • The users told us that their processes are unique thus they need different applications • We modelled their processes with the same modelling procedure • We found the same services and very similar processes 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 51 Example – replacing 23 electronic publishing applications
  52. 52. • Orchestration-centric – temporal-based – flow-chat-based – pattern-based • State-centric – life-cycle-based • Decision-centric – rule-based – behaviour-based – managerial – instinct-based 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 52 About coordination techniques (1)
  53. 53. • Various – resource-based – goal-based – event-based 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 53 About coordination techniques (2)
  54. 54. Coordination technique Level of coordination Type of coordination Nature of coordination Horizon of coordination Intensity of coordination Scope of coordination Flexibility of coordination Orchestration strong imperative explicit future high group low State strong imperative explicit now low individual low Decision weak declarative both now low individual low Event weak declarative implicit now various individual++ high 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 54 Comparison of coordination techniques – level: weak (crowd) or strong (army) – type: imperative (working instruction) or declarative (a set of constrains) – nature: explicit (as state laws or directives) or implicit (tacit, social) – horizon: now or future – intensity: low or high or various – scope: individual or group (set) – flexibility: low or high
  55. 55. • Systems architecting • Architecture viewpoints and model kinds • Some simple relationships between model kinds • Scenarios for using architecture viewpoints together • Several paths of transformation • Conclusion 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 55 Agenda
  56. 56. Several paths of transformation 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 56 • Because it is not possible to define everything in advance, it is necessary to considered the following paths 1. Process-innovation centric 2. ERP-decomposition centric 3. Off-The-Shelf (OTS) product centric 4. Project-opportunity centric 5. Operational-improvement centric 1. Areas of least resistance 2. Performance errors hunting 3. Points of most leverage • And be capable to handle all of them TOGETHER
  57. 57. To know about each path 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 57 • Initiators • Pre-requisites • Benefits • Potential targets / examples • Risk factors • Expected ROI • Priority
  58. 58. Generic approach 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 58 • Following the enterprise pattern STEP • Establish dependencies between the following enterprise artefacts – business process (E2E, macro-process, individual process, etc.) – legacy application (including functionality in ERP) – capability (business and technical ones) – tools and technologies – business benefits • Quantify those dependencies
  59. 59. Business-innovation centric path 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view E2E or macro process (P1) Innovation (I2) benefits from B1 Innovation (I1) is built on is enabled by E2E or macro process (P2) Capability (C1) Technology / tool (T1) Technology / tool (T2) Capability (C2) 59
  60. 60. ERP-decomposition centric path 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view ERP functionality (F1) Capability (C2) is improved by B2 Capability (C1) Technology / tool (T1) Technology / tool (T2) is enabled by ERP functionality (M2) 60
  61. 61. OTS-product-centric path 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view OTS product Capabilities (C1) Capabilities (C2) E2E process (Pn) ERP functionality (Fn) is provided by is improved by B3 61 BPM-suite
  62. 62. Project-opportunity centric examples 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 62 Project (J1) Capability (C2) requires Capability (C1) Technology / tool (T1) is enabled by OTS product B4
  63. 63. Operational-improvement centric 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 63 Capabilities (C1) Capabilities (C2) E2E process (Pn) can be improved by B5 1. Areas of least resistance 2. Performance errors hunting 3. Points of most leverage
  64. 64. What is a capability? 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 64 • Capability is a measure of the ability of a part of a system- in-focus to achieve a particular result – A lot of people are able to play football – How many of them are capable to play at the Champions League final? • The most popular measure is the maturity level • Thus to know your gaps and how to close them (i.e. a capability may be improved) Capabilities (C1) Capabilities (C2) E2E process (Pn) needs level 4 of C1 needs level 3 of C2 current level of C1 is 3 current level of C2 is 3
  65. 65. Important for any transformation 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view • Consider all paths together • Capability as a unifying artefact • Combine business improvements with technological changes • Quick experimenting • Know your gaps and manage how to close them • Paths of transformation help to the typical #bizarch problems mentioned in the presentation “Architecture of Business in a Dynamic Market” given by Dr Poulin 65
  66. 66. • Systems architecting • Architecture viewpoints and model kinds • Some simple relationships between model kinds • Scenarios for using architecture viewpoints together • Several paths of transformation • Conclusion 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 66 Agenda
  67. 67. Conclusion 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 67 • Formalise your artefacts – syntax and semantic • Define their lifecycles • All artefacts must be versionable throughout their lifecycle • All artefacts must evolve to become digital, externalised, virtual and cloudable • All relationships between artefacts must be modelled explicitly • All models must be made to be machine-assisted executable • Next step is “software-defined enterprise” to be presented at a conference in Portugal, June 23th
  68. 68. Q & A 2016-04-20 #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 68
  69. 69. • Personal website: http://www.samarin.biz • Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com • LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/alexandersamarin • E-mail: alexandre.samarine@gmail.com • Twitter: @samarin • Mobile: +41 76 573 40 61 • Book: www.samarin.biz/book #bizarch from the #entarch point of view 69 Thank you 2016-04-20

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