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Smart-city implementation reference model

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  • Really comprehensive guide
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Smart-city implementation reference model

  1. 1. Smart-city implementation reference model Alexander SAMARIN For IEC/SEG Smart-city plenary meeting in Atlanta, September 2014
  2. 2. About me • A digital enterprise architect – from a programmer to a systems architect – creator of systems that work without me – broad experience: company, canton, country, continent • I believe that many improvements in operational excellence and strategy execution are achievable relatively easy • HOW I do what I do – architecting synergy between strategies, technologies, tools and good practices for the client’s unique situation, and knowledge transfer • WHAT is the result of my work for clients – less routine work, less stress, higher performance, higher security, less risk, higher predictability of results, better operations, less duplication and liberation of business potentials © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 2
  3. 3. Agenda • Context • Smart-city implementation reference model • Views © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 3
  4. 4. Introduction • Smart-city: a city architected to address public issues via ICT-based solutions on the basis of a multi-stakeholder municipally based partnership • A smart-city is a socio-technical system of systems • Relationships between social and technical elements should lead to the emergence of productivity and wellbeing • System: a set of interacting interdependent components forming an integrated whole © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 4
  5. 5. Complexity of smart-city as a socio-technical system of systems • Almost unlimited life-cycle (unpredictable and incremental evolution) • Socio-technical system • Collaborative system • Industrialised system • Ability for rapid innovation is important • Variety of services (several hundred governmental services are listed in the Swiss e-government catalogue) • High level of security for personal data © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 5
  6. 6. Agenda • Context • Smart-city implementation reference model • Views © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 6
  7. 7. WHY implementation reference model (1) • All smart-cites deliver the same services, albeit in a different manner • Realisation of smart-city potentials would benefit from a holistic approach • BSI standard PAS 181:2014 © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 7
  8. 8. WHY implementation reference model (2) • Digital age - It is not about “just the website”, “online services” or “transactions” • Everything becomes digital: products, information, content, documents, records, processes, money, rights, communications – Digital eats physical • If digital then intangible thus news tools and new execution speed immediately – Fast eats slow • Digital things are at new scale – Big eats small • With this new speed and scale, there is no time for human intervention and errors in routine operations and at interfaces © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 8
  9. 9. WHY implementation reference model (3) • There is a way to combine diversity and uniformity • The problem of combining them is also known as “shared services” • Example - Business units (BUs) have different levels of computerisation – a standard solution from the IT department is not always good for everyone BU1 BU2 BU3 Standard solution Level of computerisation IT department © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 9
  10. 10. WHY implementation reference model (4) Level of computerisation © A. Samarin 2014 B C A B A B C BU1 BU2 BU3 1) Standard solution is based on processes and shared services 2) Each BU is moving to a similar architecture IT department Smart-city implementation reference model v4 10
  11. 11. WHY implementation reference model (5) • Considers together all implementations and architects the ability to reproduce results – ready-to-use solutions, tools, patterns and architectures – offers the best possible services for each citizen – becomes the centre of societal transformation – seamlessly incorporates innovations – implementable at your pace – secure by design © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 11
  12. 12. HOW does this reference model work • Applies the power of enterprise architecture – platform-based implementation – enterprise-as-a-system-of-processes – microservices – modernisation of legacy applications • Forms a Common Urban Business Execution (CUBE) platform © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 12
  13. 13. EA explained (1) • Architect: a person who translates a customer’s requirements into a viable plan and guides others in its execution • Enterprise Architecture (EA): the process of translating business vision and strategy into effective enterprise change by creating, communicating and improving the key requirements, principles and models that describe the enterprise's future state and enabling its evolution and transformation © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 13
  14. 14. EA explained (2) • EA is the ideal “tool” to address the challenge of diversity and uniformity because EA is a holistic coordinator of people, processes and technologies in 4 dimensions: – business domains span – organisational unit, segment, enterprise, supply-chain, municipality, province, ministry, country, region, continent, etc. – architectural practices span – business, data, application, security, information, technology, etc. – time span – solution life-cycle, technology life-cycle, tool life-cycle, project life-cycle, enterprise life-cycle, etc. – sector span – detecting and re-using common patterns (good business practices) in unique processes from different sectors © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 14
  15. 15. EA views: projects, solutions, © A. Samarin 2014 capabilities and platforms Smart-city implementation reference model v4 15
  16. 16. © A. Samarin 2014 EA views: time span Smart-city implementation reference model v4 16
  17. 17. EA views: business domains span vs time span © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 17
  18. 18. EA views: architectural practices span vs business domains span © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 18
  19. 19. EA: Many stakeholders (participants) • Citizens • Government authorities • Funding bodies • Local government stakeholders • National regulatory agencies • Political parties • Public service providers • Local businesses • IT vendors • Architects • Project managers • Local NGOs • External NGOs • Global businesses © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 19
  20. 20. Matrix of stakeholders and views The numbers “2.2” etc. are references to chapters in the concept paper © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 20
  21. 21. WHAT reference model: many views (1) • Reference functional architecture • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental-entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 21
  22. 22. WHAT reference model: many views (2) • Common functional capabilities • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security through the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as a BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 22
  23. 23. Agenda • Context • Smart-city implementation reference model • Views © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 23
  24. 24. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 24
  25. 25. Common functional capabilities (1) • Smart-city common capabilities – City-related registries: citizens, business, services – Inter-participants secure data and information exchange – Repository of community-important flows of events – Repository of community-important business objects (during their full life-cycle) • Smart-city domains capabilities – To be provided during the evolution of the platform © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 25
  26. 26. Common functional capabilities (2) • Good business practices • Universal business capabilities • Specialised enterprise capabilities • Basic technical capabilities (or technologies) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 26
  27. 27. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 27
  28. 28. Four communication patterns for exchanges between a partner and the government Partners (citizen, business, and other organisations) Government 2. Patrner-declaration 1. Government-announce 4. Partner-demand Spread in time 3. Government-demand Spread in time 1. Government-announcement, e.g. broadcasting changes in a law 2. Partner-declaration, e.g. communicating a change of the partner’s address 3. Government-demand, e.g. inviting to pay taxes 4. Partner-demand, e.g. requesting a certificate (fishing license) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 28
  29. 29. A partner-initiated-demand may required several exchanges between the partner and the government Government Time © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 29
  30. 30. The partner may need to deal with some ministries Government Ministry A Ministry B Ministry C Methodologies: + data modelling + electronic document exchange Time Tools: + standard data schemas + electronic signature • data flow (black dashed lines) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 30
  31. 31. E-gov coordinates partner’s interactions Methodologies: • data modelling • electronic document Process with the government + + + + Government • control flow (black solid lines) • data flow (black dashed lines) Ministry A Ministry B Ministry C Time (ED) exchange + BPM discipline + process modelling Technologies: • standard data schemas • electronic signature + BPM suite © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 31
  32. 32. E-gov unifies the communication between the partner and the ministries Methodologies: • data modelling • electronic document (ED) exchange + BPM discipline + process modelling … … Process -- Government 2b Ministry B Time 2a x 2c • control flow (black solid lines) • data flow (black dashed lines) Technologies: • standard data schemas • electronic signature + BPM suite © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 32
  33. 33. E-gov provides a social collaborative Methodologies: • data modelling • ED exchange • BPM discipline • process modelling + ED management + records management + collaboration + social Process extranet for partners + + + + Government Ministry A Ministry B Ministry C Time Technologies: • standard data schemas • electronic signature • BPM suite + ECM Social collaborative extranet • control flow (black solid lines) • data flow (black dashed lines) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 33
  34. 34. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 34
  35. 35. Partner’s view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 35
  36. 36. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 36
  37. 37. E-gov application architecture view Partners Social collaborative extranet e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Existing application e-Government Existing application Existing application Government Technologies: • BPM suite • SOA orientation • ECM © A. Samarin 2014 37 Smart-city implementation reference model v4
  38. 38. E-gov traditional application architecture Partners Application Existing application Portal Application Existing application Application Existing application Government © A. Samarin 2014 38 Smart-city implementation reference model v4
  39. 39. E-gov introductory application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Existing application e-Government Existing application Existing application Government © A. Samarin 2014 39 Smart-city implementation reference model v4
  40. 40. E-gov transitional application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Existing application e-Government Existing application Coordination backbone Existing application Service Service Government © A. Samarin 2014 40 Smart-city implementation reference model v4
  41. 41. E-gov target application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet e-Government e-gov service e-gov service e-gov service Coordination and integration backbone Service Service Service © A. Samarin 2014 41 Smart-city implementation reference model v4
  42. 42. E-social system application architecture Partners Social collaborative extranet E-social system Public service Social service Coordination and integration backbone Private service Professional service Voluntary service © A. Samarin 2014 42 Smart-city implementation reference model v4
  43. 43. Steps of evolution in application architecture Introductory architecture Target architecture E-Social system architecture Portal-centric architecture Transitional architecture © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 43
  44. 44. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 44
  45. 45. Integration process instead of N-to-N connectivity Nx(N-1)/2 complexity N complexity © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 45
  46. 46. Use of many security envelopes • Business (processing) envelope • Delivery (addressing) envelope • Transportation (routing) envelope © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 46
  47. 47. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 47
  48. 48. Platform-based architecture (1) • Business concern: How to deliver many similar applications for various highly-diverse clients; define everything up-front is not possible (typical BPM or ECM project) • Logic – Developing individual applications will bring a lot of duplications – The provisioning of solutions should be carried out incrementally with the pace of the target client – Consider a platform 1. must standardise and simplify core elements of future enterprise-wide system 2. for any elements outside the platform, new opportunities should be explored using agile principles © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 48
  49. 49. Platform-based architecture (2) • Principles – The platform frees up resource to focus on new opportunities – Successful agile innovations are rapidly scaled up when incorporated into the platform – An agile approach requires coordination at a system level – To minimise duplication of effort in solving the same problems, there needs to be system-wide transparency of agile initiatives – Existing elements of the platform also need periodic challenge Delivery by applications Delivery by solutions A2 A1 A3 S2 S … 1 Platform S3 Functionality Scope © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 49
  50. 50. Overall platform governance • There are two primary types of activity. – On-going and centralised platform evolution – Rapid implementation of solutions as mini-projects • Platform evolution is carried out by an inter-organisational- units coordination committee © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 50
  51. 51. Advantages of the corporate ECM platform D E V E L O P M E N T Functionality Process-centric integration Company-specific features Advanced features of a common ECM platform Basic features of a common ECM platform Generic web- environment 3 development platforms Dev env 1 Dev env 2 Development © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 51
  52. 52. Financial estimations • Current development cost & time for a collaborative application – Cost: 40 – 200 K $ – Time: 0,5 – 2 years • Corporate platform program cost & time – Cost: 600 K $ – Time: 1 year $$ • Expected development cost & time for a collaborative application within the corporate platform – Cost: 20 - 60 K $ – Time: 1 - 3 months N apps. N≈8 Without common platform With common platform © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 52
  53. 53. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 53
  54. 54. Ladder of maturity meta-pattern • Entities are permitted to advance at different paces in their ascent to the top of the “ladder”. © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 54
  55. 55. Component-oriented design • The platform is designed to be tools-independent by standardizing data, information, interfaces and coordination between various capabilities. © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 55
  56. 56. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 56
  57. 57. Architecture-based agile project management • It combines decomposition with agile implementation of “architected” components © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 57
  58. 58. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 58
  59. 59. Structural dependencies between various artefacts © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 59
  60. 60. Dynamic relationships between various Business initiatives (business-specific demand) Manage business by processes Business capabilities (business-generic demand) Manage processes BPM suite IT capabilities (IT-generic supply) Roadmap programmes (from AS-IS to TO-BE) Business demand IT supply Business strategic objectives Governance 1 2 3 2 2->5 2->4 1->3 1->4 2->5 2->4 1->3 2->4 3->4 5 4 3 4 Business priority Requested maturity Maturity improvement 1 2 3 4 4 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 4 5 3 IT tools (IT-specific supply) 3->5 3->4 1->4 3->4 2->4 3 Programme priority 5 4 3 4 4 artefacts © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 60
  61. 61. Implications and example • Implications – A formal way to discover points of the most leverage – The decision-making process is explicit and transparent – A strategy adjustment and validation becomes a routine on-going activity during its implementation (like functioning of the GPS navigator) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 61
  62. 62. VIEWS (1) • Common functional capabilities • Partner and smart-city-entity interaction view • Partner view • Evolution of implementation view • The governmental entities integration view • Paperless or digital work view • Platform-based implementation view – Platform-based approach – Platform-based implementation practices – Project management practices – Implementation governance view – Architecture-based procurement view © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 62
  63. 63. Architecture-based procurement • Separation of duties • Architecture group: selection of IT • Procurement group: acquisition of such IT components (licensees, installation, training, documentation, operations, etc.) • Of course, the architecture group must make the selection logic as explicit as possible. © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 63
  64. 64. VIEWS (2) • Common functional capabilities • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 64
  65. 65. Enterprise as a system of processes • In the context of enterprise functioning, business activities must be coordinated • Coordination maybe strong (e.g. as in the army) or weak (e.g. as in an amateurs football team) • Coordination maybe implicit or explicit • Coordination maybe declarative (laws) and imperative (orders) • Based on coordination, let us think about “levels of cohesion” 1. process patterns (coordination within processes) 2. processes 3. cluster of processes (coordination between processes) 4. system of processes (coordination between clusters of processes) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 65
  66. 66. Process fragments – patterns Click for animation • Business case: typical “claim processing” process – claim, repair, control, invoicing, and assurance to pay SI PAR SI IPS © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 66
  67. 67. SI animated diagram Click for animation © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 67
  68. 68. Coordination between processes (1) • Simple event-based (which looks like a state machine) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 68
  69. 69. Coordination between processes (2) 1. state-machine 2. synchronous invocation 3. asynchronous invocation 4. fire and forget 5. parallel processes 6. co-processes (pattern SI) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 69
  70. 70. CLuster Of Processes (CLOP) • CLOPs are usually formed with functional processes which are implemented a particular business function, e.g. Field Services • And a “halo” of extra processes 1. monitoring 2. operating 3. governance © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 70
  71. 71. Enabler group, supporting group and customer group of clusters © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 71
  72. 72. Implicit coordination between CLOPs (1) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 72
  73. 73. Implicit coordination between CLOPs (2) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 73
  74. 74. Implicit coordination between CLOPs (3) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 74
  75. 75. Make coordination between CLOPs explicit (1) • Business Object (BO) lify-cycle as a process © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 75
  76. 76. Make coordination between CLOPs explicit (2) • Add enterprise-wide event dispatcher © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 76
  77. 77. Make coordination between CLOPs explicit (3) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 77
  78. 78. Functional view at a system of processes (1) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 78
  79. 79. Functional view at a system of processes (2) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 79
  80. 80. Functional view at a system of processes (3) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 80
  81. 81. VIEWS (2) • Common functional capabilities • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 81
  82. 82. Dynamic provision of the access © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 82
  83. 83. Extra relationships between activities © A. Samarin 2014 Mandatory: different actors because of the separation of duties Potentially: different actors because of performance impact – avoid assigning mechanical (low-qualified “red”) activities and added-value (“green”) activities to the same actors Smart-city implementation reference model v4 83
  84. 84. Extra relationships between activities • There are security-related relationships between activities • Example – “Activitiy_B” relates to Activity_A as “Validating the work” – These activities may be in different processes – No actors must be assigned to both “Role_1” and “Role_2” © A. Samarin 2014 (3) Activity_A Carry out the work Activity_B Carry out the work Validating the work Role_1 Role_2 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 84
  85. 85. BPM and information security: Extra relationships between activities • Doing the work – To which ROLES the work can be delegated – To which ROLES the work can be send for review • Assuring the work – other ACTIVITIES to audit (1st, 2nd and 3rd party auditing) – other ACTIVITIES to evaluate the risk (before the work is started) – other ACTIVITIES to evaluate the risk (after the work is completed) • Validating the work – Other ACTIVITIES to check the output (errors and fraud prevention) • Some ACTIVITIES must be carried out by the same actor, some ACTIVITIES must not © A. Samarin 2014 (4) Smart-city implementation reference model v4 85
  86. 86. Process-enhanced security for electronic medical records © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 86
  87. 87. VIEWS (2) • Common functional capabilities • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 87
  88. 88. Embed risk management into functional • Normal activities are enriched by “check-points” © A. Samarin 2014 processes Smart-city implementation reference model v4 88
  89. 89. © A. Samarin 2014 ERM reference model Smart-city implementation reference model v4 89
  90. 90. VIEWS (2) • Common functional capabilities • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 90
  91. 91. Typical problems with legacy software • Symptoms of becoming legacy – ad-hoc integration – difficult incorporation of new technologies – old programming techniques – expensive maintenance – heavy releases and upgrades – availability of industrial products for previously unique functionality (e.g. event management) – some functionality is a commodity right now (e.g. BPM and BRM) – just slow to evolve • What is the root cause? – Emergent/historical grow and not architected evolution © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 91
  92. 92. The goal of modernisation • Implement end-to-end processes with the maximum reuse of existing IT applications and infrastructure • Agile (with the pace of business) provisioning of business solutions • From disparate IT applications to a coherent business execution platform which will “liberate” people for business innovations • Business evolution to drive technical transformation • BUT Application as a unit of deployment is too big © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 92
  93. 93. How to carry out the modernisation • Step-by-step technical transformation by: 1. Disassemble into services 2. Add, if necessary, more services 3. Assemble via processes • Combine various tactics: assemble, rent, buy, build, outsource, standardised, re-engineered • Incremental improvements and refactoring within a well-defined big picture • Intermix business evolution and technical transformation • Keep the users happy and feel secure © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 93
  94. 94. Monolithic applications are decomposed into interconnected services Monolith application GUI GUI screen 1 1 GUI GUI screen 2 2 GUI GUI screen 3 3 Business Business logic logic BO1 BO1 persistence persistence BO2 BO2 persistence persistence Business logic service Interactive service 1 Interactive service 2 Interactive service 3 Coordination BO1 persistence service BO2 persistence service Assembled solution © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 94
  95. 95. How to coordinate? • Only the flow of data is traceable • Flow of control is explicit, because the primary importance is the result of working together, but not individual exchanges (think about football) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 95
  96. 96. Several coordination techniques may be used together • By processes • By events (EPN) • By rules, work-load, etc. © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 96
  97. 97. Transformation from typical inter-application data flows to end-to-end coordination of services © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 97
  98. 98. Using events • To externalise the flow of control from existing monolith applications © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 98
  99. 99. Co-existence of a legacy application and a process solution • The danger of “DOUble Master” (DOUM) anti-pattern – particular data (actually a business object) are modified via application or process but not either • Few techniques – lock-down the data manipulation interface in the application (a screen) and provide a similar functionality in the process – dynamic provisioning of the access to a screen for a staff member who is carrying out a related activity (see next slide) – decomposition of a screen into separate functions, e.g. Create (out-of-process), Update (within-process) and Delete (separate-process) – combination of previous ones © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 99
  100. 100. Process-centric solutions Assemble via processes (1) • Business processes make bigger services from smaller services • The relationship between services and processes is “recursive” – All processes are services – Some operations of a service can be implemented as a process – A process includes services in its implementation © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 100
  101. 101. Process-centric solutions Assemble via processes (2) • Who (roles) is doing What (business objects), When (coordination of activities), Why (business rules), How (business activities) and with Which Results (performance indicators) • Make these relationships explicit and executable What you model is what you execute “The map is the app” © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 101
  102. 102. Process-centric solutions Multi-layer implementation model (1) © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 102
  103. 103. Process-centric solutions Multi-layer implementation model (2) B C A A - SharePoint B – in-house development C – SAP ECC6 © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 103
  104. 104. Process-centric solutions Multi-layer implementation model (3) SAP BW/BI, etc. NetWeaver PI, SolMan, etc. NetWeaver BPM, etc. NetWeaver BRM, Java, ECC6, etc. XSD, Java, .Net SQL Server, Oracle, etc. © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 104
  105. 105. Multi-layer implementation model and other technologies © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 105
  106. 106. VIEWS (2) • Common functional capabilities • Enterprise as a system of processes • Enhancing information security by the use of processes • Enterprise Risk Management reference model • Records management as an BPM application • Multi-layered implementation model • Agile solution delivery practices • Microservices • Various technologies around the implementation model • Modernisation of applications to become process-centric • Moving services to clouds © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 106
  107. 107. Different deployment ZONEs © A. Samarin 2014 HQ VIOLET ZONE - outside enterprise and service-provider- managed public cloud GREEN ZONE - outside enterprise and enterprise-managed private cloud YELLOW GOLD GOLD ZONE - classic within enterprise computing YELLOW ZONE - within enterprise private cloud BLUE ZONE - outside enterprise and service-provider-managed private cloud Smart-city implementation reference model v4 107
  108. 108. © A. Samarin 2014 Profiling services - example Smart-city implementation reference model v4 108
  109. 109. © A. Samarin 2014 Decision taking - example Smart-city implementation reference model v4 109
  110. 110. Conclusion • Let us use the power of modern technologies to enable and drive societal transformation of our cities © A. Samarin 2014 Smart-city implementation reference model v4 110
  111. 111. • QUESTIONS? Thanks • EKSALANSI website: http://www.eksalansi.org • Blog http://improving-bpm-systems.blogspot.com • LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/alexandersamarin • E-mail: alex@eksalansi.org • Twitter: @samarin • Mobile: +41 76 573 40 61 • Book: www.samarin.biz/book Smart-city implementation reference model v4 111 © A. Samarin 2014

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